Research on U.S.
Students Study Abroad: An




An annotated bibliography edited
by Maureen Chao


Final editing, online publication, and introduction
By The Center for Global Education
Gary Rhodes, Director
Joshua Lee, Assistant Director
Hai Hong, Graduate Assistant




Co-Sponsored by NAFSA: Association of International Educators
Section on U.S. Students Abroad (SECUSSA)
The Center for Global Education


Adelman, A., & Salazar, S. O. (Eds. ), (1995).An international student's guide to Mexican universities., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 393 326. [G]
This guide was developed for students interested in studying at Mexican universities. The guide includes information about the differences between the U. S. and Mexican higher education systems and practical tips for students. Also included is a description of over 50 Mexican universities and other resources, such as maps.

Adelman, M. B., (1988).Cross-cultural adjustment: a theoretical perspective on social support., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12 (183-204). [T]
This article discusses a number of issues related to social support of sojourners. The author discusses culture shock and social support systems, making a distinction between close ties and weak ties. Close ties might include family and friends, as compared to weak ties, which are those outside this immediate circle. The author provides a theoretical framework of support, which can be applied to study abroad participants.

American Institute for Foreign Study., (1988).The impact of an international education on college acceptance and career development, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 298 056). [R]
This study seeks to determine the impact of study abroad on students who participated in the American Institute for Foreign Study's overseas learning program (high school and college age students) between the years of 1983-1988. Approximately 714 past participants completed a survey distributed by the Institute. The purpose of the study was to understand the reactions of college interviewers and employers with regard to the student's study abroad experience. It also examines the skills students develop during their overseas study program.

Results of the study indicate a difference between the experiences of college students in a summer program and academic year program. The three gains most often cited by college students on the academic year program are maturity, proficiency in a foreign language, and knowledge of a specific culture. Students on the summer program cited employment, proficiency in a foreign language, and knowledge of a specific culture. Eighty six percent of the college students from the academic year program surveyed felt study abroad was a worthwhile investment in their future. Eighty five percent of the students were employed, with 33 percent having international travel a part of their job requirements. One hundred percent of the students felt they had matured because of their experience. This report includes comments on the value of study abroad from educational professionals and prior participants, and a copy of the survey instrument is appended.

Anderson, C. J., (1988).International studies for undergraduates, 1987. Operations and Opinion., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 301 122. [R]
This report draws from a comprehensive survey conducted by the Higher Education Panel of the American Council on Education in 1987-1988 to document activities in undergraduate international studies at nearly 400 schools. Data is reported on a number of different practices, including foreign language requirements, study abroad programs, international majors and minors, international library resources, etc. The report documents responses from two-year and four-year institutions separately, as the data suggested a greater support for international studies at four-year schools.

The survey determined that approximately 63%of four-year universities operated study abroad programs. Of these, 66% conducted programs in England, 56% in France, 49% in Spain, and 37% in West Germany. Almost one third of four-year institutions also operated programs in Mexico and East Asia. These figures do not take into consideration those schools that participate in study abroad by consortial arrangement. The majority of programs offered lasted a single term or summer, rather than an academic year, with the exception of many programs in East Asia. Approximately two-thirds of the programs broke even financially, 5% reported a surplus, and 25% were subsidized by the school. Data collected from two year schools indicated only twelve percent were operating study abroad programs. Almost 93% of the two-year schools reported between 0-10 percent of their students had studied abroad, as opposed to 75% of four year schools.

Ansell, A., (1995).Program in international education, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 416 773 [E]
This document reports on the activities and accomplishments of the program in international education at Bard College in New York, the recipient of a FIPSE grant. The program consists of an exchange between Bard students and students from universities in Eastern and Central Europe. The curriculum piece of the program includes courses related to democracy. At the time the report was written, a total of 81 students had participated in the exchange, 55 from East to West and 26 from West to East. The report includes detailed information about the development of the program, the activities, and the results. Sample documents such as a course syllabus are appended.

Archangeli, M., (1999).Study abroad and experiential learning in Salzburg, Austria, Foreign Language Annals, 32 (1), 115-124. [L, R]
This article describes an assignment carried out by American college students studying for ten weeks in Austria. Seventeen students participating in the program were assigned to conduct two interviews with native speakers. The participants had varying levels of German language proficiency. The article discusses the reluctance and concerns on the part of students, the benefits of the assignment, and the differences between the first and second interviews as experienced by the students. The article concludes with the reflections of the students at the completion of the assignment, and advice for future participants. In general, students reported feeling a sense of accomplishment in communicating one-on-one with a native speaker and that the assignment helped them to initiate subsequent conversations with native speakers.

Archwamety, T., (1996).Perception of the impact of international education: Japanese vs. American students, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 400 730). [R]

Austin, M. A., (1989).Study abroad and political science: Students' assessment of the affective qualities of the University of California's Education Abroad Program, Master's Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara. [R]
This study focuses on overseas study in the area of political science and on programs run through the University of California's Education Abroad Program. Specifically, it addresses three questions including: what academic instruction consists of at the host universities, how effective this instruction was at increasing students' knowledge of the subject, and how the study abroad experience influenced students' perceptions in their area of discipline. Data were collected from students by a questionnaire administered in person by the author, which included both closed- and open-ended questions. The students were interviewed four to seven months after completing their academic year abroad. The research study focuses on the four host universities that enrolled the greatest number of students, which were located in Goettingen, Grenoble, Jerusalem, and Madrid. Instruction was in the host country language, with the exception of Jerusalem, and students generally enrolled in the institution for a year. A total of 39 students participated in the study, almost equally divided between the four locations. Findings indicate that students generally did not have difficulty understanding the lectures in the local language, which allowed them to gain a more objective view of their own culture. There was no significant finding that student's political attitudes (i. e. liberal or conservative) shifted as a result of their experience. Detailed findings from each of the four locations are presented in the study.

Barnhart, W. L., (1994).Reducing risks and liability in study abroad: Study abroad director's manual, University of Utah., Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the NAFSA Association of International Educators, Miami Beach, FL. [G]

Bartlett, C. Z., (1991).Consortium provides international educational programs for community college students, College and University, 66 (3), 139-141. [P]
This short article describes the Illinois Consortium for International Studies (ICIS), which was founded to assist community colleges in offering affordable study abroad programs for community college students. The article presents the goals of the consortium and background information on how it was developed. Details about the consortium activities and programs are provided as well.

Bates, J. T., (1997).The effects of study abroad on undergraduates in an honors international program, Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Carolina. [I]
This comparative study examines the differences in demographics, intellectual experiences, personal development, and development of global-mindedness between students who participated in a semester abroad program and students who did not. The setting of the study was the Honors International Program at Lander University in South Carolina. Fourteen students who participated in the study abroad program to the United Kingdom during the fall semester of 1995 composed the experimental group, and 65 students who chose not to study abroad were the control group. Pre- and post-test measures as well as narratives were utilized for data collection. Findings indicate that the study abroad experience enhanced intellectual growth, personal development, and global mindedness.

Beach, R., (1995).Multicultural learning at home and abroad, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 415 791 [E]
This evaluative report provides an overview of a three-year project at Colgate University in New York to establish an office of intercultural resources. The program was funded by a FIPSE grant from 1992-1995. The primary purpose of the program was to build connections between the intercultural and multicultural programs at the university and increase students' cross-cultural awareness. To facilitate this, the program staff worked with students who studied abroad, minority students, international students, and faculty and staff of various relevant programs such as pre-departure and re-entry workshops. During the course of the program a number of resources were published, including an annotated bibliography of multicultural works, a course on intercultural understanding and communication, and a cross cultural training workbook for students planning to study abroad. These documents are appended to the report. A collection of books, tapes, simulations, and other cultural resources were assembled and made available to interested groups on campus. Although the programs and resources reached a wide audience, the evaluation concluded there was little evidence of increased cross-cultural awareness in students.

Befus, C. P., (1988).A multilevel treatment approach for culture shock experienced by sojourners., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 381-400. [C]
This article addresses the issue of culture shock and describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a treatment developed to address common aspects of culture shock. The treatment incorporated cross-cultural training methods with psychotherapeutic techniques to provide students with cross-cultural coping skills. The study participants were 64 North Americans who were studying Spanish in Costa Rica. The students were divided into two groups, one that received the treatment and the one that served as the control group. Findings indicated the treatment method was successful in reducing symptoms of culture shock.

Bond, D. G., (1988).Values clarification and international education: The Yonsei experience, Paper presented at the 29th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, St. Louis, MO. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 305 273). [R]
This study probed the experiences of Korean-American students participating in a study abroad program at Yonsei University in Korea. Data were primarily obtained from essays written by students in a "Topics" class, in which all students were required to participate. This paper discusses how Korean-American students made the choice to study in Korea, and the role their immigrant parents played in the decision. It describes both the expectations of Korean-American students, with regard to how they think they will be perceived, and their actual experiences. Some of the cultural identification issues these students face are presented as examples of their confusion over whether they were "American" or "Korean. " The author provides many anecdotes to illustrate his discussion, and he concludes the article with his opinion on the importance of individual freedom and assessment of the program success and value.

Bond, M. L. & Jones, M. E., (1994).Short-term cultural immersion in Mexico., Nursing & Health Care, 15 (5), 1994. [P]
There is much evidence supporting the claim that real-life experiences go a long way in increasing cross-cultural understanding and sensitivity. In order to address this and expand their curricular offerings, a short-term immersion program was developed by the University of Texas at Arlington to send a group of nursing students to Mexico. This article provides a description of the program and an assessment of its success. The program was five weeks in length, with two weeks actually spent in Mexico. Students took a mini course, lived with host families, studied Spanish, and went on field trips. The mini courses were in such topics as traditional medicine and the Mexican health care system. The authors describe some of the difficulties the 10 students faced in adjusting to the Mexican culture and other findings obtained from the course evaluations surveys. In addition to these surveys, nine of the ten students were also surveyed a year after their experience to determine how it had impacted their nursing practice and personal views.

Boultbee, M. R., (1996).China bound: A case study of orientation for study abroad in the People's Republic of China, Doctoral Dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College. [R]
As study abroad opportunities in non-Western countries are expanding, sponsoring institutions must consider how they can effectively prepare their students to meet the challenges of living in cultures whose living conditions and views of the world are dramatically different from their own. In current practice, however, comprehensive orientation is the exception rather than the rule, and the research literature includes few studies that examine study abroad orientation as a process. This case study examined in depth how a group of 13 American students who enrolled in a study abroad program in Beijing, China, in spring 1992 were prepared for their sojourn. Within the cohort were two subgroups: eight students with substantial academic backgrounds in Chinese language and culture and five students with minimal backgrounds. The study also seeks to assess the differences, if any, in the way the students in these two subgroups (1) approached their preparations for their studies China and (2) responded to and utilized the orientation provided by the sponsoring organization.

The study investigates the orientation process from both the program sponsor's and the students' perspectives. It utilizes a combination of interviews with student participants, program staff, and others involved in the students' experience, documents providing information about the students, documents relating to the orientation components, a five-week participant observation of the on-site orientation and initial adjustment period, and a post-sojourn questionnaire.

The comprehensive pre-departure and post-arrival orientation program, which included both cognitive/didactic and affective/experiential components, was found to 1) meet the perceived needs of both student subgroups, 2) prepare them to function in their new environment, and 3) prepare them to begin achieving their individual goals. It was also found that, while the participants with little academic knowledge of Chinese culture depended more on information from peers who had been in China prior to departure, the post-arrival experiential activities were seen as more important during their initial adjustment period. The experiential components of the on-site orientation provided directly applicable skills and received the most positive evaluation from all the students. As a whole, the study confirms the importance and relevance of a well-designed and implemented orientation program. Finally, some implications for the development of orientation programs, especially for students bound for non-Western countries, and suggestions for further research are presented. [Author]

Brecht, R. D. & Others., (1991).On evaluating language proficiency gain in study abroad environments: An empirical study of American students of Russian, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 350 855. [R,L]

Brecht, R. D. & others., (1993).Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad, Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 360 828. [L, R]
This report describes the large study of U. S. students of Russian Language conducted by the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) and the National Foreign Language Center. The study consisted of 658 U. S. students who participated in Russian Language and Culture semester abroad programs from spring 1984 to spring 1990. A number of variables were examined, including age, gender, citizenship, country of birth, level of education, major, and previous language and cultural experience. Findings are presented, as well as a thorough description of the study methodology. Results showed that certain student characteristics such as gender and language experience influenced language acquisition abroad. Female students gained less than male students in listening and speaking skills. Three different reasons for this finding are presented, including possible gender bias in the testing instruments, a selection bias in the male and female student samples, and a difference in language learning opportunities in the country.

Brecht, R. D., Robinson, J. L., (1993).Qualitative analysis of second language acquisition in study abroad: The ACTR/NFLC project, Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 365 096). [L]
This report presents a study designed to examine the process of language acquisition on a study abroad program. The study was conducted by the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) and the National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) and consisted of a total of 658 American college students of Russian participating in a semester abroad program between the fall of 1989 and the summer of 1991. One part of the study, which uses both qualitative and quantitative techniques looks at student's language gains in terms of demographic and educational characteristics. This report focuses on the other aspect of the study, which uses observations, interviews, and student self-reports (calendar diaries, narrative journals, and notebooks) to understand language-learning experiences and also includes a bibliography. Preliminary findings of the survey are provided, although the focus of the report is more on the methodology of the study. Findings indicate some difference in language learning between male and female students, though their reported activities were similar. Four case studies are included in the report to help explain some of the gender differences.

Bueno-popkey, E., (1991).Study abroad and the Wayne State University Spain seminar: An analysis of cross-cultural educational experience., Doctoral Dissertation, Wayne State University. [R]
This study concerns the Spain Seminar study-abroad program sponsored by Wayne State University. Behind such programs is a long and well-established tradition, serving both liberal, as well as professional, practices. The study is designed to determine the extent to which participants in the 1986, 87, 88 and 89 Spain Seminar were affected in their attitudes and perceptions of the host country by having taken part in the program. More specifically, the study seeks to determine what differences the program participants expressed in their attitudes towards the people, culture, and educational system of Spain, as compared with non-participants of similar background.

This study utilizes a descriptive-research design, i. e., it is of the non-experimental, historical type. The measured variables include characteristics such as age, sex, educational level, major, and ethnic background. The dependent variables are the self-reported attitudes of the participants, measured as their current perceptions. The sample consisted of 41 study abroad participants and 54 non-participants.

The instrument used was developed by the researcher and consisted of 5 major sections involving check-off type demographic and ethnic background questions, specific questions about the Spain Seminar, attitudinal statements on a Likert-type 1-5 scale of agreement-disagreement, and finally, a bi-polar list of adjectives rated on a scale of 1-7. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, including frequency distribution of the population and inferential-type statistics, such as the t-test and analysis of variance.

The essential findings show a lack of statistically significant differences between the study-abroad participants and the non-participants. These findings may be the result of the two groups being similar in the background characteristics, with the only significant difference being participation in the Spain Seminar. Another factor in the non-difference may be that the self-reported motive for participation was not chiefly to obtain multicultural education, but rather a job promotion or ten academic credits. Finally, it is possible that the Spain Seminar, as it is now constructed, is too brief, especially since it has eliminated the live-in/teach-in component of the original Brooks Smith WSU/UK program. [Author]

Burn, B. & Others., (1990).Study abroad programmes, Higher Education Policy Series 11, Volume I. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 335 992. [M]

Burn, B. & Smuckler, R. H., (1995).A research agenda for the internationalization of higher education in the United States: Recommendations and report., ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 392 331. [M]

Burn, B. (Ed. ), (1991).Integrating study abroad into the undergraduate liberal arts curriculum: Eight institutional case studies., Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. [M]

Burn, B. B. and Others, (1992).Program review of study abroad, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 355 893 [E]
This evaluative study was conducted in 1992 and examined the study abroad programs at the nine campuses of the Florida State University System. Data were obtained from self-studies conducted at each of the institutions, as well as site visits and interviews. The researchers note the special challenges these universities face in catering to a very diverse student population which includes a high percentage of part-time and commuter students, as well as community college transfers and other traditional non-participants such as minority students and students of business and engineering. The study presents an assessment and description of the programs at each of the nine schools, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses. The outside consultants who conducted this study make several general recommendations, which included improved coordination with community colleges, increasing participation, enhanced administration and more effective management, systematic evaluation, professional development for the study abroad administrators, and encouragement for students to consider programs at institutions other than their own.

