Research on U.S.
Students Study Abroad:
An Update, 2003 – Earlier
A Bibliography with Abstracts
Initial Document Collection by:
David Comp, Ph.D.
Review and Editing by:
UCLA Center for International and Development Education (CIDE)
UCLA Center for Global Education (CGE)
Senior Editor:
Albert Biscarra, M.A., Doctoral Student
with support from:
Professor Val D. Rust

CIDE/CGE Students:
Katie Calvert, Michelle Gaston, Shanyun He, Stephanie Kim, Emily Le, Jee Young Lee, Ola Siedzik, Jing Xu
Programming: James Vales, M.Sc.
Final Editing, Online Publication, and Introduction by
The Center for Global Education
Gary Rhodes, Director
Abell, S. K., & Jacks, A. M.   (2000).   Thinking like a teacher: Learning to teach in a study abroad program.   In Abell, S. K. (Ed.), Science teacher education: An international perspective. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Abrams, I.   (1980).   Some reflections on historical research and international interchange.   Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany.
Abstract:  Prepared for Conference on Research and International Exchange, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. A state-of-the-art report on the need for historically-informed students on specific characteristics of exchanges in conjunction with segments of societies. The briefly described cases in point include subjects that would enrich the work of historians. More specifically the particular illustrations are: the mobility of recent generation among scientists between Europe and America, the contribution of traveling scientists and related technicians to the industrializing countries during the nineteenth century; the modernization of traditional societies in the light of historical parallels, the wandering scholars, and revolutions around the world. Each of them exemplifies the impact of educational exchange upon societies.
Abrams, I., & Heller, F. H.   (1978).   Evaluating academic programs abroad: The Council on International Educational Exchange project.   New York: Council on International Education Exchange.
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Abstract:  This paper was prepared by the authors following their participation in a CIEE evaluation project in Germany and Austria during May 1975. It summarizes the history of CIEE's activity in the area of evaluation of overseas educational programs for U.S. students and identifies some of the issues related to study abroad observed by those who, since 1972, have been involved in the CIEE evaluation team projects.
Adams, R.   (2001, Oct.).   Second language assessment and study abroad.   Paper presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Abstract:  Different methods of language assessment and their impact on our understanding of second language learning and study abroad are summarized. Also, empirical evidence is presented in support of the use of multiple methods of assessment, including self-assessment, for accurate, reliable and valid profiles of language learners. [Author]
Adelman, C.   (1994).   What employers expect of college graduates: International knowledge and second language skills.   World Education News & Reviews, 7(4)(Fall), 22-24.
Adeola, F. O., & Perry, J. A.   (1997).   Global study: Smooth or bumpy ride: Global study is to diversity as internship is to job experience.   The Black Collegian Online, 10. [On-line].
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Abstract:  A year or two of global study, or international study as it is often called, increases not only your value to an employer in very practical ways, but also, depending upon where you study, your racial perception of the source of the way you act, think, play, and pray. In most countries, you can expect a very smooth ride in the host country housing the international program you select; in some, you can expect a bumpy ride. But even a bumpy, global study ride may be useful to an employer as an indicator of a resourceful, pioneering spirit. A given country may offer specific values to specific corporations because of its natural resources. Zaire, for instance, has large deposits of gold and diamonds. But except for ties of well-known corporations to internationally strategic European countries and to Japan, these ties are difficult for you as a student to know. You need not, however, undertake global study from a basis of specific corporate ties to a country. Global study is as important as an indicator of a type of diverse person as it is an indicator of a person with specific language and cultural skills. It is important to you psychologically, for it is likely to help you understand the source of your own cultural responses, responses often thought of as racial or ethnic. This later reason is somewhat subtle, based as it is on Carl Jung's notion of the subconscious as a collection of archetypal images. The focus here is both the practical as well as the psychological reasons for global study. The easier, practical reason, diversity, first. 
Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy   (1983).   1983 Report of the United States advisory commission on public diplomacy.   Washington, DC: Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy.
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Abstract:  Findings and recommendations of a government commissioned study on the United States Information Agency (USIA) are presented. The first of six substantive sections summarizes commission recommendations concerning the following USIA activities and their government funding: Voice of America Radio broadcasts, the Office of Research, cultural exhibits, private sector programs, donated books, and English teaching abroad. The next section describes the membership and activities of the commission. The role of the USIA in public diplomacy, the third section, emphasizes the recent expansion of activities and suggests means for continuing this expansion. The Voice of America and various USIA television services are addressed in the fourth section. The fifth section considers educational and cultural programs of the USIA, including exchanges, international visitors, university affiliations, private sector programs, libraries, and teaching programs. A final sixth section, on agency management, focuses on the agency's relocation to Washington, District of Columbia, the need for increased personnel, and current management problems. Appendices describe a radio broadcast to Cuba and list the former advisory commission members.