Burn, B., (1990).The contribution of international educational exchange to the international education of Americans: Projections for the Year 2000, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 317. [T]

Burns, H. L., (2000).Critical pedagogy abroad: A case study of the Center for Global Education in Mexico., Masters Thesis, Oregon State University. [R]
This ethnographic case study examines the pedagogy used in a semester study abroad program in Cuernavaca, Mexico, which has a social justice theme and is operated by the Center for Global Education at Augsburg College. The purpose of the study is to identify how and through which speech events social justice issues were taught, and to determine whether the courses were interdisciplinary in nature. A total of 12 students participated in the study during the fall 1999 semester, and data were collected through observations, individual interviews with students and faculty, and collection of written documents and assignments. The researcher made observations of speech events during classes, field trips, and social events. Data are coded and common themes are identified.

Campion, W. J. & Bostic, D., (1993).Manual for building an international education program in the community college, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 930 384. [G]
This resource guide provides an overview for establishing a comprehensive international education program at a community college, and draws extensively from the work done at Central Florida Community College. There are a number of sections included in the manual, ranging from the strategic goals to steps for establishing an office of international education, sample syllabi, ESL courses, and program brochures. The section most relevant to study abroad includes documents related to faculty and student recruitment, an exchange agreement, and course curriculum. Numerous sample documents and letters are included in this extensive manual.

Carlson, J. S. & Widaman, K. F., (1988).The effects of study abroad during college on attitudes toward other cultures, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 1-18. [I]
There have been numerous studies conducted to assess the changes a student undergoes during their study abroad experience. These studies frequently use a pre- and post-test method, using one group of students; however, this study seeks to address some of the problems inherent in that type of design. For example, when a control group is not used, it is difficult to distinguish what developments can be attributed to the study abroad experience, as opposed to normal "junior year" development. Often, these studies conducted with one group of students also have small sample sizes, which can influence the study's validity. This study was comprised of 304 students who spent their junior year studying in Europe, and 519 students who spent their junior year at their home institution. Findings from the data analysis indicate that study abroad participants show higher levels of international concern and awareness, as well as higher levels of cross-cultural interest. Participants also demonstrated more positive, although more critical attitudes, toward their own country. A number of other specific findings are detailed in the article.

Carlson, J. S. and Others, (1991).Study abroad: The experience of American undergraduates in Western Europe and the United States, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 340 322. [I]
This study compares students who chose to study abroad and those who did not, and identified the effects of study abroad on participants during and after their undergraduate years. A team of researchers from four different institutions collaborated in the study, including the University of California, the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and Kalamazoo College in Michigan. The subjects for the study included a group of students who studied abroad during their junior year, as well as a control group of students who remained at their home institution. The students who studied abroad did so in France, West Germany, Sweden, or the United Kingdom during the 1984-1985 academic year. Data were collected by questionnaires, which were administered at the end of the student's sophomore year and again at the beginning of their senior year. A total of 241 students who studied abroad participated, as well as 157 students who did not study abroad. Findings indicate that there were predictable differences between the two groups of students relative to their cultural and language interests. In addition to academic gains, participants in study abroad also noted social and personal development. A second part of the study seeks to determine the long-term impact of study abroad on participants after they had completed their undergraduate studies. Subjects in this study consisted of 76 randomly selected students who had studied abroad between 5-20 years ago. Data were collected by a one-page survey and a half hour telephone interview. The study includes demographic information on these subjects such as family status, income, post-undergraduate education, etc. None of these students regretted their decision to study abroad, but there was variation in the extent to which the experience contributed to their later career experiences.

Carlson, J. S., Burn, B. B., Useem, J., & Yachimowicz, D., (1990).Study abroad: The experience of American undergraduates., Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Inc. [M]

Carr, J. & Summerfield, E., (1994).Forms of travel: Essential documents, letters and flyers for study abroad advisers, Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators [G]
This book is designed to provide resources for study abroad administrators. It includes sample documents, forms, and other information materials that are typically used by study abroad offices. Topics covered include financial aid, travel documents, medical insurance and health issues, housing, orientation, and re-entry.

Carroll, C. M., (1998).Accrediting international education programs, Community College Journal, 69 (2), 38-42. [O]
This brief article discusses some of the issues, particularly regarding accreditation, that community colleges should think about when developing international education programs. The author was the chair of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Included is a minimal checklist for community colleges to consider before setting up international education programs.

Cash, R. W., (1993).Assessment of study abroad programs using surveys of student participants. Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Chicago, Illinois, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 360 925). [I]
This article reports efforts by St. Mary's college in Indiana to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their study abroad programs and to identify the impact of study abroad on program participants. A total of 353 participants were surveyed between 1982 and 1992 at the end of their study abroad experience. Information was gained from these surveys, but also from pre- and post- experience testing of the general student population. This provided the institution with a way to compare students who included study abroad in their undergraduate experience and those who did not. Findings from the surveys conducted over a number of years in the late 1980's and early 1990's indicate the greatest amount of growth from participants in appreciation of different cultures, followed by growth in independence and maturity and greater self-awareness. A number of findings from the comparison of study abroad participants to non-participants were also reported in the article, although the author noted the limitations of using the more generic surveys for collecting information about non-participants.

Chaifetz, M., (1992).A manual on developing an international work program: the Nassau Community College London retailing co-op model, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 357 198. [P]

Cholakian, R., (1992).Study abroad: Paris, ADFL Bulletin, 23 (2), 19-25. [O]
This article is an opinion paper written by the director of a study abroad program. The author reviews the phenomenon of the "Junior Year Abroad," and asks a number of discussion questions. He discusses the typical problems encountered in the administration of study abroad programs, selection and admission of students, academic life as it relates to programs in Europe, different study abroad program models used in France, and social/cultural adjustment issues.

Christensen, L., (1994).Academic Tourism, a redundant or a fruitful study abroad: Tracks and wrong tracks to credit transfer., Higher Education Management, 6 (1), 66-70. [M]

Christie, R. A. & Ragans, S. W., (1999).Beyond borders: A model for student and staff development., New Directions for Student Services, 86, 79-87. [P]
This brief article describes a program designed to provide an inexpensive and accessible cross-cultural experience and serve as an alternative to the more traditional study abroad program. The program, called Beyond Borders, was developed by the Division of Student Affairs at Florida State University. The programs offered are short-term, small-group, and inexpensive exchange opportunities. Students pay only for air travel, insurance, and the team leader's travel expenses. There is no tuition cost, and the cost of housing, food, and in-country transportation are arranged and paid for by the host institution. In addition to describing three successful programs under this model, the article also details one failed program, highlighting some of the reasons why it was not successful.

Citron, J. L., (1996).Short-term study abroad: Integration, third culture formation, and re-entry, Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators [C]

Citron, J. L., (1996).The cross-cultural re-entry experiences of short-term study abroad students from the U. S, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. [R]
This study looks at the re-entry experiences of students who had studied in Spain for a fourteen-week Spanish language and culture program. The purpose is to understand what types of experiences the students faced upon their return, and whether the experiences served as problems or resources for the students. It also looks at the correlation between a student's successful integration into the Spanish culture and their re-entry experiences.

The study is qualitative in nature, and data were collected through participant observation, interviews, student journals, and student self-reports. Findings indicate that various aspects of the student's lives are influenced by their re-entry experience, including the physical, interpersonal, cultural, and personal. There is a significant relationship between how well students acclimated in Spain and their re-entry experience.

Comp, D. J., (2000).Undergraduate sojourner change as a result of a study abroad experience., Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. [I]

Cooper, S., Cressey, W. & Stubbs, N. Eds., (1989).Financial aid for study abroad: A manual for advisers and administrators, Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators [G]
This book provides an overview of federal sources of funding for study abroad and targets the study abroad administrator. Sample documents from different institutions detailing financial aid resources are included.

Cooper, S., (1991).Current statistics on U. S. students abroad, College and University, 66 (3), 143-148. [O]
This short article draws from study abroad statistics published by the Institute of International Education (IIE) and looks at the reasons behind the numbers. For example, more and more institutions are developing their own programs, partly out of a sense of pride and partly due to increased administrative support. Students benefit by being able to access their financial aid and transfer credits more easily. The author also notes that students choose to study abroad in countries that have relatively low interest in sending students to the U. S. Several discussion questions are raised, and the author concludes with a suggestion that research on the 99% of college students who choose not to study abroad should be conducted as well.

Council on International Education Exchange., (1992).Basic facts on study abroad, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 796). [G]
This brochure is designed for U. S. students desiring to study abroad and includes information about different types of study abroad options. Covered in the discussion are issues such as transfer of credit, location, direct enrollment, and issues for students with disabilities. The brochure also touches on opportunities for working, teaching, and interning abroad, and covers such practical issues as financial aid, transportation, visas, housing, and insurance. There is a list of relevant resources and publications included.

Council on International Educational Exchange., (1990).A national mandate for education abroad: Getting on with the task, Report of the National Task Force on Undergraduate Education Abroad. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 340). [T]
This report comes out of a task force established in 1989 with representatives from the National Association for Foreign Student Advisors (NAFSA), the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) and the Institute of International Education (IIE). The task force focused primarily on the internationalization of the undergraduate experience. The work of the committee resulted in five major recommendations, which are detailed in this report. These recommendations are: (1) by the year 2000, 10% of U. S. college students should study abroad; (2) there should be greater diversity in participating students, locations and program types; (3) the study abroad experience should be integrated into regular degree programs in many different fields; (4) factors that inhibit expansion of study abroad need to be addressed; (5) funding from private and public sources needs to increase. A list of references and participating individuals and organizations is included in the report.

Council on International Educational Exchange, (1988).Educating for global competence: the report on the Advisory Council for International Educational Exchange, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 305 833. [G]
This report provides general information and statistics on study abroad, with a focus on what institutions need in order to develop or expand their study abroad programs. Included are general recommendations about who should study abroad, a report on who studies abroad now (based on Open Doors), and information about different geographical areas where students may study. The second focus of the report is on the institution, including policy, administrative, faculty, and fiscal issues. A short bibliography is appended, along with a public policy agenda for international education.

Council on International Educational Exchange, (1991).Increasing participation of ethnic minorities in study abroad, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 346 784. [G]
This document is a brochure developed for the purpose of assisting study abroad advisors in expanding the number of ethnic minority students participating in study abroad. A number of methods are described, contributed by administrators at eight different institutions. The strategies are divided into six different areas, including funding, reassurance, promotion, choice and availability of programs, goal setting, and data collection. Since funding can be a barrier for many ethnic minority students, special scholarships, travel grants, and tuition waivers are recommended. Also noted is the importance of outreach, one-on-one marketing efforts, staff diversity, and advising to families. Offering programs in non-traditional locations can also be beneficial.

Council on International Exchange., (1993).Educational Exchange and Global Competence., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 368 275. [T]

Crust, S. L., (1998).Student involvement and study abroad: Exploring Astin's theory in an overseas program in France, (Doctoral Dissertation, Oregon State University). [I]
This research study looks at Alexander Astin's theory of development as it relates to study abroad. The author wished to determine whether or not the environmental and interactive factors identified by Astin were significant in a foreign setting. The specific factors examined in the study include: level of extracurricular involvement, housing and residence hall satisfaction, program satisfaction, and academic achievement. In addition to these, the author also examines French language level. The subjects for this study were 79 participants in the Oregon State University exchange program to Lyon during 1991-92 and 1995-96. Data were collected from the year-end surveys conducted as a part of the program evaluation. Of the different relationships and variables tested in the analysis, only one proved significant. Findings indicate there is a significant relationship between extracurricular involvement and language learning.

Davie, H., (1996).Language skills, course development and the year abroad, Language learning Journal, 13 73-76. [E,L]
This study was conducted to evaluate the experience of students participating in two study abroad programs in Russia. A total of fourteen third-year students completed the survey questionnaire that was sent to them following their overseas study program. The students had different language proficiency levels and previous experience in Russia. Nine of the fourteen students spent an entire academic year in Russia; the others had varying lengths of stay. The primary focus of the survey questionnaire was to identify issues related to language study and proficiency, so that domestic teachers of Russian could improve their curriculum. It also collected information on what students expected and were looking for in their overseas study program. Students identified the most linguistically demanding and frequently encountered situations during their year abroad. In general, the study finds that students did not feel they were well prepared (linguistically) for their year abroad.

DeKeyser, R., (1991).The semester overseas: What difference does it make?, ADFL Bulletin, 22 (2), 42-48. [R, L]
This article describes a research project aimed at assessing the language development of students participating in study abroad. The author seeks to investigate how learners put their second-language knowledge to use during conversation and how learners deal with the gaps in their knowledge. The study consisted of two groups, one control group of five students remaining in the United States and one group of seven students studying in Spain for the fall semester. Results indicate that individual factors have much more influence over language acquisition and communication strategies than does the study abroad experience or lack thereof. The author concludes that for maximum benefit, students need to be able to mask their problems instead of drawing attention to them, thus allowing for more informal interaction with native speakers.

Dowell, M. M., (1996).Perspectives toward the target culture by selected participants in a study abroad program in Mexico, Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. [R]
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of a study abroad experience on the cultural acquisition of two student participants in a ten-week study abroad program in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Data sources include participant journals and interviews conducted by the researcher with participants (pre-, during-, and post-study abroad) and staff of the study abroad program. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses are employed in the study. Case studies of the participants are developed and frequency counts of cultural observations are conducted in order to identify any patterns of insight development.

Results of the study suggest that participants focused on four broad areas of Mexican culture: environment (both natural and man-made); intrapersonal issues (personal needs and beliefs); interpersonal interaction on an intimate level (the family unit and human interaction); and interpersonal interaction on the public level (government, transportation, economy, leisure activities, traditions, and social issues). The environment and interpersonal interaction on the public level seem to be the primary emphases of study participants during their study abroad experience. The choice of cultural focus may, however, have been related to the fact that these two broad cultural categories tend to be observable without any requirement of personal contact between the student and members of the target culture. Hence, participants may have considered them easier or "safer" to study than those that require personal interaction. Students' personal backgrounds, interests, goals, and comfort levels appear to have played a role in their decision to focus on particular cultural features while in Mexico. Students seemed to learn about Mexican culture through participant and non-participant observation, as well as through informal interviews with native informants. Data suggest that the experience of living with a Mexican host family contributed positively to the students' overall cultural learning. [Author]

Drews, D., & Meyer, L. L., (1996).Effects of study abroad on conceptualizations of national groups., College Student Journal, 30 (4), 452-462. [I]
This was a study of 94 Juniata College students, divided into three groups: those who had studied abroad for at least one quarter, those who were planning to study abroad and later did, and those who were not planning to and did not study abroad. The methodology used free association, which was later categorized by the researchers. The purpose of the study is to determine how study abroad influences the conceptualizations of national groups. The researchers find that those who study abroad are more likely than those who do not study abroad to conceive of other national groups in terms associated with the characters of individuals, as opposed to food, historical events, geographical characteristics, and other non-personal factors. The authors conclude that a significant impact of study abroad is a more "personalized" view of other cultures.

Engle, J. & Engle, L., (1999).Study abroad levels: Notes towards a classification of program types. Working paper presented at the NAFSA: Association of International Educators annual conference, Denver, CO. [T],

Evans, R., (1991).A stranger in a strange land, Journal of College and University Law, 18 (2), 299-314. [O]
This short article is divided into three parts. The first part provides general information about the legal relationship between higher education institutions and their students. The second part examines this relationship as it exists in an international setting, and the third part looks at liability issues related to students studying abroad.

Farland, R. & Cepeda, R., (1989).Report of a study of "study abroad" programs, 1984-88, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 312 013). [R]
This document summarizes the findings from a study conducted to evaluate the study abroad programs offered by California community colleges. Thirty-six community college districts responded to a questionnaire administered by a committee of 21 experts regarding their study abroad programs. The committee seeks to analyze the study abroad programs at the California Community Colleges. The article includes statistics, which describe the scope and types of programs offered between 1984-1988. It also includes detailed guidelines for study abroad program administration based on the survey findings and outlines six international education program objectives.

Farthing, L., (1997).Homestay/village stay study in the Americans, 1994-96, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 416 742). [R]

Feldman, D. F., Folks, W. R. & Turnley, W. H., (1998).The socialization of expatriate interns, Journal of Managerial Issues, 10 (4), 403-418. [R]
In an effort to provide some empirical research on the benefits of overseas internship programs, this study examine the factors that are most critical in the socialization of interns overseas and the consequences of the socialization of expatriate interns. Data were collected from 138 second-year masters students majoring in international business at a large state university. Participants were surveyed two weeks prior to leaving for their overseas internships, and one week after they returned. A number of hypotheses were tested, relating job characteristics (such as autonomy) to socialization.