Ailes, C. P., & Russell, S. H.   (2002, May).   Outcome assessment of the U.S. Fulbright scholar program.   Stanford Research Institute. (Project No.: P10372).
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Abstract:  In 2001, SRI surveyed a stratified random sample of 1,004 U.S. Fulbright Scholar alumni whose grants began between 1976 and 1999. The SRI assessment found strong quantitative and qualitative evidence that the program is achieving it legislative mandate of promoting mutual understanding and cooperative between the United States and other nations and that it has diverse and often powerful impacts not only on the Scholars themselves, but on their colleagues, students, friends, and families.
Akomolafe, O.   (2000).   Africanizing HBCUs: Problems and prospects of international education in historically black institutions.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 103-107.
Albers-Miller, N. D., Prenshaw, P. J. & Straughan, R. D.   (1999).   Student perceptions of study abroad programs: A survey of US colleges and universities.   Marketing Education Review, 9(1), 29-36.
Abstract:  This study examined 656 students' perceptions of international education and study abroad programs. Respondents included business students from seven universities, both public and private, across the United States. The research addressed four issues: general perceptions of international course work; general perceptions of study abroad programs; perceptions of study abroad program costs in both time and money; and desired program characteristics. The results indicated that many of the students were misinformed regarding their university's programs. The research offers insight for developing and modifying study abroad programs that will encourage student participation.
Albers-Miller, N. D., Prenshaw, P. J. & Straughan, R. D.   (1999).   Study abroad programs: An exploratory study of students' perceptions.   In Menon, A., & Sharmad, A. (Eds.), Marketing theory and applications, 10 (pp. 65-72). Chicago: American Marketing Association.
Albers-Miller, N. D., Sigerstad, T. D. & Straughan, R. D.   (2000).   Internationalization of the undergraduate curriculum: Insight from recruiters.   Journal of Teaching in International Business, 11(4), 55-80.
Abstract:  Historically, business schools have been encouraged to internationalize their programs. The need is still great today. Many scholars have addressed the issues of international curriculum development, particularly at the M.B.A. level. Fewer have examined the problem from a B.B.A. level. This paper specifically examines the internationalization issue at the B.B.A. level through the input from recruiters on college campuses. This study determined that recruiters from different companies respond to international credentials differently. Individual responses to conjoint profiles from 68 recruiters were cluster analyzed. Four separate clusters of recruiter preferences are reported. Variation was found in the type of degree that was preferred, the demand for language training, the value of an international internship and the reaction to study abroad programs.
Alladin, I.   (1992).   International co-operation in higher education: The globalization of universities.   Higher Education in Europe, 17(4), 4-13.
Abstract:  This article begins by posing some fundamental questions about global co-operation and why co-operation among nations is necessary. Co-operation in higher education can foster global understanding and bridge cultural gaps. What is therefore called for is the globalization of universities.
Allaway, W. H.   (1964, Jan.).   The many-faceted job of the overseas academic program director.   Paper presented at the Meeting of Directors of Academic Programs in Europe, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Abstract:  In thinking about the task which confronts the administrator of an overseas study program, one must consider the nature of the program and particularly its impact on the program's clientele.
Allaway, W. H.   (1986).   The international committee for the study of educational exchange: A search for policy guidance.   Higher Education in Europe, 11(1), 51-61.
Allen, D. & Young, M.   (1997).   From tour guide to teacher: Deepening cross-cultural competence through international experience-based education.   Journal of Management Education, 21(168), 168-169.
Abstract:  Research suggests that cross-cultural competence can best be developed through face-to-face contact with other cultures. In light of this, many universities seek ways to provide strong, cross-cultural exposure to students. The authors describe an innovative 8-day sojourn to Mexico, in which students and faculty experience cross-cultural immersion through activity-based learning. Design issues and key earnings for educators who seek to develop or enhance cross-cultural management education programs are discussed. Feedback from student and faculty participants is included.
Allen, E. D.   (1957).   Why not student exchanges at the high school level?.   The French Review, 31(2), 136-140.