Felker, W. & Fuller, C., (1996).Foreign language/area studies enhancement project., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415 676. [E]

Flash, S., (1999).Study abroad program participation effects on academic progress., Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. [I]
The purpose of this study is to examine how participation in a study abroad program influences students' progress toward degree completion. The study was conducted at a large, unnamed public research institution in the Northeast with an enrollment of 26,000 students and an average of 250 students sent abroad each year. Conclusions are based on data obtained from university records, which compare the number of semesters to degree completion for study abroad participants versus non-participants, surveys of past participants, and structured interviews. The specific questions examined include: whether participation in study abroad delays degree completion, how study abroad affects the quality or amount of knowledge acquired, and whether participants change their programs of study once they return from their study abroad experience. The results of this study suggested that there are no significant delays in degree completion by study abroad participants and that there is no significant concern on the part of faculty or students about the quality of the academic coursework completed abroad.

Freed, B. F., Ed., (1995).Second language acquisition in a study abroad context, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. [L]

Frey-Hartel, C. & Kasum, D., (1989).The highlights and pitfalls of developing an intercultural workshop in France, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 304 931). [P]
This article describes an intercultural workshop, which includes travel to France. The program was offered to students as well as community members and included pre-departure workshops. The article provides a description of the program, a timeline for the course development, and examples of recommendations made to students. An outline describes some of the issues the program needed to address, the program goals, the classroom activities, and an assessment.

Fryer. T. B. & Day, J. T., (1993).Foreign language curricular needs of students preparing for an internship abroad., Modern Language Journal, 77 (3), 277-288. [L]
This article focuses on the language needs of interns abroad. The report describes a pre-departure language program designed to meet the specific needs of interns, and is based on a survey of past participants. The program described is the language curriculum developed to prepare students in the Master of International Business Studies program at the University of South Carolina. Six-month internships are an integral part of the program, and are preceded by intensive language training.

Furlong, T. & Hardin, S., (2000).International education study abroad programs: A level I review. Florida community college system: Putting minds to work, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 440 715. [P]

Furnham, A., (1993).Communicating in foreign lands: The cause, consequences and cures of culture shock, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 6 (3), 91-109. [C]
The author of this comprehensive paper argues that a person's ability to communicate in another culture can be regarded as a social skill, which can be analyzed, taught, learned, practiced, and improved. Five strategies for training sojourners in cross-cultural communication skills are presented and discussed in detail. They include information-giving, cultural sensitization, isomorphic attributions, learning by doing, and social skills training. The author professes social skills training to be the most effective technique, as it involves understanding numerous cultural differences in social behavior. Many of these differences are discussed in the paper.

Gamon, C., (1989).Study, work and travel abroad: A bibliography. Published by NAFSA, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 409) [M]
This bibliography was produced by the Section on U. S. Students Abroad (SECUSSA) of the National Association for Foreign Student Advisors (NAFSA). The first section lists organizations and publishers providing free information on study abroad. The second section identifies resource materials for study abroad advisers, and the third section includes a list of reference materials recommended for study abroad libraries. The bibliography may be fairly dated at this point in time.

Gingerich, K. E., (1988).The impact of study abroad and didactic cross-cultural coursework experiences on the development of White racial consciousness and cultural sensitivity, Doctoral Dissertation, Eastern Mennonite College. [I]
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between study abroad and didactic coursework experiences on the development of cultural sensitivity and White racial consciousness. Theoretical foundation of the study introduces the notion that experience is a critical motivator in the formation of cognitive schema which guide individual awareness and attitude development in the process of personal change (Epstein, 1994; Janoff-Bulman & Schwartzberg, 1991). The study investigates the primary hypothesis that study abroad experiences have the potential to lead to the integration of meaningful cognitive/experiential cultural learning to a greater extent than primarily didactic coursework experiences, in turn effecting the degree to which White racial consciousness and cultural sensitivity were developed between intervention groups.

Three intervention groups (undergraduate study abroad, graduate study abroad, and cross-cultural coursework), totaling 143 participants (97 female, 46 male), were utilized along with three respective control groups. The study was conducted in a pretest-posttest format over the course of one academic semester. Data were examined through descriptive statistics, reliability and item analyses of the dependent measures, t-test, and analysis of covariance procedures measuring between-group differences for the cultural sensitivity factor, chi-square analysis measuring between-group differences for the White racial consciousness factor, and regression analyses of demographic characteristics of the sample.

Results of the study confirms that undergraduate and graduate students who participated in the study abroad intervention differed significantly from students who participated in a didactic coursework intervention in terms of greater levels of cultural sensitivity and White racial consciousness at both the pretest and posttest, though students who completed didactic coursework did increase significantly over time along both dimensions. Additionally, prior domestic and international cross-cultural experiences were strongly correlated with both White racial consciousness and cultural sensitivity factors, further confirming the importance of experiential learning. In conclusion, the results of the study support the usefulness of primarily didactic cross-cultural coursework interventions on the development of cultural sensitivity and White racial consciousness over time for trainees. However, the relatively greater impact of immersive, cross-cultural experiences, both domestic and international, on the development of these factors is also confirmed. [Author]

Ginsberg, R. B. and others., (1992).Listening comprehension before and after study abroad, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 718. [L,R]
This study is one in a series conducted using data obtained by the American Council of Teachers of Russian Language on students who participated in their Russian language programs over a number of years. This particular study focused on listening comprehension before and after study abroad. The specific questions the study seeks to answer are what types of training and strategies for listening comprehension occurred in college Russian language classes, what materials were used, what strategies were useful, how did study abroad influence listening comprehension, how did listening comprehension relate to other skills such as reading and speaking, and lastly what other factors are related to listening comprehension abilities.

Most of data for this study were obtained through pre- and post-program questionnaires administered to students who participated in the academic semester to the Soviet Union in spring 1990. A total of 82 students were included in this study. Very detailed findings are included in the report, but in general the researchers determine that: listening activities are not common in college Russian language courses, students have little confidence in their comprehension abilities, and study abroad leads to substantial gains in listening comprehension.

Ginsberg, R. B., (1992).Language gains during study abroad: An analysis of the ACTR data, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 717. [L,R]
This report is one in a number of studies, which uses the extensive data collected by the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) over nearly 20 years. The data used in this study represented information from 658 students who studied in 4-month programs through ACTR. Language proficiency was tested prior and subsequent to participation in the program. The central focus of this study is to identify factors, which could be used to predict language gains (oral proficiency, listening, and reading). Specific factors examined included gender, knowledge of other languages, major, degree, undergraduate college, previous work in language and culture, and placement in Russia. A number of findings and interrelationships are presented in the study; for example, men were found to be more likely to gain in listening and oral proficiency than women, younger students made greater gains in listening, previous language work had an influence on some areas of language gain but not all, and students from certain identified majors made greater gains.

Gonzalez, A., (1993).Teaching beyond the classroom: Business internships in Latin America - Issues in cross-cultural adjustment, Hispania, 76 (4), 892-901. [R]
More and more business programs are beginning to include international components such as internships in their curriculum. One such program is the international internship incorporated into the Master in International Business Studies Program at the University of South Carolina. This article reports on a survey that focused on assessing this internship component. Specifically, the survey examined four areas, including students' perceptions of language ability, their living situation, their social interactions, and their "on-the-job" performance. Although students participate in internships to a number of different countries, this qualitative study focused on participants in the Latin American program. A total of 20 students from the 1990 cohort and 12 students from the 1991 group participated. Data were collected through hour-long, in-depth interviews with the participants. Follow-up interviews were conducted with some of the employers and on-site staff.

Findings indicate that language ability did not necessarily translate into a successful experience. Many students who reported having weak Spanish skills rated their experience higher than students with better language skills. Students had varying experiences with their homestays, although most reported it as successful. Students who lived alone or with other students from the program generally had more difficulty adjusting to the culture. Those who lived with families also had better social interactions in general, which the author attributed to increased opportunities to meet people. Other factors influencing students' ability to adjust socially included health and the internship site atmosphere. Much of the students' experience also related to their internship experience. The direct supervisor was the most significant factor, as well as how closely the internship matched the student's abilities and expectations. The author concludes with several recommendations for insuring that internship components are successful.

Good, J. L. & Campbell, S. L., (1997).The impact of a study abroad program in Jordan on undergraduate university students, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 407 921). [I, P]
This article describes a study abroad program in Jordan run by Ambassador University in Texas, which provides twenty U. S. students each year the opportunity to teach Jordanian students with physical and mental disabilities at one of a few special education centers. The students prepare for the work before they leave the U. S. by taking classes on teaching, disabilities, and conversational Arabic. During the year the students have the opportunity to travel to other countries such as Egypt, Israel, and Syria, as well as to meet Jordanian Royalty and government officials.

In addition to describing the program, this article documents the impact that the program has had on student participants. Data are obtained from essays that an unspecified number of students had written upon their return about the effect the program had on their lives and on their outlook toward people of different cultures. The article includes a number of excerpts from the essays.

Goodwin, C. D. & Nacht, M., (1988).Abroad and beyond. Patterns in American overseas education, New York: Institute of International Education [O]
An Institute of International Education-commissioned study of the reasons for the rapid growth of U. S. college student study abroad in the 1980s features case studies of effective programs and suggests ideas for planning and evaluation of study abroad by U. S. colleges and universities. Focus is on the integration of international study into scientific, professional, and graduate fields. Reasons for the growth include: young Americans want to understand the world in which they live; foreign study gets less expensive as the dollar grows stronger; America's views of other nations have softened; and foreign travel is now very familiar. Topics include: "the point of it all" (educational and social goals and potential accomplishments, institutional and administrative goals and potential accomplishments, and institutional renewal); "ways to do it" (total immersion, brief stays, and U. S. facilities abroad); "tasks to be done" (for faculty, department, and central administration); "some questions to consider" (appropriate approach, focus, reciprocity, etc. ) "innovation" (in the liberal arts, science and technology, and graduate and professional); "where to go for help" (national organizations, models for a modest beginning, the overall scene); and conclusions and recommendations (the object lessons at hand and specific advice to campus officers). The appendix lists institutions visited in California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Washington, D. C. An index is provided. [Author]

Grant, M. A., (1991).Studying in the French university: A guide for U. S. advisors and students, College and University, 66 (3), 155-160. [G]
This guide was developed to assist study abroad advisors in counseling students who wish to study abroad in France. It provides information about the French educational system and describes university academic life. Information on registration, exams, and the grading system is also included. The different types of higher education institutions are described. The guide concludes with a summary of the major differences a student might find between the higher education experience in the U. S and in France.

Griesar, B., (1992).The underground guide to university study in Britain and Ireland, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, Inc. [G]
This book was written for high school and college students interested in studying at a university or other educational institution in Great Britain or Ireland. The book seeks to guide students through the entire study abroad experience. It begins with the university selection process, and covers such concerns as application procedures, transfer of course credit, transportation, what to pack, required documents, insurance, housing, and banking. The book also addresses academics and university life, social and cultural issues, communication, sports, and entertainment and the media. Five appendices include a complete listing of study abroad resources; addresses for Irish and British universities; a large glossary covering English, Cockney, Welsh, Scottish, Irish, Irish Gaeilge vocabulary and slang; a calendar of major British and Irish holidays and events; and the tube, rapid transit, and motorway maps.

Haddad, M. R., (1997).Engineering students abroad, Journal of Chemical Education, 74 (7), 757-759. [P]

Halder, J., (1997).How Iowa community colleges developed a consortium of study abroad, Materials used in presentation to the Annual Conference of the Community Colleges for International Development, Orlando, FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 405909). [P]
This document describes in detail how a study abroad consortium was developed by community colleges in Iowa and includes a number of sample documents and guidelines. Included are a timeline describing how long it took to develop the consortium and what steps were taken, a list of guidelines for the operation of the consortium, the mission statement and goals, a sample of one semester program in England, and sample program evaluations.

Halpern, J. & Hodkinko, B., (1992).Adjustment difficulties of American students in Israeli institutions of higher learning, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 887) [R]
The purpose of this study is to determine what types of difficulties Americans experience when studying in Israeli colleges, universities and Yeshivot. A Study Abroad Adjustment Inventory and Personal Data Instrument designed for this study are utilized. Approximately 671 students participated in the study, by indicating how difficult it was for them to make 53 school-related adjustments. The findings demonstrate that living arrangements are the most frequent problem area, followed by language proficiency, academic issues, and personal problems. The authors make recommendations to help prepare students for the difficulties they may face.

Halpern, J., (1991).A comparative study of adjustment difficulties of American male and female students in Israeli institutions of higher learning, Doctoral Dissertation, American University. [R]
The study addresses four research questions concerning the adjustment difficulties experienced by Americans who were studying in Israeli colleges, universities, and yeshivoth. Furthermore, four hypotheses were tested, which dealt with gender differences in the adjustment process.

In November and December of 1989, 671 American undergraduates in Israeli institutions were surveyed to determine how difficult it was for them to make fifty-three specific school-related adjustments. Each participant completed the Study Abroad Adjustment Inventory (SAAI), which was created by the writer specifically for this research. The SAAI categorized the adjustment difficulties into four general areas: Hebrew language, academic matters, personal situations, and living arrangements. It utilized four extent-of-difficulty response alternatives: 1. 00 = none, 2. 00 = not serious, 3. 00 = serious, 4. 00 = very serious, to assess student difficulty with each adjustment. The four hypotheses were tested using the t-test statistic. Significance was set at the . 05 level.

Study findings indicate that the sample of students in this research reported the most serious (X = 2. 87) and most frequent adjustment difficulties in the "living arrangements" problem area among the four problem areas considered. Overall, the mean student extent-of-difficulty response to each of the set of fifty-three adjustments presented on the SAAI did not exceed 3. 00 (serious).

A significant disparity in adjustment difficulty is found between males and females for eighteen of the fifty-three adjustments. Males had more difficulty than females adjusting to matters in the "personal situations" problem area. Female students encountered significantly more difficulties than males adjusting to problems in the "academic matters" area. No significant gender difference was found regarding the "living arrangements" or "Hebrew language" problem areas.

Although more than one third of study subjects reported that their mastery of the Hebrew language before starting to study in Israel was "none" to "poor," their adjustment difficulty with the "Hebrew language" problem area was less than "not serious" (X = 1. 78). One study conclusion is that competency in Hebrew is not essential for a successful adjustment by American students, similar to those in this sample, to study in Israeli colleges, universities, and yeshivoth. [Author]

Hansel, B., (1993).The exchange student survival kit, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. [G]

Harrison, G., (1990).Study Abroad: A view from the community college, International Studies Notes, 15 (2), 71-74. [P]
This short article provides a description of a study abroad program designed to meet the non-traditional student population at Floyd College in Georgia. It discusses the importance of study abroad and how the institution developed a study abroad program to target working class, older, and under-represented students. The details of the program are discussed along with a description of the difficulties faced and an evaluation of the first program. While the program was positive for those who participated, it did not reach the intended non-traditional student population.

Hembroff, L. A. & Rusz, D. L., (1993).Minorities and overseas studies programs: Correlates of differential participation, New York: Council of International Educational Exchange (CIEE). ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 368 283 [R]
Despite increased efforts on the part of many institutions and program administrators to provide support and outreach, minority students continue to be underrepresented in study abroad. This study attempts to identify the reasons for this lower participation rate, and focuses on the Michigan State University, which has a very large study abroad program. Data for the study were collected by distribution of an extensive survey to both on-campus and off-campus student populations. The off-campus students received the survey through the mail and the on-campus students through Resident Assistants. A total of 1,139 students participated in the study. The report documents extensive findings from the survey, which include some of the reasons for lower participation in study abroad by different ethnic/racial groups. One factor identified is that these groups often have a higher attrition rate, which can influence study abroad rates since students typically study abroad during their junior year. There was also a lower than average percentage of African-American students enrolled in some of the major groups more likely to study abroad. Other factors included economic concerns, fear of travel to unknown places, fear of discrimination, and language difficulties. The report includes suggestions for increasing participation by minorities, including increased marketing and information dissemination to students and faculty, clarification about the availability of financial assistance, increased outreach to students in majors with high minority representation, more information about language requirements, increased advocacy of foreign language study in high schools, and increased efforts at retaining African-American students.