Allen, H. W.   (2002).   Does study abroad make a difference? An investigation of linguistic and motivational outcomes.   (Doctoral dissertaion, Emory University). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 63, 1279A).
Abstract:  The purpose of this mixed-methodology study was to investigate linguistic and affective outcomes of summer study abroad (SA) participation by 25 college French students. This investigation sought to determine if significant changes occurred in two linguistic factors, oral and listening French skills, and two affective factors, integrative motivation and language anxiety, after SA. This study also investigated whether pre-SA affective differences existed for SA participants versus non-SA peers. Findings were interpreted in relation to Gardner's Socio-Educational Model (1985) which posits that success in foreign language learning depends not only on aptitude by also on learner perceptions of native speakers and learner willingness to identify with aspects of linguistic and non-linguistic behavior that characterize native speakers. Results demonstrated that significant improvements occurred in French linguistic skills and significant decreases took place in classroom and non-classroom language anxiety after SA. Integrative motivation levels of the SA group were unchanged after the experience, however, integrative motivation levels of students with more than two years of college French (n = 12) were significantly improved. Pre-SA affective differences did not exist between SA participants and non-SA peers. Analysis of interviews and program evaluations suggested that participants faced two sources of language anxiety while abroad: linguistic insecurities and cultural differences. Many students reported disappointments in terms of cultural misunderstandings (especially within host families) and lack of contact with native speakers. Implications of this study include (1)the need for greater pre-SA emphasis on non-academic factors by administrators, (2) the necessity for SA programs to include contact with native speakers as part of in-class as well as informal learning, and (3) the imperative for FL teachers to infuse the curriculum with cultural competence by integration of authentic materials, technological resources, and contact with native speakers.
Allison, J. D.   (1999).   Federalism, diplomacy and education: Canada's role in education-related international activities, 1960-1984.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto). Available at University of Toronto Research Repository.
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Abstract:  Amongst Western nations Canada has had the rather unique distinction of not having a centralized Ministry of Education. The division of powers in the Canadian constitution assigned education to the provincial governments while constitutionalresponsibility for foreign affairs was assigned to the federal government. As a result of this separation of powers, there has been an mgoing and unsatisfactory effort on the part of both federal and provincial governments to address the difficult issue of who represents Canada in the field of education abroad. In the period following the end of the Second World War, indifference towards the question gave way to ad hoc treatment of the issue by the federal government. The provinces and federal government tried to insuIate themselves from divisive issues by delegating them to pan-national educational organizations. The Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) is the closest equivalent to a national, ministerial-level education orgmization in modem day Canada. Dunng the 1960s. the constitutional differences could not be regulated between the two levels of government. Instead, the continued unsatisfactory relationship combined with incipient nationalism led to conflict. The government of Quebec declared that the provinces were institutionally capable of representing their own interests in diplomacy in education. The federal response in the 1960s cm be traced from Mitchell Sharp's publication of the pamphlet Federalism and International Conferences on Education in the spring of 1968, at the height of the crisis with Quebec. This publication was as much a response to conternporary events. as it was the portent of a broader, more hands-on approach to the issue by the federal govemment. While the 1960s were punctuated by the broadsides from Ottawa and Quebec as the issue becarne tied to Quebec nationaiism, the 1970s and early 1980s were characterized by uncornfortable compromise over the question. The changing international system, the OECD Review, and the ongoing federal-provincial jockeying combined with the new presence of the CMEC, did not help in the regularization of this relationship. Since there has never been closure over this issue, diplomacy in education continues to be ad hoc and an important test of Canadian federalism.
Alsup, R., & Egginton, E.   (2001).   Major obstacles and best practices in international educational exchanges.   Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-grant Universities.
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Abstract:  To study best practices in the area of international exchange, a survey was conducted of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. Responses were received from 19 institutions about practices, activities, services, and other program aspects considered to be exemplary. Questions were also asked about challenges and obstacles to international exchange among colleges. Some universities appear to be faring well in international exchange, with more qualified international applicants than they can accommodate and an international staff that is adequate in numbers and efficient in its tasks. Others are not doing that well. The issue of finances permeated all responses to all survey items, and all respondents asserted that increased financial support is a key ingredient for successful progress toward their goals. Institutional commitment to the goals of international exchange was frequently identified as an obstacle to exchange programs. The need for a central office to coordinate international exchange was cited as an advantage by institutions that had such an office, and as an obstacle by institutions that did not. Almost all institutions indicated that the requirements of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Internal Revenue Service imposed a formidable burden on international staff time and resources. This study was designed and carried out before September 11, 2001, and since then, it appears that challenges to international educational exchange have increased. An appendix lists the responding institutions.