Herman, N. B., (1996).The impact of study abroad experiences on the psychosocial development of college students, Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio University. [I]
This study seeks to determine the impact of study abroad on the psychosocial development of participants, by measuring their developmental level before and after program participation. Investigation was done to determine if there were significant differences depending on gender and the degree of cultural immersion. The survey instrument used was the Student Development Task and Lifestyles Inventory (SDTLI) based on Chickering's student development theory. Data were obtained from student participants in three different study abroad programs administered by Antioch College in Ohio during the fall 1995 term, as well as one program administered by Ohio University. There were a total of 54 students in the final study. Findings indicate that there is no difference in psychosocial development based on gender or by cultural immersion. The researcher also does not find a significant difference between the pre- and post-test assessments. There are a number of factors influencing the results of this study, including the small sample size and lack of information about the cross-cultural experience of the students. The author also concludes the selected instrument may not have been able to adequately assess the impact of the study abroad program.

Hernandez, L. A. U., (1996).United States college students learning Spanish as a second language in a language and culture immersion program abroad: An ethnographic approach, Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. [L]
This qualitative study looks at three U. S. college students who learned Spanish in a language and culture immersion program in Venezuela. Participants are observed in language, literature and culture classes, as well as during field trips, family gatherings, and other social and cultural activities. The most meaningful communicative events among naturally occurring learning events are identified. Specific questions investigated include: what role cultural aspects play in language acquisition during an immersion program, how the students and their world views change during the program, how immersion programs help students learn a second language, and how the findings might influence second language pedagogy.

Hess, D. J., (1997).Studying abroad/Learning abroad: An abridged edition of the whole world guide to culture learning [C],

Hess, J. D., (1997).Studying abroad/learning abroad, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, Inc.
This guide is designed for students and other individuals intending to live or study abroad and learn about another culture or cultures. These individuals are encouraged to acknowledge and come to terms with responses, particularly negative ones, to aspects of the culture they are visiting. An introductory chapter discusses the general process of learning about and adapting to a new culture and communicating across cultural lines. Four subsequent chapters address in greater detail these aspects of culture learning: attitudes and character traits that promote culture learning; methods in culture learning (the action-reflection-response strategy and reflection as cultural analysis); and the relationships between culture learning, values, and ethical choices. Each provides specific suggestions for addressing issues. The final chapter presents 15 distinct techniques, with exercises, for approaching different aspects of culture: noting differences; interpreting nonverbal cues; interpersonal interactions; identifying petty irritants; defining different "-isms" and noting them in the host culture; learning about the rhythm of life in another culture; dealing with culture shock; identifying American value orientations; studying influence on values; personal essays; studying institutions; studying a religious institution; comparing cultural values; studying individuals; and re-entry experiences. [Author]

Hill, D. J. (Ed. )., (1991).Global education and the study abroad program., Worthington, OH: Renaissance Publications. [O]

Hoffa, W., (1997).NAFSA's guide to education abroad for advisers and administrators., Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators. [G]
This resource book provides comprehensive information for the study abroad advisor on all aspects of program planning. It gives special attention to legal issues, financial aid, marketing, budgeting, credit, and program evaluation.

Hoffa, W., (1998).Study abroad: A parent's guide., Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators [G]

Hoffman-Hicks, S. D, (1999).The longitudinal development of French foreign language pragmatic competence: Evidence from study abroad participants., Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University. [L]
This study is a longitudinal investigation into the acquisition of pragmatic competence by adult learners of French. Pragmatic competence, or the ability to understand and produce utterances according to the sociolinguistic rules of appropriate use in a given culture, is a critical component of the process of acquiring a second language. In addition to teaming the linguistic aspects of a language, learners must also develop the ability to use language appropriately in given contexts if they are to communicate effectively. The learners in the present study are university students participating in a study abroad program in France. Developing pragmatic competence is of particular importance for this group, as the experience of living in the target culture offers unlimited opportunities for authentic interaction with native speakers. This study examines the learners' pragmatic development during the course of the study abroad experience. The objective is to determine whether and to what extent these learners demonstrate approximation to native speaker norms over time and also whether extended exposure to the target environment facilitates the acquisition of pragmatic competence by adult learners.

The pragmatic skills of fourteen study abroad students from Indiana University were elicited through a production questionnaire on three occasions over a period of sixteen months. In addition, ten students of French who did not participate in the study abroad program served as a control group, French baseline data was also collected from 25 native speakers of French. The conversational functions of greeting and leave-taking and the speech act of compliments provided a meaningful framework for analysis by allowing for the examination of learners' acquisition in controlled contexts. The analysis reveals that the learners did exhibit pragmatic development over time but that this development was often slight and limited in scope. The findings become more significant, however, when compared with the results of the nonnative control group, who did not demonstrate similar development. [Author]

Hopkins, J. R., (1999).Studying abroad as a form of experiential education, Liberal Education, 85 (3), 36-41. [O]
This brief article provides a general overview of the value of study abroad. Included are some of the goals of a typical study abroad program, a look at a few particular case studies of students who studied abroad, and practical issues to be considered in study abroad programs.

Hutchins, M. M., (1996).International education study tours abroad: students' professional growth and personal development in relation to international, global, and intercultural perspectives, Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. [I]
This qualitative study looks at the impact of international education study tours on American students. More specifically, the study focuses on how the program impacts the international/global perspectives of the participants. The students selected for the study were six graduate students at Ohio State University who participated in an overseas study tour. Findings indicate that the participants experienced changes in their personal and professional growth, as well as in their international perspective.

Iino, M., (1996).Excellent foreigner!: Gaijinization of Japanese language and culture in contact situations - an ethnographic study of dinner table conversations between Japanese host families and American students, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. [R, L]
This unique ethnographic study focus on the cultural and linguistic learning that took place in the natural homestay setting of U. S. students staying with Japanese families. More specifically it analyzes dinner table conversations, which were videotaped or audio taped for later analysis. Supplemental data were collected by questionnaires, interviews, and group sessions. The setting for the study was an intensive eight-week program in Kyoto, Japan where U. S. students lived with a host family and studied Japanese language and culture. The analysis results in a finding that both the students and host families understood the homestay experience to be important to language acquisition, but that neither were clear on how to best facilitate this. Findings also indicate that both groups felt the students made significant language gains and that the Japanese hosts unconsciously modified their language for the Americans (gaijinization). Presentation of culture by the host families was also modified.

Institute for International Education, (1996).Financial resources for international study: A guide for U. S. nationals, New York: Institute for International Education [G]
This book provides information on grants and fellowships for study abroad. Specific information such as eligibility requirements and contact information are provided.

Institute for International Education, (1996).Study abroad: You can get there from here. A guide for women and men, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 401 777. [G]

Institute for International Education, (1997).Towards transnational competence. Rethinking international education: A U. S. -Japan Case Study. IIE Research Report, Number Twenty-Eight, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 409 821). [M]
This report, based upon studies carried out from 1994-96 by a task force of international educators, focuses on efforts to identify a language and strategy for improving U. S. -Japan "international education. " Several conclusions are reached and discussed in the text: (1) international education can be stimulated by a new transnational rationale and greater nongovernmental involvement; (2) current international education standards in Japan and the United States are divergent, leading to unnecessary misunderstandings; (3) American concepts of personal enrichment and mutual understanding tend to lead them to establish exchange and look for balance, when they should be asking "What level of Japan-related transnational competence is 'sufficient' for the United States?" (4) more opportunities have been created for young people, both from the United States and other nations, to gain exposure to Japan; (5) although participation in study-abroad programs is rising, both the rate of increase and the total numbers are insufficient to meet these needs; (6) the Japanese educational system prepares its youth to seek admission to U. S. institutions, but does not prepare them for study in Asia; and (7) students in both Japan and the United States face many obstacles when seeking to study in the other country. A list of task force attendees is appended.

Jones, M. E. & Bond, M. L., (2000).Personal adjustment, language acquisition, and culture learning in short-term cultural immersion, International Review, 10, 33-49. [I]
This study seeks to determine if a short-term immersion program (2-10 weeks) in Mexico contributed to cultural learning. The study is descriptive, focusing on student reports of personal adjustment, language acquisition, and cultural learning. A second aspect of the study examines how personal characteristics such as age, income, education, and previous cross-cultural experience influenced adjustment and learning. Data were collected from 150 U. S. students who were attending the Center for Bilingual and Multicultural Studies in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico for intensive, short term language, and culture programs. The majority of the students were also living with Mexican families. A number of different instruments were used to collect the data. Findings indicate that students who were younger or of a lower income level had greater anxiety and discomfort. Both of these populations had higher expectations of cultural difference at the beginning of the immersion experience. Longer stays were associated with increased language proficiency, but there was no difference found in the number of Mexican friends students made. In general the study determines that improvements in personal adjustment, language acquisition and culture learning were made in the immersion program, and that students in the different length programs experienced similar patterns.

Juhasz, A. M. & Walker, A. M., (1987).The impact of study abroad on university student's perceptions of self, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 341 916. [I]

Kain, E. L., & D'Andrea, V., (1992).Teaching sociology in an international setting: Using London as a laboratory, Teaching Sociology, 20 (1), 1-11. [P]
This paper describes a program model which allows faculty to use the large resources of an overseas city to expand their sociology curriculum. Important strategies for success are discussed, including the importance of advanced planning, anticipating the socialization issues of students, and support for faculty to do advance research or work in the host culture. The author also examines some of the advantages and disadvantages of teaching sociology in an international setting. Five examples of courses that have been operated in London or Great Britain are described, including Introductory Sociology, International Demography, Urban Sociology, Race and Ethnicity, and an internship program. The author notes advantages from the faculty perspective, including bringing history and culture to life, having increased interaction with students in a variety of situations, and increased faculty development. Disadvantages are the lack of social and administrative support for the faculty member and increased responsibilities.

Kashlak, R. J. & Jones, R. M., (1996).Internationalizing business education: Factors affecting student participation in overseas studies, Journal of Teaching in International Business, 8 (2), 57-75. [R]

Kauffman, N. L. & Others., (1992).Students abroad: Strangers at home. Education for a global society., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354170. [T]

Kepets, D., (1995).Back in the USA: Reflecting on your study abroad experience and putting it to work, Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators. [G]

King, L. J. & Young, J. A, (1994).Study Abroad: Education for the 21st Century, Unterrichtspraxis, 27 (1), 77-87. [R]
This article describes a research project conducted at Oregon Statue University to study the attitudes of students toward study abroad. Two surveys were conducted; the first was aimed at understanding how students who had not participated in study abroad felt about it, and the second was to determine the attitudes and opinions of students who had previously studied abroad. A secondary purpose of the research was to increase student and faculty awareness about the institution's study abroad programs. The surveys were widely distributed to faculty members who administered it within their class. Almost 2,800 responses were collected from the first survey. Findings indicated that nearly 20% of students surveyed had not heard anything about foreign study programs at Oregon State University. Of those who did know something of the programs, 55% had gained information from the campus newspaper, 50% from a friend, and 47% from campus fliers. Only 12% had gained information by visiting the international education office. The study also examined factors why students chose to not study abroad. Of those who responded, 82% reported expense as being a factor. Thirty one percent identified lack of interest, living in a different culture, and giving up social activities as reasons why they wouldn't participate.

The second survey was distributed to students who had participated in study abroad programs. Approximately 804 surveys were mailed to students, with 28% responding. Of those who responded, 97% reported their study abroad experience to be worth the extra cost and 44% reported using their international expertise in their most recent job. The respondents noted the most important aspect of the experience to be a broadened perspective on their own culture, followed by enriched personal life and an enhanced undergraduate experience. The findings from both of these surveys were used by language faculty at Oregon State, as well as study abroad administrators to improve programming and language instruction.

Klahr, S. C., (1998).A descriptive study of the barriers to study abroad in engineering undergraduate education and recommendations for program design, Doctoral Dissertation, Montana State University. [R]
The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for the design of study abroad programs, which would be suitable for engineering students. By surveying coordinators of international programs in engineering in the U. S. and in the European Union, different program designs were examined, which led to an understanding of how certain programs have been able to remove some of the traditional barriers. These barriers include problems with credit transfer, lack of support by engineering faculty, lack of foreign language, stringent curricular design, lack of funding to develop appropriate programs, and student's misperceptions regarding study abroad. Findings indicated that the European Union programs were more successful in developing options suitable for engineering students and removing these barriers. Successful programs are typically those which are promoted by the college or department of engineering, offer study options in an English speaking setting, award full credit at the home institution, offer financial assistance, and require students to be at least in their third year of studies.

Kline, R., (1993).The social practice of literacy in a program of study abroad, Doctoral Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University. [L]
This ethnographic study examines the reading behaviors of eight undergraduate students who participated in a traditional study abroad program to France. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of moving from a classroom to a host-culture learning context on successful language learning, and to further understand how second language acquisition and literacy occurs. Data were collected over a 15-month period through interviews, participant observation, inventories, and surveys. Among other findings, the students reported difficulty in achieving French literacy, and struggled when their intelligence was associated with their inability to speak and read French.

Krajewski-Jaime, E. R. & Others, (1996).Utilizing international clinical practice to build inter-cultural sensitivity in social work students, Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 4 (2), 15-29. [P]

Kuntz, P. S., (1999).Overseas students of Arabic and their teachers: Issues in program implementation, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed. 427 513. [L]

Lamet, M. (Ed. ), (2000).Abroad by design, Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators. [G]
This book provides the study abroad administrator with sample program documents, including model programs, budgets, health guidelines, and other documents used by various colleges and universities involved in study abroad activities.

Laubscher, M. R., (1994).Encounters with difference: student perceptions of the role of out-of-class experiences in education abroad, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. [R]

This book details an extensive case study conducted by the author, which included interviews from a group of students who had recently completed a semester or yearlong study abroad program through Penn State. The programs included locations in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East and were conducted in the fall of 1990. Rather than just looking at what students did with their out of class time, the study seeks to distinguish which activities positively impacted their cross-cultural learning. To get at these issues, personal, open-ended interviews were utilized with a total of thirty students participating.

The book includes extensive documentation from the student interviews, which help illustrate student perspectives on their experience. The three categories that emerged from the learning activities include participant observation (homestay, student clubs, etc. ), personal interaction (dorm conversations, interviews, etc. ), and travel. Student's reflections on their personal development are also included. Conclusions are drawn from the data about the role of out-of class experiences, and a number of recommendations are presented as to how program administrators can integrate the out-of-class experiences with the overall learning objectives.

Lonabocker, L., (1997).The transforming potential of travel/study abroad, College and University, 73 (2), 18-23.

Mahan, J. M. & Stachowski, L., (1990).New Horizons: Student teaching abroad to enrich understanding of diversity, Action in Teacher Education, 12 (3), 13-21. [R]

Markert, A., (1990).Making study abroad count: A new tool for advisors and students, Federal Republic of Germany, College and University, 66 (1), 47-54. [M]

Markert, A., (1990).Studying in the German University: A guide for U. S. advisors and students., (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 330 298). [G]
This complete guide was developed to assist study abroad advisors who counsel students seeking to study abroad in the Federal Republic of Germany. The guide describes the higher education system in Germany, campus life, and types of classes. It also details language testing and registration, administration of German universities, and faculty. Major differences between higher education in Germany and the U. S. are noted, including greater emphasis on mid and final examinations in Germany, narrower focus in coursework, differences in students and social life structure, and less contact between the student and professors in Germany than in the U. S.

Martin, J. N. & Rohrlich, B., (1991).The relationship between study abroad student expectations and selected student characteristics, Journal of College Student Development, 32 (1), 36-49.
Many different factors seem to influence why some students have a more successful study abroad experience than others. Some researchers have theorized that prior expectations play a significant role in the experience of students participating in study abroad. This study examined the expectations of students prior to their program and the relationship between these expectations and certain student characteristics. A questionnaire was developed asking students to rate their level of concern with 13 specific aspects of their program prior to participation. These were related to housing, course work, food, climate, language, health, finances, homesickness, interaction with new people, foreign currency, adjustment to new cultures, extracurricular travel, and local transportation. The questionnaire also collected demographic information: gender, age, student status, major, background, prior travel or cross-cultural experience, host country variables, and where students obtained information on study abroad. A total of 482 students from all over the United States, who took part in a study abroad program through a private university in the Northeastern United States, participated in this study. Most students spent 3-9 months studying abroad in various locations in Western Europe. Findings indicate that students were most concerned about housing, sufficient money, extra travel, and coursework. There was little concern reported on homesickness and climate. In general, women tended to be more concerned about coursework, with the exception of Italy where more men were concerned. Women had higher levels of concern in all areas except food and having sufficient money. Other significant factors related to length of previous experience abroad, which influenced concern about transportation and language.

Martin, J. N., Bradford, L. & Rohrlich, B., Comparing predeparture expectations and post-sojourn reports: A longitudinal study of U. S. students abroad, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19 (1), 87-110. [R]
This article discusses a study of 248 students who described their expectations prior to participating in a study abroad program through Syracuse University. The students were from colleges and universities throughout the United States and studied at one of four European locations. After completing the program students completed another questionnaire. Findings of the survey indicate that fulfillment or non-fulfillment of expectations is related to the location of study and to gender, but not to prior cross-cultural experience. There is also a significant relationship between the non-fulfillment of expectations and the overall evaluation of the experience.

Martin, J. N., (1989).Predeparture orientation: Preparing college sojourners for intercultural interaction, Communication Education, 38 (3), 249-258. [P,C]
This article describes a course, which was designed to help prepare students for the cross-cultural study abroad experience. The author begins with a description of problems, which may arise when a student is not adequately prepared for cross-cultural entry, and articulates the importance of providing preparatory instruction. The course had three objectives, (1) to give the student a conceptual framework for understanding cross-cultural interactions, (2) to assist the student in developing adjustment strategies, and (3) to provide the student with specific information about the host country. The article records the specific topics included in each unit, the assignments, the activities, and the text materials used. In the conclusion, the author discusses the difficulties encountered in trying to assess the effectiveness of the course, including lack of student outcome data. To truly assess the validity of the course, students would need to be surveyed after completion of their study abroad experience.

Martin, W. J., (1988).South American field experience: An initiative in international education. The implementation journal for the South American field experience., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 304 172. [P]
A description is provided of Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) South American Field Experience program, a travel/study program for faculty and staff designed to provide a variety of learning experiences through a three-week trip to Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. Chapter I presents an overview of the development of the project, including information on WACC's past achievements in infusing an international dimension into its curriculum and staff development activities, corporate sponsorship for the project, participant selection and profiles, staff development planning, and publicity. Chapter II presents the participants' action plans for the trip. The development of these plans involved examining the itinerary, learning as much as possible about the places to be visited, and establishing goals to be accomplished during the trip. Chapter III consists of entries from a field journal kept as a record of the team's activities. Finally, Chapter IV includes a brief report from each participant summarizing the extent to which they achieved their planned objectives. Appendixes contain the itinerary and course outlines. [Author]

Mathews, P. R., Hameister, B. G. & Hosley, N. S., (1998).Attitudes of college students toward study abroad: Implications for disability service providers, Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 13 (2), 67-77. [R]
Although extensive statistics are lacking, the number of U. S. students seeking to study abroad has steadily increased in the last fifteen years. This study investigated the perceptions of college students with disabilities toward study abroad, utilizing an instrument with questions about the perceived barriers to study abroad. Five different universities participated in the study, four located in Pennsylvania and one in Michigan. A total of 64 undergraduate students completed the study, which consisted of a fifteen-minute interview based on the instrument. The interviews were conducted by the disability service provider. Twenty-four of the students were learning disabled, 12 visually impaired, 11 health impaired, 10 physically disabled, and 7 hearing impaired. Interest in study abroad was not a factor in the selection of the students who participated in the study, although all of the students who were selected would have been eligible for study abroad based on their grade point averages. Findings indicate the biggest barrier for students was a lack of knowledge about available study abroad programs. The second greatest barrier was a perceived lack of support devices, followed by financial barriers. Only 13 percent of the students felt that overall the barriers were of severe consequence. Fifty percent felt the barriers would have no effect. Students identified being involved in a program for non-disabled and disabled students as opposed to one solely for students with disabilities as being the most important accommodation. Second to that was advance notice, with more than half of the students stating that they wanted at least six months notice to prepare for their participation in the program. The article presents more specific and detailed findings, and also lists ten tips for disability providers.

Mattai, R. P., & Ohiwerei, G., (1989).Some mitigating factors against African-Americans in the rural American South opting to study abroad., Paper presented at the Annual Conference on International Educational Exchange. Washington, DC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 315 474). [T]
This paper identifies some of the reasons African-American college students in the rural South have low interest and participation rates in study abroad. The author provides a review of literature and, from this, draws forth influencing factors. Included in these is the cost to study abroad, distance, employment opportunities, educational status, and availability of information. The author theorizes that the low-income status of many black families in the rural South and the high cost of study abroad are major barriers for students. He also notes that insecurity due to minority status and the low levels of education typically attained also contribute to the problem, while a lack of information and communication about study abroad creates additional barriers for students.

McCabe, L. T., (1994).The development of a global perspective during participation in Semester at Sea: A comparative global education program, Educational Review, 46 (3), 275-286. [I] ]
This study examines how student's global perspectives changed after participating in the spring 1992 Semester at Sea program through the University of Pittsburgh. Data were collected from 23 participants using observation, interviews, and student journals at the beginning and end of the program. The study seeks to determine how, if at all, students change their global views and in what way the various elements of the program such as informal interactions, formal study, and port experiences influence this. Findings indicate that pre-program experiences shape student's perceptions, that some of the formal education onboard was of influence, that informal ship experiences and the sense of community onboard helped the students, and that the port experiences were the most influential. In general the degree of growth experienced by the students varied considerably from one individual to another.

McClean, J. J., (1990).Consortial approaches to international education, New Directions for Student Services, 18 (2), 47-56. [P]

Miller, E., (1993).Culture shock: A student's perspective of study abroad and the importance of promoting study abroad programs, Paper presented at the Annual Intercultural and International Communication Conference, Miami, FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 358 492). [O]
This paper reports on one student's study abroad experience to Mexico. The author describes three phases of his experience in Mexico: (1) the pre-departure phase, (2) the in-country experience, and (3) re-entry. The paper provides a personal description of how the student progressed through the different phases of study abroad and what techniques and strategies were utilized. The author concludes with his perception of the general benefits and importance of the study abroad experience in today's global world.

Miller, F., (1990).Integrating overseas language and business education in a statewide consortium, Paper presented at the Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 340 303). [P]
The paper provides a description of a collaborative program designed to address the difficulties regional, and particularly rural, universities might have in integrating business and language studies programs. The paper first defines the problem, noting that business and language faculty are located in different departments and have divergent interests, priorities, teaching loads, and research responsibilities. Adding to the problem are limited resources and the sometimes-limited enrollment in these programs. The author professes that study abroad consortium programs can address these problems by promoting faculty collaboration across institutions and disciplines, combining limited resources, and increasing the pool of students from which to draw. A description of a consortium program in the State of Kentucky, which links six state universities to organize and facilitate summer study abroad programs, is provided, highlighting a business and language program in Madrid. The appendix includes a list of the specific courses offered, as well as course descriptions.

Milleret, M., (1990).Evaluation and the summer language program abroad: A review essay, The Modern Language Journal, 74 (iv), 483-488. [E]
Summer study abroad programs are becoming more and more attractive to students and institutions for a number of reasons. They increase visibility for schools, are cheaper than semester programs, provide an opportunity for faculty to travel and conduct research, and are profitable. The author notes the drawbacks related to the short-length of the program: for example, students have much less contact with the host culture, which will translate into fewer opportunities for language practice and value development. The article discusses ways in which the true value of the standard summer program can be evaluated. Specifically, the author provides information on assessing language readiness, oral performance, gains in cultural perception, and the overall effectiveness of the program. Several instruments are suggested for pre- and post-testing of language skills, ranging from the highly structured to a simple student self-assessment (from the Experiment in International Living). Other instruments of assessment are suggested to evaluate course content and cultural perceptions. The author concludes with some of the problems related to evaluating summer study abroad programs, which may limit the validity of the assessment. For example, conditions cannot be repeated to verify data. Other limitations include the background of the individual students, their housing experiences (variation in their host families), and the small size of the program (limited number of subjects).

Milleret, M., (1991).Assessing the gain in oral proficiency from summer foreign study, ADFL Bulletin, 22 (3), 39-43. [L]

Milleret, M., (1991).The validity of the Portuguese speaking test for use in a summer study abroad program, Hispania, 3 (91), 778-787. [L, R]
This study evaluated oral proficiency gains of students participating in a summer study abroad program to Brazil. The study had several intents, including: determining the validity of the ACTFL-based test to facilitate placement in a short study abroad program and to assess other issues related to the study abroad program. The study was conducted on the University of Tennessee's summer study abroad program in Brazil. This was a six-week Portuguese language and Brazilian culture program open to students from various schools. Data were collected from fifteen students during one program, from both proficiency test results and from questionnaires completed by students and instructors. The validity of the test as a placement tool was confirmed. The author also finds that students at the intermediate level experience more language gain than students in the advanced class.

Mills, T. J. & Campbell, J. B., (1994).Educational use of foreign students and Americans returned from study abroad: A project to improve global education, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 416 807. [E]
This report documents the activities and accomplishments of a three-year program operated at the University of Oregon and funded by a FIPSE grant. The purpose of the program was to fully utilize the services of American students returning from study abroad to provide educational outreach and a unique resource to the campus, community, and local K-12 classrooms. Another goal of the program was to develop new courses to increase the benefits realized by students participating in study abroad. During the three-year period, 93 students who studied in 20 different countries participated in the returned student program and made 218 visits to schools. They also assisted on campus to promote study abroad, provided support for international student activities, and made presentations to organizations, retirement homes, and churches in the community. Efforts to promote these students as a resource for faculty members were less successful. Three different one-credit courses were developed and implemented, including one on re-entry and international careers, a second on cross-cultural issues, and a third on pre-departure preparation. The course syllabi are included in this document. The success of the program was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative measures using survey instruments and interviews. The instruments, detailed findings, and a number of sample documents are appended in the report.

Mizuno, N., (1998).The impact of study abroad experience on American college students who studied in Japan, (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California). [I]
The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of study abroad experiences on American college students and to examine the relationship between the students' characteristics and the impact of their study abroad experience. The study seeks to answer questions about whether or not students who had more previous foreign study would have increased cross-cultural interaction and greater language gain, how their outlook might differ, and how the level of exposure in Japan would influence their experience. Data for this study were collected by survey and results indicate the degree of language improvement depended on prior proficiency, and that previous foreign cultural exposure influences the outcome of the experience, although not the student's outlook. A number of other findings are indicated by the data and discussed in the author's summary and conclusion.

Mobility International USA (MIUSA)., (1997).A world of options: A guide to international educational exchange, community service and travel for people with disabilities, Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA. [G]

Mobility International USA (MIUSA)., (1997).Equal opportunities in the US and New Independent States (NIS)., Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA. [M]

Mobility International USA (MIUSA)., (1998).You can study in the NEW Independent States: A resource guide for students with disabilities, Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA. [G]

Mobility International USA (MIUSA)., (1999).Campus collaboration campaign report, Eugene, OR: National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange (NCDE). [M]

Mobility International USA (MIUSA)., (1999).Recommendations for future programs, Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA. [M]

Mobility International USA (MIUSA), (1999).Rights and responsibilities: A guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for international organizations and participants, Eugene, OR: National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange (NCDE). [G]

NAFSA Association of International Educators., (1989).Optimizing health care for foreign students in the United States and American students abroad., Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators. [M]
This document addresses health care issues for foreign students in the U. S. and U. S. students abroad. There is one chapter, which focuses on preparing students for study abroad that includes discussion on orientation, health services abroad, culture shock, re-entry, immunizations, travel clinics, and health insurance.

National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange (NCDE)., (1999).Frontline survey of disability and international exchange organizations., Eugene, OR: National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange (NCDE). [M]

Nelson, T., (1995).An analysis of study abroad administration at U. S. colleges and universities, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. [R]
The purpose of this study is to characterize the structure and practices of study abroad programs at four-year universities and colleges in the U. S., which are considered successful. A survey of 661 institutions affiliated with the Section on U. S. Students Studying Abroad (SECUSSA) of NAFSA: Association of International Educators was conducted, with 348 schools responding. Program success was determined by the number of students awarded study abroad credit by an institution. Findings of the survey indicated a significant relationship between program success and the location of the study abroad office within academic affairs, age of the study abroad office and programs, and diversified funding sources. There was no significant relationship between success of the program and the faculty status or academic qualifications of the Study Abroad Program Director.

Netherland's Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education, (1997).Study in the Netherlands. A small country with great potential., Europe Edition. 1997-1998. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415 772. [G]
This guidebook is designed to assist students wishing to study abroad in the Netherlands. A description of the university system is provided, as well as a list of courses by subject area and information about housing and other practical matters. A list of institutions and contact information is also included.

Newman, P., (1989).Fulbright group projects abroad program: A case study. Doctoral Dissertation,, University of Denver, CO. [R]
The purpose of this doctoral study is to ultimately improve the Fulbright Group Projects Abroad program to Egypt. Specifically, the study looks at how to improve five program components, including participant selection, pre-departure, orientation, the overseas experience, and re-entry activities. Six program participants on the six-week Egypt program were selected for this qualitative case study. The study seeks to determine how effective pre-departure and re-entry programs were, how the participants made cross-cultural adaptations, and how the experience impacted them. Recommendations for improving the program components are included in the conclusion.

Nixon, H. L., (1989).Wright State University international student exchange program, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 306 857) [P]
This article describes a unique international student exchange program at Wright State University. Through several exchange agreements with universities in Japan, Brazil, and China, the university is able to offer 4-week programs at reasonable costs. Fifteen to twenty students are chosen by merit each year, and participate in language and cultural training as well as a homestay. The article provides a detailed description of the program as well as program statistics.

Nolan, R. W., (1990).Culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation or I was ok until I got here, Practicing Anthropology, 12 (4), 2-20. [C]
This short article discusses the cultural transitions that occur when individuals enter new cultures and leave their culture behind. Two main components of culture shock are identified, including frustration and irritation arising from the individual's inability to understand and control a new situation, and a feeling of loss. Various models and diagrams of the culture shock cycle are presented, including the U-shaped and W-shaped adjustment curves.

O'Maley, P., (1988).Study abroad and the small college, NCA Quarterly, 63 (2), 357-364. [G]
This essay provides an overview of the issues faced by small colleges engaged in study abroad programming. The author begins with three assumptions: (1) study abroad should be available to students from all academic disciplines, (2) study abroad should be accessible to all students and supported with financial aid or scholarship funds, and (3) foreign language is an important key to understanding a different culture. The author specifically addresses the basic issues in study abroad implementation, including the type of office administering the program, study abroad location, length and program structure, financial issues, student selection, orientation and reentry programming, on-site oversight, and partnership with other institutions. The conclusion of the articles includes characteristics of successful programs, such as fitting within the education goals of the institution, being supported by a central office, having active leadership of the program throughout all components, being continually reviewed, requiring orientation for all program participants, and allowing students from different disciplines and financial means to participate.

Oberstein-Delvalle, E., (1999).Study abroad programs in three California community colleges, Doctoral Dissertation, Pepperdine University [R]
This ethnographic study is a comparison of three study abroad programs at community colleges in California. Data were collected by interviews with college presidents, study abroad directors and faculty. The study examines such issues as institutional support, the skills of the director, faculty involvement, programming, and community links. Findings show that the president and study abroad director play an important role in building program support and that a study abroad advisory committee ensures faculty involvement. Obstacles include financial aid support, transfer of credit, and college liability.

Opper, S., Teichler, U. & Carlson, J., (1990).Impacts of study abroad programmes on students and graduates, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. [I]
This document is a report on the Study Abroad Evaluation Project (SAEP) coordinated by the European Institute of Education and Social Policy. This project examined study abroad programs in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Data were primarily collected via written surveys of students who studied abroad during the 1984-85 academic year. The survey was distributed to students prior to their experience and once again one month after they returned to their home institution. Students provided information on their international perspective, educational history, reasons and preparation for studying abroad, foreign language proficiency, career goals, satisfaction with the study abroad program, and some demographic characteristics. A total of 439 students completed both the pre- and post- surveys, which were 20 pages in length.

The report provides demographic information on the student population surveyed. These demographics reveal that students whose parents have a high degree of education studied abroad in greater than average numbers. Students who had some kind of previous international experience also tended to study abroad in greater than average numbers. Other findings indicate that student's non-academic experiences in the host country and type of accommodation were particularly relevant. After returning home, almost all students reported that the study abroad experience helped them improve their knowledge of foreign languages and peoples. Other outcomes discussed in the report include academic, language, cultural, employment, and career impact.