Altbach, P. G.   (1985).   The foreign student dilemma.   Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education, 3-4, 236-237.
Abstract:  The essay by Philip G. Altbach covers international student flows, curricular factors and foreign study, the economics and politics of foreign study, and factors in the decision to undertake study abroad on the part of governments, academic institutions, and individuals.
Altbach, P. G.   (1991).   Trends in comparative education.   Comparative Education Review, 35(3), 491-507.
Altbach, P. G.   (1997).   The coming crisis in international education in the United States.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(3)(Summer), 2.
Abstract:  If the 21st Century is to be the global era, then American universities will need to be international institutions. A central part of this profile is made up of the foreign students studying in American universities. However, the news on the foreign students front is not good.
Altbach, P. G.   (1999).   The perils of internationalization: An Asian perspective.   International Higher Education, 15, 4.
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Altbach, P. G.   (2002).   Perspectives on internationalizing higher education.   International Higher Education, 27, 6-8.
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Altbach, P. G., & Teichler, U.   (2001).   Internationalization and exchanges in a globalized university.   Journal of Studies on International Education, 5(1).
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Abstract:  Internationalization in higher education is an inevitable result of the globalized and knowledge-based economy of the 21st century. Other trends affecting the universities, including diversification, expansion, privatization, and so on, also have implications for the international role of academic institutions. The intersection of the logic of globalization and other pressures facing universities make a reconsideration of international programs and strategies necessary. Exchanges, university linkages, patterns of mobility, and international and regional arrangements among universities are all changes.
Altbach, P., & McGill-Peterson, P.   (1998).   Internationalize American higher education? Not exactly.   Boston College Center for International Higher Education Newsletter, 11.
Altshuler, L., Sussman, N. M., & Kachur, E.   (2003).   Assessing changes in intercultural sensitivity among physician trainees using the Intercultural Development Inventory.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 387-401.
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges   (1979).   The President's commission on foreign language and international studies: Reports its recommendations.   Washington, DC: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges.
Abstract:  The President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies made over 130 recommendations aimed at strengthening international education.
American Council on Education   (1995).   Educating Americans for a world in flux: Ten ground rules for internationalizing higher education.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Abstract:  Provides a simple framework for looking at campus internationalization and ten issues to frame an institutional review on campus internationalization around.
American Council on Education   (2001).   A brief guide to U.S. higher education.   Washington, DC: ACE Fulfillment Services.
American Council on Education   (2002).   Beyond September 11 - A comprehensive national policy on international education.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Abstract:  The events of September 11, 2001 have driven home the lesson that, like it or not, U.S. citizens are connected with people the world over. The global transformations of the last decade have created an unparalleled need in the United States for expanded international knowledge and skills. However, the United States is not ready. There is a dangerous shortfall of individuals with global competence. The responsibility to reverse this trend lies with the U.S. educational system in partnership with government and the private sector. The United States must invest in an educational infrastructure that produces knowledge of languages and cultures and is able to train a sufficient and diverse pool of students to meet the needs of government agencies, the private sector, and education itself. This paper focuses on the partnership between the federal government and education institutions in international education. It calls for an urgently needed comprehensive national policy on international education that: (1) identifies national policy objectives for international education; (2) outlines specific strategies for meeting these objectives; and (3) provides the national programs, administrative structures, and resources required to implement these strategies. One appendix describes key federal programs promoting international education strategies, and another provides some facts and features of international education in the United States.
American Council on Education   (2002).   Beyond September 11: A comprehensive national policy on international education.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
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Abstract:  Thirty-three higher education, scholarly, and exchange associations have endorsed this new proposal for a national policy on international education. The report outlines U.S. need for international and foreign language expertise and citizen awareness, examines the shortages in those areas, and proposes strategies and government policies to meet these needs.
American Council on Education   (2002).   Promising practices: Spotlighting excellence in comprehensive internationalization.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education   (2003).   Mapping internationalization on U.S. campuses: Final report.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Economic Association   (1976).   Report of the Committee on U.S.-Soviet Exchanges.   The American Economic Review, 66(2), 525-529.
Anderson, A.   (2003).   Women and cultural learning in Costa Rica: Reading the contexts.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9(Fall), 21-52.
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Abstract:  This article reviews research on Costa Rica's cultural context, student adjustment, and tourism theory as they relate to U.S. women student experiences there. It includes insights from ethnographic observations and interviews collected during three years of residential direction of a shortterm, small-group program in Costa Rica. It introduces an applied anthropological tool, based on a cultural learning model of participant observation, which may be used by study abroad practitioners to guide student cultural adjustment more systematically.
Anderson, K.   (1996).   Expanding your horizons.   Black Enterprise, 318-324.
Abstract:  Keisha Anderson describes her study abroad experience in Zimbabwe. Crediting study abroad with preparing students to "become driving forces in the growing global economy," Ms. Anderson presents a well-researched article on study abroad and available resources. She concludes her article with advice on getting parents comfortable with study abroad concerns including whether or not their child will be fed and housed properly, their safety, opportunities to call home if needed, and the availability of support staff in case of emergency or to soften the student's transition to the new environment.
Andreasen, R. J., & Wu, C.-H.   (1999, Mar.).   Study abroad program as an experiential, capstone course: A proposed model.   Paper presented at the 15th Annual Meeting of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Trinidad & Tobago.
Ansara, S.   (1997).   Campus support for study abroad- Involving faculty.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(2)(Spring), 1, 18-19.
Archwamety, T.   (1996, Apr.).   Perception of the impact of international education: Japanese vs. American students.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1996, New York, NY.
Abstract:  This study of Japanese and American exchange students focuses on the "perceived" rather than on the "real" impact of international education on one's own society and on the society hosting the foreign student. The Japanese and American students' perceptions of the impact of their studies on the politics, economy, technology, education, knowledge expansion, and international relations of their home country and their host country were researched. The view of both the American and Japanese students on the impact of international education was, in general, positive.
Arpan, J. S., Geer, M., McCracken, P., & Wind, J.   (1988).   Hallmarks of successful international business programs.   Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 25.
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Arthur, N.   (2001).   Using critical incidents to investigate cross-cultural transitions.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(1), 41-53.
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Abstract:  The process of cross-cultural transition is of interest to researchers who attempt to uncover factors that lead to sojourner adjustment and cross-cultural effectiveness. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the perceived stressors and coping strategies of Canadian post-secondary students during a 7-week cross-cultural Seminar program in Vietnam. Using a critical incidents methodology, the study tracked both the common and unique experiences of students. Specific critical incidents were collected from students at six time points regarding experiences that were stressful, selected coping strategies, use of social support, shifting views of self and perspectives about international development. Results from the study are discussed with suggestions for pre-departure training programs and the use of critical incidents as a tool for understanding cross-cultural transitions. [Author].
Assefa, M.   (1990).   Erasmus will make U.S. institutions rethink programs for foreign studying here.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(4)(Fall), 2-3.
Associated Press   (2003, Nov. 18).   Task force urges more U.S. study abroad.   New York: Associated Press.
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Abstract:  Claiming America has a "serious deficit in global competence," an independent task force on Tuesday urged the government to increase the number of U.S. college students who learn foreign languages and study abroad.
Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities   (n.d.).   Strategic development plan for international programs.   Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities.
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Abstract:  The International Agriculture Section promotes the engagement of the land-grant university system in service to the global community. As detailed here, there are critical issues facing us today. Our challenge is to take the collaborative nature of the agricultural, natural resource, food and nutrition sciences found within the American land-grant universities to the global community. The integration of research, teaching and outreach historically transformed the economic development of our country; we envision the possibility in achieving the Millennium Development Goals through the establishment of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture and our role in meeting the food, environmental, and energy challenges of the future.
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada   (2003).   Reality check: A series of fact-based essays dispelling common myths about Canadian universities.   Ottawa: AUCC Publications.
Abstract:  From exchange programs to intensive language courses, international work or co-op placements to collaborative research projects, study abroad programs provide university students with a range of enriching opportunities and valuable skills.
Association of University Teachers & Development Education Association   (1999).   Globalisation and higher education: Guidance on ethical issues arising from international academic activities.   London: Association of University Teachers & Development Education Association.