Parmantie, M. A., (1990).Studying in the Spanish university: A guide for U. S. advisors and students., (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 330 300). [G]
This guidebook is intended to assist students and advisors with information about the Spanish university system and experience. The higher education structure is presented with information on selecting a university. Obstacles such as housing, health insurance, and credit transfer are discussed. A number of differences the U. S student might experience at a Spanish university are highlighted, including the lecture teaching method, final examinations, the grading system, and campus life. The author concludes with a caution about impending educational reforms and the need for advisors to stay updated.

Parr, P., (1988).Second language acquisition and study abroad: The immersion experience, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California. [L]
This quantitative study looks at how out-of-classroom activities influence a student's second language acquisition. Data were collected by surveys distributed to students in four different study abroad programs in Spain during the 1986-1987 summer and semester program. A total of 127 students participated in the study. Some differences are noted between students in the summer programs and those in semester programs and between students of different language proficiency levels. Of particular significance was a student's interaction with Spanish friends and how much interaction they had with these friends. Media activities were also very influential on the student's language learning.

Pederson de Castaneda, V., (1992).Three case histories: An ethnographic evaluation of participant experience in the Spanish International Business Program Abroad., Paper presented at the annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 348 874) [R]
This paper describes a four-month study abroad program, in which students from Concordia College in Minnesota live, work, and study in Mexico City. These students also participated in a pre-departure and re-entry course. The author conducted an ethnographic study, interviewing students the week before they left, at the mid-semester, and after they returned. The article presents three case studies with excerpts from the interviews.

Pederson, V., (1996).Living a job, learning a culture: A study of international business students in a semester abroad program, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of North Dakota. [R]
This study is a description of student learning experiences in-country during a semester-long international business internship program in Mexico City. This study considers what elements constitute learning from life-experience for undergraduate business majors in a foreign learning environment during a semester-long internship in a multinational corporation, a semester at a foreign university, and a home stay with a Mexican host family.

The research for this study begins with a theoretical discussion of the role of experience in the curriculum, a review of national mandates for the incorporation of international education in the undergraduate curriculum, a review of current curriculum in international business and foreign language, and a review of previous research concerning students who have participated in study-abroad programs. This study employs a qualitative approach to ascertain the learning experiences of ten students during three separate and consecutive semester-long business internships. This study contains detailed descriptions of corporate, academic, and social site locations; participants in the research process; and the methods of data collection and analysis.

The conclusions in this study present a description of three stages of the learning experience abroad: (1) Postponement of Participation, (2) Confrontation and Effrontery, and (3) Active Participation and Learning. These stages emerge across corporate settings, academic environments, and the social milieu. This study raises issues concerning educational practice in study-abroad programs, including preparation in business and foreign language prior to a semester-abroad program, the planning and implementation of the actual internship abroad, and the improvement of curriculum design for semester-abroad programs. Possibilities are suggested for continued investigation of the learning experiences of students who study abroad. [Author]

Plaza, O., (1998).Overseas studies and technology education, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Technology Education Association, Fort Worth, Texas. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 420 805). [T]
This paper addresses the general benefits and issues of study abroad, particularly as they pertain to students in technology. The author addresses some of the known advantages of study abroad, and also responds to some of the more common concerns, such as academic quality and relevance of coursework. He discusses the trends in study abroad and how the participant profile has changed over the years. This article primarily examines how study abroad can be integrated into technology education. Typical study abroad programs may not be a very viable option for technology education students, since many of them are non-traditional students with limited time, financial resources, and possibly also curriculum offerings. The author describes the importance of cultural awareness for technology students, and outlines steps for how students and programs can overcome some of the obstacles that exist.

Praetzel, G. D. & Curcio, J., (1996).Making study abroad a reality for all students., International Advances in Economic Research, 2 (2), 174-183. [P]
This article describes the benefits of departmental study abroad programs, which can effectively infuse an international dimension into the curriculum and can also offer an opportunity for faculty development. The authors note how faculty skepticism of study abroad is often the result of their lack of involvement, which departmental programs can address. Students studying abroad often take courses, which fulfill only general education requirements, since study abroad advisors may lack the knowledge to steer them toward major requirements. Departmental programs can also address this issue. This article describes a program developed at Niagara University in New York with Schiller International University. The authors describe the program and its benefits. Schiller International University was selected because it has several European locations, is teaching-oriented, and follows the American curricular structure and grading methods.

The benefits of the program include an opportunity for business students to develop an international perspective not available to them at Niagara University, an affordable program (students pay their home tuition, room and board rate), and the ability of students to access financial aid. Research conducted on the twenty Niagara students who studied in London in the summer of 1994 provide concrete data on the benefits of the program, from which the authors draw conclusions. A number of excerpts from the interviews are included in the article.

Rabinowitz, F. E., (2000).The impact of an interpersonal encounter-group class for North American college students studying abroad., The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19 (1), 38-42. [M]
This article describes an encounter group class method, which was used in 1991 to assist participants on an overseas semester to Salzburg through the University of Redlands. Students were required to attend three two-hour sessions a week designed to enhance the group experience and address some of the typical trends that occur with study abroad groups. A variety of formats were used in the group sessions. Students reported the class helped them with interpersonal skills, increased self-awareness, and improved skills in confronting others. Limitations included the large size of the group and some of the less relevant readings and exercises. The author concludes that the class was successful, as it encouraged students to reflect on their experience and develop stronger interpersonal skills.

Rahilly, L. J., (1992).A case for overseas study and internships, Paper presented at the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 347 845). [T]
This position paper discusses the need for U. S. college students to increase their language and literature skills as well as their global awareness. The author concedes that study abroad can assist with this, but that programs need to be greatly enhanced. In his opinion, overseas study should be required by schools and supported in greater part by both the government and the business community. He discusses the ideal overseas program, to include adequate preparatory work, housing, a work experience, program monitoring, and sufficient follow-up after a student's return to the U. S. The author also proposes that students have three successful years of college-level study before engaging in study abroad or engage in it as a capstone experience following four undergraduate years.

Ransbury, M. K. & Harris, S. A., (1994).Study abroad: The reality of building dynamic group learning, Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 5 (2), 97-107. [R]
This article describes an observational study conducted to better understand group processes in the study abroad experience. A program administrator was interested in improving the experience of study abroad students on a semester program to Greece. A process observer specializing in group processes was invited to participate in the program to record the activities of the group, analyze the observations, and provide the administrator with feedback. Based on the feedback, the administrator concluded the program had been overstructured and overplanned. This limited the ability of students to pursue learning as individuals. Both the viewpoint of the observer and the administrator are represented in the article. Recommendations on accommodating group processes are included.

Ratcliff, J. L., (1996).FIPSE program to promote exchange of future leaders in Europe, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 413 833. [P]

Reghenzani, D. M., (1991).International travel and study programs: A preliminary exploration from a traditional and non-traditional credit and non-credit perspective., Paper presented at the Mid-South Educational research Association, Lexington, KY. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 342 324. [O]
Providing a general overview of the history and development of international study programs, this paper describes the various types of credit and non-credit programs that are in existence. It reviews some of the reasons study and travel abroad have become so popular, including the value of cross-cultural experience, environmental concerns, and global understanding. A comparison is made between the values and benefits of study abroad and the challenges and problems. The author notes the lifelong benefits gained from study abroad, and also touches on the future of the study abroad movement.

Rhodes, G. M., (1994).Legal issues and higher education: Implications for study abroad, key issues for institutions and administrators, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Southern California. [R,M]
Increasing numbers of US college and university study abroad programs, supported by global interdependence, offer heretofore unavailable travel and cultural opportunities for more and more students worldwide. Along with the opportunities of new study vistas, come some political, health, and safety concerns.

This study focuses on one specific challenge to study abroad administrators: identifying policies and procedures which effectively support students, while following US and international law, limiting the possibility of future liability. Though the study abroad literature reveals few legal cases and information focused primarily on liability and study abroad, a review of the literature of higher education law details specific issues which are generalizable to the field of study abroad program administration.

A questionnaire was used to determine perceptions of administrators at private colleges and universities in California, examine their knowledge of legal issues related to higher education, and find out how they felt law relates to the administration of study abroad programming. The action research method of inquiry engaged administrators as co-researchers within the study.

Responses from administrators confirmed the literature's claim that, although there are efforts being made to answer study abroad administrator questions regarding what is "reasonable and prudent," establishment of a repository of additional information and dissemination of that information currently falls short of the need.

Though study abroad administrators agreed there is a need for more legal information than they currently have, they want to implement policies and procedures which are "reasonable and prudent," and to follow the applicable federal, state and international laws. Current efforts to support the process of change in supporting administrator needs are documented in the study.

In order to effectively support students, limit future liability, and increase professionalism, this study suggests follow-up practices which include: development of a study abroad policy resource base, legal audit of study abroad policies and procedures by individual institutions, and feedback to and from the field in terms of development of the resource base. [Author]

Richards, T. F., (1994).Today's demands for global awareness: The community college dimension, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 381 209). [P]
This paper begins with a discussion of the importance of teaching global issues and the ways in which educators are trying to address the need. The author discusses his own institution, Brookdale Community College, and outlines the typical student as having limited knowledge of global issues. He then describes a program at the college designed to address the student's need to have a more global education and cross-cultural experience. The program highlighted is in Guayaguil, Ecuador, and offers an educational experience for both Ecuadorian and U. S. students. Local students can earn up to 45 credits at the center in Guayaguil with the option to finish an A. A. degree at Brookdale, and U. S. students can earn up to thirty credits in such subject areas as culture, business, and history.

Rivers, W. P., (1998).Is being there enough? The effects of homestay placements on language gain during study abroad., Foreign Language Annals, 31 (4), 492-500. [L]
This study seeks to test the assumption that the continuous immersion experience found in the homestay environment was the most important factor in language study abroad programs. The data for the study was collected from the American Council of Teachers of Russian Student Records Data Base, which contained information on study abroad participants from 1976-1996. Data were collected on both students who lived in dormitories and students who lived in homestays. Gains in speaking, listening, and reading are compared between the two groups, totaling approximately 2500 study abroad participants. Results from this study indicate that, contrary to common assumption, homestay participants are slightly less likely to gain in speaking proficiency and listening, but more likely to gain in reading.

Roever, C., (1994).An affordable, off-campus international/intercultural class for undergraduate business majors. . . One school's model. Paper presented at the Annual Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI., (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 550). [P]

Sarathy, R., (1990).Internationalizing MBA Education: The role of short overseas programs, Journal of Teaching in International Business, 1 (3-4), 101-118. [E]
This article looks at different approaches to internationalizing business curricula and includes a description and evaluation of a business program at Northeastern University that uses short overseas programs to facilitate this internationalization. The author contends that it is necessary to internationalize the curriculum because the U. S. is no longer as dominant in the world economy, and because there is a greater flow between different regions of the world. Additionally, more of the nation's welfare is directly tied to the results of international trade, there is increased growth of multinational companies, and students need to be educated on the importance of developing the third world. Internationalizing the curriculum might include more globally focused courses, such as International Marketing and International Finance. Students should also be encouraged to acquire fluency in a foreign language, spend a term overseas studying business and other subjects, partake in overseas internships, and prepare a graduation paper or thesis analyzing global economic issues. The article describes a short-term overseas program (2-4 weeks) offered during the summer term. The courses focus on business and economics with an international perspective and are taught by Northeastern and overseas faculty. Both U. S. and European students can enroll in the courses, and a variety of teaching styles are used. The article concludes with an evaluation of the program, and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages.

Schertzer, C. and others., (1993).Experiential learning from executive MBA study tours overseas: The Xavier University experience - Europe and Asia, Paper presented at the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 367 231). [R]
This study documents the changes in student's attitudes before and after participating in an overseas study tour. Xavier University developed a component of their executive MBA program that requires students to participate in a study tour to either Europe or Asia. The purpose of the tour is to assist students in exploring and assessing business strategies and issues in Asia and Europe. This study seeks to determine how attitudes change due to this required participation. Twenty students from the 1992 Asia program and 24 students from the 1992 Europe tour participated in the study, completing both a pre- and post-tour attitude survey. The results indicate most of the changes reported are related to the student's comfort level during their experience; students reported less difficulty entering a foreign market than they had anticipated, and increased awareness of the similarities of management practices. The author concluded that experiential learning had occurred during the program despite its short length (ten days) and recommended it become an increasingly important component of MBA programs everywhere.

Schlachter, G. A. & Weber, R. D., (1996).Financial Aid for Study and Training Abroad: 1996-1998, San Carlos, CA: Reference Service Press [G]
This directory provides current information on over 1,000 funding opportunities (scholarships, fellowships, loans, grants, awards, and internships) open to Americans interested in structured or independent study abroad. The directory is divided into three separate sections: a descriptive list of financial aid programs established to support study and training abroad; an annotated bibliography of directories listing general financial aid programs; and a set of five indexes. The first portion describes the financial aid programs, which include formal academic classes, training courses, degree-granting programs, independent study, seminars, workshops, and student internships abroad. The profiles are grouped into four chapters aimed at specific population groups: (1) high school and undergraduate students; (2) graduate students; (3) post-doctorates; and (4) professional or other individuals. Within each chapter, entries appear alphabetically by program title. The annotated bibliography of general financial aid directories lists 60 key directories published in the 1990's that describe domestic programs and resources available for use in the United States. The directories are listed by type of program and each entry contains basic bibliographic information and an annotation specifying scope, arrangement, publication history, and special features. The directory contains five indexes, a program title index, a sponsoring organization index, a geographic index, a subject index, and a calendar index. [Author]

Sejut, M. P., (1996).Study abroad: an opportunity for adult and continuing education students to study in the Hispanic world, Doctoral Dissertation, The Union Institute. [R]
This essay investigates four facets of Hispanic study abroad programs for adults: student interest, institutional accommodations, availability of programs, and assistance from advisors. The investigation employs both formal and informal research methods in an exploratory mixed design. Needs assessments and surveys are utilized.

Two informal needs assessments were completed: one assessment had thirty participants, the other sent surveys to the populations of one-hundred sixty-nine Hispanic colleges and universities and thirty members of the National Association of Foreign Student Advisors (NAFSA). Although incomplete, the data indicate the need for further adult recruitment information in the study abroad field. The needs of health care, transportation, entertainment, houses of worship and accommodations for children, spouses, and significant others require addressing. [Author]

Shannon, E., (1995).Reflections on the meaning of study abroad., The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1, 96-103. [M]
This brief article provides a description of one individual's experience abroad and the impact it had on her life. The general benefits of studying abroad are addressed and anecdotal information is included.

Shreck, G. L., Ed., (1991).A directory of international programs in AILACTE Institutions, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 343 995. [P]
The Association of Independent Liberal Arts Colleges for Teacher Education (AILACTE) is committed to the philosophy that teachers need to be globally aware. This document is a directory of the various study abroad programs operated by members of the association. The data were collected by a survey sent to 297 members, with 97 responding. The programs are distributed across 65 different countries and include semester and year long traditional programs, study and summer tours, student teaching and internships, institutional exchange, and other miscellaneous programs. The directory also includes an index of program by country and by institution.

Spofford, W. K., (1990).The effective development of nontraditional study-abroad programs, New Directions for Community Colleges, 18 (2), 27-35. [G]

Steen, S. J., Ed., (2000).Academic year abroad 2000/2001: The most complete guide to planning academic year study abroad, New York: Institute for International Education [G]
This guide provides descriptions of 2,617 study-abroad opportunities that take place during the academic year and are at least one academic quarter in length. The introduction provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, how to use the guide, abbreviations, planning for study abroad, additional resources for study abroad, and suggestions on how to read study abroad literature. The main body of the guide consists of individual program descriptions arranged alphabetically by geographic region and country. In addition to specific country and city listings, there is a "worldwide" section for programs that are active in more than one world region. Each listing provides information on: institutional program sponsor, name of the program, program site, dates, subjects of study, eligibility, credit, instructional language and methods, cost, housing, deadline for application, contact information, and other information. Programs are indexed by sponsoring institution, consortia, fields of study, special options, and cost ranges.

Steen, S. J., Ed., (2000).Vacation Study Abroad 2000/2001: 50th Anniversary edition of IIE's complete guide to summer and short-term study, New York: Institute for International Education [G]
This guide provides descriptions of 2,239 summer and short-term study-abroad opportunities that range in length from one week to several months. Introductory material provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, how to use the guide, abbreviations, planning for study abroad, additional resources for study abroad, and suggestions on how to read study-abroad literature. The main body of the guide consists of individual program descriptions arranged alphabetically by geographic region and country. In addition to specific country and city listings, there is a "worldwide" section for programs that are active in more than one world region. Each listing provides information on: institutional program sponsor, name of the program, program site, dates, subjects of study, eligibility, credit, instructional language and methods, cost, housing, deadline for application, contact information, and other information. Programs are indexed by sponsoring institutions, consortia, fields of study, special options, cost ranges, and duration.

Stewart, M & Talburt, S., (1999).What's the subject of study abroad? Race, gender and living culture, Modern Language Journal, 82 (2), 163-175. [R]
This ethnographic study centers on a five-week study abroad program in Spain. Approximately 35 undergraduate students were audio taped during their coursework, and 6 students were interviewed multiple times. Focus groups were used with the remaining students, and one of the instructors was also interviewed at length. Students were asked to describe their experiences in Spain and reflect on their meanings. Data were coded in order to identify themes. The article includes excerpts from the interviews, and it portrays the experiences of the one African-American participant at length.

Stimpfl, J. R. & Engberg, D. E., (1997).Comparing apples to apples: An integrated approach to study abroad program assessment.,
This article presents a model which administrators or participants can use to effectively compare different study abroad programs. The authors briefly discuss some of the problems with research studies that prompted them to develop this model, and then present their own research study. The authors state the goals of the "comparison matrix" to be two-fold. The first goal is to allow administrators to better understand how appropriate a particular program is for its intended audience, and the second goal is to help determine whether or not a particular student is well suited for a certain program. In order to develop this comparison matrix, the researchers interviewed 37 students who had studied abroad over an 18-month period. The sample was designed to include a wide variety of students with a vast range of experiences. As a result of this study, the authors developed four categories, which can be used to evaluate programs. These include the level of immersion, the level of synthesis built into the program, the level of difference between the host culture and the culture of the participant, and the level of personal development (where the student is at in their developmental process). These four levels or categories are broken down into greater detail in the article.

Stimpfl, J. R. & Engberg, D., (1997).What to know before you go: Creating a basis of comparison for research on study abroad programs., International Education Forum, 17 (1), 7-21. [T]
This essay addresses the topic of study abroad research. The authors begin with a review of some of the literature and research on study abroad that addresses impact or change. They then discuss some of the problems associated with much of the research done in the field of study abroad, and make suggestions for future research possibilities. Problems they note include the small sample sizes used in most studies and often low response rates that make the validity of the data obtained questionable. They also note the problems in comparing different programs, since these often have significant differences. One of the issues that is often not taken into consideration is the previous experience and attitudes of program participants. Another problem is that the change students undergo could occur at any time during or after the experience, as each individual develops differently. The authors conclude with a recommendation that some commonalities be defined to make research and program comparisons more legitimate. These include defining the level of cultural immersion, the level of synthesis within the program, and the level of difference between the home culture and the host culture.

Stoddard, E., (1995).Cultural encounters at St. Lawrence University. Final FIPSE Report., (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415 790). [P]
This report documents the Cultural Encounters Project at St. Lawrence University, a three-year faculty and curriculum development program. During the three years, 25 faculty members participated and 12 new cultural encounters courses were created and taught. The purpose of the program was to develop a general education curriculum that would be more global in nature and to address the need to internationalize the curriculum. The report details the project, which included a month-long program in Kenya where faculty stayed with families, met with scholars, visited schools, and learned about cultural, political, and social issues. In the second year participants went to India for a month for a similar program.

There were a number of programs developed out of these faculty seminars. A new European studies minor, eight new courses, and a new internship course were developed. The program was also expanded and offered to senior students. These developments have been attributed to the new faculty thinking that arose from participation in the Cultural Encounters Project. The report presents a number of difficulties faced by the program and makes recommendations on strategies to enhance success. Also included are a number of documents and syllabi related to the program.

Storti, C., (1997).The art of coming home, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. [C]

Stryker, R. E., (1997).The academic integrity of study abroad, Student Aid Transcript, 9 (1), 6-8. [M]

Surridge, S. W., (2000).Factors deterring adult undergraduate students at Penn State Capital College from participation in study abroad, Doctoral Dissertation, Penn State. [R]
This study identifies and explores reasons that deter adult undergraduate students at Penn State Capital College from participation in study abroad programs. Theoretical basis of the study comes from study abroad, adult education, and multicultural education literature. To identify and measure deterrents the researcher developed the 34 item Likert-type Deterrents to Adult Student Participation in Study Abroad Scale (DAPSAS). The DAPSAS was distributed as the major section of a self-administered mail questionnaire. The study population was 1,144 Penn State Capital College undergraduate students 25 years of age or older who were enrolled in undergraduate classes in the fall of 1999. Using standard survey research procedures resulted in a 55. 6 percent (636 students) response rate to the survey. The study addressed three major research questions: (1) what relative degree of influence is ascribed by Penn State Capital College adult undergraduate students to the variables perceived as deterring them from participation in a study abroad program, (2) does a theoretically meaningful factor pattern characterize the set of items constituting the DAPSAS, and (3) do significant differences in mean deterrent factor scores exist among selected demographic and environmental categories of respondents? The DAPSAS reliability coefficient was . 9208. The findings indicated that adult undergraduate students are deterred from participation in study abroad due to the factors of Multicultural Indifference, Institutional Shortcomings, Family Responsibilities, and Financial Responsibilities. The four-factor solution accounted for 50. 7 percent of the total variance and 82. 2 percent of the variance explained in the initial solution. The underlying factor that is the most discouraging to students is Multicultural Indifference (i. e., indifference to living and learning in and about a different culture). The study concludes that study abroad planners should consider the complex and interactive nature of dispositional, situational, and institutional factors that deter adult students from participation in study abroad programs. Based on the findings of this study, providing financial incentives to students to increase participation may not be the best use of institutional resources. Resources might be better placed in support of activities for students, faculty, and staff that increase everyone's level of multicultural understanding and vision. [Author]

Talbott, I. D., (1990).Obstacles to host country adjustment in an international travel/study program, International Education, 20 (1), 32-38 [R].
This article reports on a study conducted to assess the obstacles to host country adjustment for participants of an international travel/study program. The programs were 11-14 days in length and conducted by Glenville State College in West Virginia. The programs were located in a number of different European countries and were operated from 1986-1989. The focus was on either international business or history and culture. Data were collected from 55 participants, ranging in age and educational background. Findings indicate that of the various factors students were asked to evaluate, only five seemed to present difficulties for more than half the participants. These included personal conveniences such as toilets and showers, communications, shopping, measurements, and restaurants. A more detailed breakdown is provided in the article.

Taylor, A., ((1991)).Languages home and away, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 340 247. [O]

Taylor, K. R. L., (1996).A moment in the Mediterranean: the experience of American undergraduate students participating in the International Student Exchange Program at the University of Malta, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. [R]
This qualitative study looks at the experience of U. S. undergraduate students who participated in a semester abroad program to the University of Malta in fall 1994 and spring 1995, with the purpose of gaining greater insight into their actual experience. . Eight undergraduate students participated in the study, with data being collected by participant observation and interviews. Data are categorized into four themes, including initial culture shock, physical discomforts, building a family away from home, and transforming in the new culture. Students found it difficult to navigate the educational system in Malta and deal with the limited resources. Physical difficulties included extreme weather conditions and lack of convenient facilities such as laundry. Participants were able to create "family away from home" by networking with domestic, American, and international students.

Taylor, N., (1991).The travel journal: An assessment tool for overseas study, New York: Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE). [T]

Teichler, U., & Steube, W., (1991).The logics of study abroad programmes and their impacts, Higher Education, 21 (3), 325-349. [I]
This comprehensive paper compares different models or types of study abroad programs and looks at the effects of the different programs. It draws considerably from the Study Abroad Evaluation Project conducted in the 1980's by a number of European and U. S. scholars. The study examines 82 different programs and surveys 416 students. The different programs include the Joint Study Programs of the Commission of the European Communities, the Integrated Study Abroad programs of the German Academic Exchange Service, The Swedish Internationalization of Higher Education program, and a number of U. S. study abroad programs. Results indicate that the German and Swedish study abroad programs focus on providing alternate educational experiences for a select group of students, with minimal administrative support for the students and not much emphasis on culture or language enhancement. The U. S. study programs provide more academic and administrative support and focus on cultural issues. The Joint Study Abroad Programs focus on cultural enrichment, foreign language acquisition, and academic goals.

Tenhoeve, T. & Handzel, P., (1992).Travel abroad: Meeting the international community of its own terms, Community, Technical and Junior College Journal, 63 (1), 16-23. [O]
This brief article provides a general overview of the benefits of study and travel abroad and provides a description of a program at Oakton Community College in Illinois. The article discusses issues relevant to community colleges and faculty participation.

Thomas, S. L. & McMahon, M., (1998).Americans abroad: Student characteristics, pre-departure qualifications, and performance abroad., International Journal of Educational Management, 12 (2 ), 57-64. [R]

Thomlison, T. D., (1991).Effects of a study-abroad program on university students: Toward a predictive theory of Intercultural Contact, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 332 629. [I]
This study seeks to determine the impact of a study abroad program on university students from the U. S. who studied at the University of Evansville, in Harlaxton, England. Most of the participants studied there for one semester (either fall, 1988 or spring, 1989) and represented 34 different American colleges and universities. Data were collected by survey questionnaires mailed to students immediately following their program, with a total of 174 respondents, representing an 89% overall participation rate. The study specifically examines behaviors, attitudes, interests, knowledge, and awareness levels, using an instrument designed by the researchers to address these issues. The greatest changes reported in the findings include confidence in traveling abroad, personal independence, understanding of life in the host culture, desire to travel overseas, appreciation of other cultures, and the ability to cope with new and different surroundings. The least amount of change reported were in eating and dressing habits. Factors that had a significant effect on the findings include the amount of travel the student engaged in during the semester and the gender of the student. The author concludes from the study that substantial changes occurred in attitudes, specific knowledge levels, beliefs, values, behaviors, open-mindedness, personal growth, and general appreciation of other cultures.

Thompson, R. T., (1991).Chinese language study abroad in the summer, 1990, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 350 860. [P]

Thot, I. D., (1998).State-sponsored study-abroad programs of France and Germany: What are the effects on United States students, Doctoral Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University [R]
This study was developed to research selected government-sponsored study abroad programs of France and Germany and to examine how former participants were affected, both positively and negatively, by their experiences. The study is important because the external research on study abroad has been conducted almost exclusively on American-sponsored programs. Also fundamental to the study is the reality that more than eighty percent of American students venturing abroad do so through an American-sponsored, rather than a foreign government-sponsored program, making a study on this particular topic all the more significant.

A questionnaire consisting of 42 items was constructed and organized according to key topics: the particular program, choosing a program, educational components, extra-curricular and co-curricular experiences, financing, outcomes, participant demographics, and summation questions. Surveys were sent by U. S. mail. The eventual sample of usable responses consisted of 211 former participants. The four programs studied - one French and three German - were: Stages d'Ete pour Professeurs, Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation. Frequency distributions and correlations were then run.

The fact that all four programs paid a large amount of the program costs - allowing many more students to attend than might otherwise have been possible - was the most important factor a majority of participants. Meeting people of a different culture and attaining proficiency in another language appeared to have had the most positive effects on students. Many respondents speculated that these effects might not have been as strong with an American-sponsored program. Having less of a positive effect on students was the administration of the programs, which caused more problems for participants than food, climate, and health combined. [Author]

Thot, I. D., (1998).The "Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange for Young Professionals": What are the effects on U. S. students? An executive summary, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 420 288. [I]
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of study abroad on college students who participated in the Congress-Bundestag youth exchange program. This program was open to students age 18-24 and provided scholarships for a one-year internship opportunity in Germany. A secondary focus of the study is to identify the benefits of participating in a program sponsored by a foreign government as opposed to a US-sponsored program. A survey was developed to extract data from former participants, with a total of 166 participating in the final study. Findings indicate that students primarily made the decision to go on the program themselves, and that the generous financial support was a large factor in choosing this particular program. A majority of students reported difficulties with the different teaching methods employed in Germany. Students participated in a wide variety of extracurricular activities and had considerable contact with people outside of the program. The author notes this as one of the primary benefits of the foreign-sponsored program; oftentimes in US-sponsored study abroad programs, interaction is limited to communication with other American students. A number of other detailed findings are recorded in this study.

Toncar, M. F. & Cudmore, B. V., (2000).The overseas internship experience., Journal of Marketing Education, 22 (1), 54-64. [P]
This article describes an overseas internship program designed expressly for undergraduate business students. Developed for students who were unable to participate in lengthier, more traditional study abroad programs, the program consists of a 6-week supervised internship in Oxford, England. The article discusses the development, administration, advantages, and disadvantages of the program. Perspectives of students, faculty, home and host colleges, internship hosts, and future employers are represented.

Trimpe, J., Education abroad and reentry adjustment: Issues of lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning students, Master's Thesis, The School for International Training, Brattleboro, Vermont. [R]
This paper examines (1) the experience of students who questioned their sexual orientation or "came out" while studying abroad and (2) what happened when they re-entered the U. S. Data for the study were collected from 84 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students who had returned from studying abroad, as well as 33 professionals working in the field as advisors and administrators. Two different surveys with open-ended questions were developed and utilized, with some responses being collected via the Web. Findings from the study indicate the level of difficulty or problems a student faced upon returning home were directly related to how far along the student was in the "coming out" process, the level of tolerance in the student's host country as compared to the level of tolerance in the student's home country, the student's individual personality, and the student's level of self-awareness.

Turnquist, H., (1994).Cultural conflicts in international exchange programs: Oregon higher education programs in France., Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon. [C]
The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine common conflicts experienced by students abroad, identify if they are a result of cultural differences, and if they were negative in nature. The study uses interviews with University of Oregon students studying abroad in France, as well as with on-site overseas administrators. The study consists of twenty-two students enrolled at two different sites, as well as three administrators. The most serious incidents raised by participants are related to sexual and general assault. In general, the author finds it difficult to determine if incidents are linked to cultural differences, but does conclude that not all incidents of conflict are necessarily negative. With the exception of assaults and loss of money, most students determine the conflicts are educational in the end.

Valdivieso, J., (1994).Perspective: How to design and implement a "Modular Inter-Disciplinary Seminar Abroad", Journal of Language for International Business, 6, 33-41. [T]
This paper describes a short-term, modular study abroad program model designed for graduate students pursuing a Master's degree in International Management. The author defines the terms of this type of program and addresses the various components that need to be in place for it to be successful. Included in these recommendations are detailed descriptions of program components such as human resources, facilities, and curriculum development. Three components of the seminar are recommended and explained, including the conceptual, the pragmatic, and the verifying. A specific example of this type of modular program is also included. The author also recommends ways of evaluating the program.

Virginia Department of Education, (1992).A review of established guidelines and standards for international education travel and exchange programs for students., Report made to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia. [M]
This document is a comprehensive review of existing guidelines for international education exchange programs. The report is primarily intended for school districts, but the data are completely relevant to university level study abroad programs. The study raises important programming questions, including selection of students, staffing, housing, meals, student orientation, financial arrangements, and academic content. Included in the report is a list of organizations that provide guidelines for parents, students, and administrators. The report also includes the standards of the Council on Standards for International Educational Travel (CSIET) program.

Wagenaar, T. C., (1996).Internationalizing the curriculum: Study in Nepal, Teaching Sociology, 24 (3), 272-283. [P]

Wagner, A. & Schnitzer, K., (1991).Programmes and policies for foreign students and study abroad: The search for effective approaches in a new global setting, Higher Education, 21 (3), 275-288. [M]
The article is a summary of issues addressed at a 1990 seminar on study abroad convened by the Hochschul-Information -System and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) which is comprised of countries in Europe, North American, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. The report includes statistics on student flows, the types of student participation, the role of higher education institutions, and concerns. One of the concerns raised at the seminar was uneven participation; for example, foreign students from less developed countries tend to be male and of high socio-economic status. Students from the U. S. typically study abroad for shorter periods of time and in language history and culture programs. Other concerns addressed were ethical issues and program quality. Evaluations are often flawed because they are facilitated by administrators with program bias, are seldom used to make policy and program changes, are not completed in a timely manner, lack support, and are not conducted with proper methods.

Wagner, K. & Magistrale, T., (1995).Writing across culture: An introduction to study abroad and the writing process., New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. [C]
This book is aimed at the student participating in study abroad, and encourages the student to use writing as a method of enduring the symptoms of culture shock. The authors contend that writing assists students in their adjustment process. The book begins with a chapter defining culture shock, describing the symptoms and causes students are likely to experience. The second chapter focuses on the role of writing as an effective tool in combating culture shock and increasing self-awareness. Subsequent chapters describe the use of an analytical notebook, provide an example of one student's actual notebook, and discuss other forms of writing and research that a student might engage in while studying abroad. The book concludes with a section on reverse, or re-entry shock.

Waldbaum, R. K., (1996).A case study of institutional and student outcomes of an educational exchange program: The University of Denver and the University of Bologna, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Denver, Colorado. [I]
This qualitative, descriptive study has two primary purposes. The first purpose is to document the development and parameters of the exchange program between the University of Denver and the University of Bologna. The second purpose is to examine the student outcomes of the study abroad experience, including such factors as language competence, cultural knowledge, personal development, and broadening international perspective. A total of eight students participated in the study, four from the University of Denver and four from the University of Bologna. These eight students comprised the entire cohort for that particular yearlong exchange program, and were deemed representative of the typical cohort. Data indicate the American students generally experienced a greater degree of personal development, while the Italians experienced more of an academic transformation. Students in both groups were successful in overcoming culture shock, although American students experienced more fear concerning language competency. Students in both groups developed successful strategies for overcoming a variety of impediments.

Walker, D., (1999).Collaborative Kenyan and American approach to study abroad orientation, International Journal of Educational Reform, 8 (3), 280-284. [P]
This short article describes an orientation program for students preparing to study abroad in Kenya through Iowa State University. The program decided to change from a more traditional one-institution orientation to a joint orientation facilitated by both ISU and the host institution, Kenyatta University. The article describes the six components, including initial informational sessions, information resources (books, journals, websites, etc. ), orientation sessions, study abroad courses, on-site orientations, and evaluations of the whole orientation process.

Walker, W., (1993).Study abroad and the professional programs: A status report on Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, Unterrichtspraxis, 26 (2), 200-205. [O]
This short article begins with an articulation of the general benefits and value of study abroad, and then provides detail on the status of existing programs in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Two types of programs are described: the first involves U. S. programs conducted by an American institution in one of these three countries (with or without local partnership), and the second type entails the mainstreaming of American students in an overseas institution. Statistics are provided on the number of programs, disciplines, site locations, etc., and recommendations for ensuring a quality experience for U. S. students studying in these countries are made (such as promoting housing options which allow students to integrate with the local culture and experience language immersion).

Wallace, D. H., (1999).Academic study abroad: The long-term impact on alumni careers, volunteer activities, world, and personal perspectives., Doctoral Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California. [I]
Many studies have been conducted to assess the short-term impact of study abroad on students, but far fewer have examined the long-term impacts. This study seeks to expand the body of knowledge in this area, by looking at how program alumni perceived their experience and its impact ten years later. Specifically, questions were asked to assess the impact of the study abroad experience on careers, volunteer activities, world, and personal perspectives. Students who had participated in 1985 and 1986 study abroad programs through Pomona College were contacted for the study. Out of the 79 students who participated in the programs, 48 returned the survey that was mailed to them. Of these, 38 students also agreed to be interviewed by telephone. In general, the findings indicate that, for the most part, participants viewed their study abroad experience in positive terms. Most reported the experience influenced their career selection, as well as enhanced their awareness and appreciation of other cultures and international issues (which was sustained over the ten year period). Additional and more detailed findings are discussed in the study.

Washington, D. D., (1998).African-American undergraduate students' perceptions of and attitudes toward study abroad programs, Doctoral Dissertation, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. [R]
Although the numbers of students choosing to study abroad has gradually increased over the years, African-American students represent a very small minority of those students. The main purpose of this study was to identify the attitudes and perceptions of African-American students toward study abroad, and to ultimately make recommendations to increase their participation. Other study questions included whether there was any difference according to gender and attendance at a majority university as opposed to an historically black institution. Data were collected through surveys, as well as follow-up focus group interviews. Student participants were from two universities, with 285 at the majority university and 331 at the historically black institution. A total of 870 surveys were distributed, with a response of 469. Findings indicate that awareness was the single greatest factor inhibiting African-American participation. Nearly 83% of students had little to no knowledge about study abroad options. Other identified barriers included lack of finances and lack of interest. Although other studies have indicated family concern, lack of encouragement by faculty and fear of cross-cultural experience as additional barriers, students in this study did not consider these barriers for them.

Watzke, J., (1998).Language gains during study abroad: A reassessment of the Predictors study and prospects for future research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Teachers of Slavic Languages, San Francisco, CA., ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 430 392) [L]
This paper examines the effects of study abroad on second language acquisition, considers the 1993 study on "Predictors of Foreign Language Gain During Study Abroad" (see Brecht, Davidson & Ginsberg, 1993), and makes suggestions for further areas of study. The article begins with a general overview of the benefits of study abroad, discusses the data obtained from the "Predictors" study on Russian language acquisition, and concludes with several suggestions to strengthen the existing predictor models.

Weinmann, S., (1992).Internships in Germany: Unique opportunities for students of science and engineering. Paper presented at the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for Business and the Professions., (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 347 848). [P]
This paper describes an internship program in Germany through the Michigan Technological University. Program details are outlined, the advantages and disadvantages of the program discussed, and the particular challenges specific to the technological nature of the program are highlighted.

Weiss, C. B., (1998).Adjustment of American student interns overseas: A case in Australia, Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Michigan. [R]
This dissertation uses qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate overseas adjustment of American college and university students. The study's goal was to discover how particular factors influence overseas adjustment, defined as developing a sense of competence while living in a host country. The literature review focused on cultural distance, cultural fit, expectations, previous travel experience, and cultural knowledge. The study's sample consisted of 43 undergraduate American students participating in the Boston University's Division of International Internship Program during the spring of 1994 in Sydney, Australia. Surveys, observations, and interviews were used to collect the data. The results of the research are: (1) students' initial perceptions of disparity (cultural distance) between the United States and Australia were long-lasting and many students did not significantly change their perceptions from the beginning to the end of their stay in Sydney; (2) students had few difficulties managing their daily life activities (cultural fit) hence most students had a sense of confidence in their ability to handle problems soon after arriving in Sydney; (3) students who arrived in Australia with some cultural knowledge adapted to cultural norms easier than students who had no prior knowledge of Australia; (4) whether or not students' expectations about their internship were met, it was the actual work experience that had an impact on the students' sense of competence; and (5) students who had previous overseas travel experience were the least baffled and troubled by the difficulties that occurred due to cultural differences. The results of the study suggest that directors of overseas student exchange programs: (1) screen student applicants in order to provide additional orientation to first-time overseas travelers; (2) offer pre- and during trip cultural orientation to all students; (3) encourage students to view the internship as an opportunity to gain an international perspective about and work experience in a particular employment field; and (4) spend extra time at the beginning of the sojourn assisting students with problems, questions, and concerns about the host culture as early impressions and experiences proved to be enduring. [Author]

Weiss, C. B., (1998).Adjustment of American student interns overseas: A case in Australia, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan. [R]
This dissertation uses qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate overseas adjustment of American college and university students. The study's goal is to discover how particular factors influence overseas adjustment, defined as developing a sense of competence while living in a host country. The literature review focused on cultural distance, cultural fit, expectations, previous travel experience, and cultural knowledge. The study's sample consisted of 43 undergraduate American students participating in the Boston University's Division of International Internship Program during the spring of 1994 in Sydney, Australia. Surveys, observations, and interviews were used to collect the data. The results of the research were: (1) students' initial perceptions of disparity (cultural distance) between the United States and Australia were long lasting and many students did not significantly change their perceptions from the beginning to the end of their stay in Sydney; (2) students had few difficulties managing their daily life activities (cultural fit) hence most students had a sense of confidence in their ability to handle problems soon after arriving in Sydney; (3) students who arrived in Australia with some cultural knowledge adapted to cultural norms easier than students who had no prior knowledge of Australia; (4) whether or not students' expectations about their internship were met, it was the actual work experience that had an impact on the students' sense of competence; and (5) students who had previous overseas travel experience were the least baffled and troubled by the difficulties that occurred due to cultural differences. The results of the study suggest that directors of overseas student exchange programs (1) screen student applicants in order to provide additional orientation to first-time overseas travelers, (2) offer pre- and during trip cultural orientation to all students, (3) encourage students to view the internship as an opportunity to gain an international perspective about and work experience in a particular employment field; and (4) spend extra time at the beginning of the sojourn assisting students with problems, questions, and concerns about the host culture as early impressions and experiences proved to be enduring. [Author]

Wilkinson, S., (1995).Foreign language conversation and the study abroad transition: A case study, Doctoral Dissertation, Penn State. [R,L]
This qualitative research study examines the experience of four American students participating on a summer study abroad program. Assessments were made before, during and after the student's program. The purpose of the study was to gain insight into how students manage interactions in a foreign language and how the students perceived their language abilities during the transition from the language classroom to the language culture and back again. Specifically the author attempts to identify the strategies used by language students, and the factors, such as proficiency, gender, age, ethnicity, perceptions and attitudes, which influenced the way students experienced foreign language conversation. The four students in this study participated on a summer abroad program to France and were assessed over an eight-month period of time. Findings reveal that students were generally able to convey their point and could comprehend conversations. They also utilized practiced conversations that they had learned in the classroom in their communication. Most of the students, when faced with the stress of homestay situations and fatigue, turned to each other for support. Due to the length of the program, students were not able to realize their personal goals or the goals of the program in a significant way. Individual experiences were influenced by the student's previous language skills, expectations, personality traits and other extenuating circumstances.

Wilkinson, S., (1998).Study abroad from the participants' perspective: A challenge to common beliefs., Foreign Language Annals, 31 (1), 23-39. [R]
This qualitative study tracks seven undergraduate students before, during, and after their participation in a summer study abroad immersion program in France. It seeks to investigate what actually happened during their program that influenced their cultural and linguistic experiences and how their personal beliefs shaped these experiences. Surveys, audio taped conversations, interviews, observations, and documents are all used in the study. Findings center on three themes: 1) there is a strong influence of the classroom on out of classroom speech practices, 2) many of the communication problems students experience actually stem from cross-cultural misunderstandings rather than language problems, and 3) there is a tendency for students to group together when faced with unexpected problems.

Williams, G., (1990).Overseas students: A mutual benefit, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 373).
This document is a summary of a conference on overseas study held in Britain. The primary focus is on the presence of international students in Britain, but it provides some useful information on the general difficulties faced by students studying overseas and on the benefits of study abroad. [O]

Wilson, A. H., (1988).Reentry: Toward becoming an international person, Education and Urban Society, 20 (2), 197-210. [C,T]
This article presents a model of reentry and discusses the issues students face upon reentry to their home culture. The goal of the reentry model is to help the student become "an international person" by providing a process through which he/she can reflect upon and interpret the learning gained through his/her experience. The article provides several strategies which students can utilize and makes suggestions on how they can respond to the typical questions faced by students upon their reentry to their home culture and environment. Some of the suggestions on reentry programming include having a conference for returnees, using returned students for study abroad information sessions, using students for country specific programming in classes and residence halls, or speaking at elementary schools.

Yager, K., (1998).Learning Spanish in Mexico, Hispania, 81 (4), 898-913. [L, R]
This study seeks to identify the link between second language acquisition and informal contacts with Spanish outside of the structured classroom. Thirty students studying Spanish in Mexico during the summer were given pre- and post-assessments. A control group of four students located in the United States was also used. Several instruments were utilized, including the Language Contact Profile (LCP), Cultural Characteristics Questionnaire, the Language Questionnaire, and the Language Background Questionnaire. Findings indicate that attitudes of students relate to gains in their language skills and that greater interactive contact correlates with increased language gain. Differences are identified between the various language levels, as well as attitudes of students toward accurate Spanish pronunciation. Beginning students with more interactive contact realize the most language gain.

Ybarra, C. M., (1997).Kalamazoo College in Madrid: Study abroad as a rite of passage, Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University. [I]
College, as an institution, contributes to the socialization of students in their transition from childhood to adulthood. Overseas study as one period during that socialization process can be significant to social and cultural development. The activities that occur outside the classroom while abroad are particularly significant. This participant-observation case study of Kalamazoo College in Madrid demonstrates that students go through experiences while abroad that can be analyzed as having stages and characteristics, which parallel those present during an adolescent initiation rite in a traditional society. Liminal separateness, as well as stresses and ordeals served to heighten students' maturity and introduce them to skills needed in professional life. Elements of peer group commitment and cultural commitment were also part of the culture learning occurring during this transitional period.

However, this transition is not recognized on a sociological level within the college organization nor within American society. Because of this, cultural commitment, and group solidarity which are fostered while abroad soon dissipate upon return home. The passage rite is not completed, as reincorporation as citizens with recognized new status does not occur. Participants are left with a feeling of loss, combined with a sense of the importance of the experience and a wish to recreate it at home.

Individualistic effects the experience has on the development of students are more lasting. Innovative and reflective thought processes were encouraged through the contrast of living in a foreign setting. Students return with a revitalized world view and altered perceptions, due to having had exposure to new and different ways of living. The ability to make balanced, critical judgments can result from the transformative experience of being confronted with oneself and with the need to defend and justify the ways of one's society. Heightened maturity, including an ability to function in uncertain conditions, skills for fostering intimacy and collegial relationships, and self-confident decision-making skills were all results of the experience abroad for many students. [Author]

Young, J. C., (1990).The E. D. Farmer Scholarship Program between Texas and Mexico: An international education exchange case study., Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. [I]
This study describes a long-standing fellowship program, which sent students from Texas to Mexico and vice versa. The purpose of the study is to determine what impact the experience had on students with respect to their careers, language ability, knowledge of the host country, and awareness of international issues. Data were collected by questionnaires, which were distributed to former fellowship recipients. The surveys were in the native language of the participant, either English or Spanish. Thirty-three surveys were obtained from the Americans and sixteen from the Mexicans. The study also included ten interviews with participants from both countries. Results indicated that the Texans perceived the experience as having a greater impact on their careers than the Mexicans, that most participants increased their second language competency and were able to maintain the gains, and that all participants continued to be interested in their host country.

Young, M. & Allen, D. B., (1997).Globalizing the executive linking class and field experience, Journal of teaching in international business, 9 (2), 49-68. [P]

Zhai, L., (2000).The influence of study abroad programs on college student development in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at the Ohio State University, Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University. [I]
The purpose of the study is to determine the influence of participation in a study abroad program (SAP) on college students' level of development in terms of global perspective, attitudes toward cultural diversity, and self-efficacy. In addition, this study also seeks to investigate students' changes in their career interests, attitudes toward both the host and home countries, knowledge and skills they gained from SAPs, and motivation for participation in SAPs. Twelve research questions were developed to guide this study.

The sample consisted of 21 students who went on SAPs and students who enrolled in summer quarter 1999 but did not go on SAPs (n = 77) in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences at the Ohio State University. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys and interviews. A questionnaire designed to measure global perspective, attitudes toward cultural diversity, and self-efficacy was mailed to the study abroad group before and after the SAPs. The same questionnaire was also mailed to the comparison group at the beginning and end of the summer quarter 1999. Focus group and individual interviews with the study abroad group were conducted after they returned. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression, logistic regression, and t-test were applied to analyze the survey data. Qualitative data obtained from interviews were analyzed using inductive data analysis.

Questionnaire surveys did not show significant changes in students' global perspective, attitudes toward cultural diversity and self-efficacy as a result of SAPs possibly due to the small sample size and non-random samples. Qualitative data analysis showed that students' global perspective was enhanced by the SAPs. SAPs contributed to students' development of intercultural sensitivity. Participants were more aware of and open to cultural diversity. The experience provided new challenges to participants and assisted them in becoming more confident about themselves. Study abroad students were likely to develop favorable attitudes toward their host country accompanied by some criticism toward the United States. Students gained new knowledge and skills from study abroad experience. Personal interests, peer influence, desire to experience something different, and cost were important factors in motivating students to participate in SAPs.

It is recommended that general education programs include study abroad experiences. Preparation prior to study abroad is vital for a successful SAP. Former study abroad students should be used as valuable resources to recruit and market the SAPs with special attention given to recruiting more minority students for these programs. Strong commitment from top administration is important to fostering the SAPs in the college. [Author]

Zorn, C. R., (1996).The long-term impact on nursing students of participating in international education, Journal of Professional Nursing, 12 (2), 106-110. [I]