Abstract:  There are seldom quick and straightforward answers to ethical dilemmas. This document cannot and does not attempt to address all the possible issues which may arise when university staff are contemplating or engaged in international work. In developing the document attention has been paid to roles university staff may be called upon to play in international academic activities; in particular, those arising from recruitment and teaching of and support of overseas students and from collaboration with overseas institutions through franchising arrangements and research which either draws on material from other countries and/or involves collaboration with colleagues overseas. With these activities in mind, further consideration is then given to two areas where it is felt ethical issues are most likely to be presented in a university environment which is becoming increasingly competitive and driven to secure 'commercial' income - human rights and environmental sustainability. It is the premise of this document that principles underlining these two issues, while not uncontroversial, are nevertheless fundamental to a notion of academic professionalism and the idea of the 'role of service' generally held by those concerned with the provision of higher education.
Austin, G. R.   (1972).   OECD/CERI: Fostering cooperation in international educational research.   Educational Researcher, 1(11), 5-7.
Avveduto, S., & Brandi, M. C.   (2002, Sept.).   International mobility: Student vagantes.   Paper presented at the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers Annual Conference, Vienna, Austria.
Bachner, D .J., Malone, L. J., & Snider, M. C.   (2001).   Learning interdependence: A case study of international/intercultural education of first-year college students.   Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, University of South Carolina.
Abstract:  Administrator, faculty, and student voices come together to describe a unique experiment in intercultural education at Hartwick College in Oneonta, New York. Challenging the notion that study abroad programs are best suited for "mature" students, faculty and administrators designed an intercultural, interdisciplinary course for first-year students, spanning an entire academic year. The book includes information on program development and student outcomes, with an appendix featuring syllabi from six courses based on the model. Learning Interdependence is equal parts travel log, curriculum design guide, and personal diary. As we struggle with the meaning of education on a shrinking, increasingly connected planet, this book offers a bold new way of thinking about teaching and learning in the first college year.
Bachner, D. J.   (1992).   Developing program standards for international educational exchange.   Evans City, PA: NAFSA Publications.
Abstract:  The growing volume of international exchanges involving teenagers has prompted government agencies, professional associations, and individual exchange organizations to focus attention on the quality and competency with which such programs are being conducted. This article describes the efforts of one youth exchange organization to articulate quality standards and implement those standards throughout its worldwide operations. From this experience, three areas of consideration are identified as pivotal in the standards development effort: 1) contextual considerations, which refer to those factors that influence the standards effort both within the field of international educational exchange and within the particular exchange organization; 2) procedural considerations, which refer to the strategic and tactical steps that might be devised in order to respond to the major contextual factors; and 3) substantive considerations, which refer to the actual contents of the standards effort, including definitions, categories of activities, and formulations. Finally, the article recommends strategic emphases which could help to accelerate the pace of standards development for the exchange field generally.
Bachner, D. J., & Zeutschel, U.   (1994).   Utilizing the effects of youth exchange: A study of the subsequent lives of German and American high school exchange participants.   New York: Council on International Education Exchange.
Abstract:  This article focuses on the ways in which former exchange participants are actually utilizing the insights, beliefs, skills, and behaviors gained during their stay abroad. Chief among the themes in their open-ended responses were educational direction, professional orientation, exchange-related follow-up activities, multiplier or "ripple" effects, and future perspective/plans.
Badley, G.   (1991).   Reporting study abroad.   Journal of Further and Higher Education, 15(3), 3-15.
Abstract:  In itself study abroad is a kind of ethnography: the student or scholar travels to a foreign country, collects information about the people and the culture and then, in some way or another, reports the experience. In this paper I want to try to pick out some important aspects of the student as ethnographer and especially those which relate to the student's perceptions of 'abroad', the main aims of study abroad and the value of reporting back.
Bailey III, R. B.   (1991).   The River Falls experience: Custom-designing study abroad.   In CIEE (ed.), Black students and overseas programs: broadening the base of participation, (pp. 21-28). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Baker, B. R.   (2000, Apr.).   Moving beyond our education community: Student teaching abroad.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Childhood Education International, Baltimore, MD.
Abstract:  This paper presents an overview of a student teaching abroad program. Student teachers at Texas' Baylor University have an option to participate in a three-semester hour elective involving student teaching in schools in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. This experience is an extension of their required student teaching. Experiences are provided for early childhood, elementary, secondary and special education preservice teachers. The purpose of the program is to offer student teachers a more global perspective by traveling, living, and participating professionally in another country.
Ball, M.   (2000).   Preparing non-specialist language students for study abroad.   Language Learning Journal, 21(1), 19-25.
Abstract:  This paper records the results of a study involving non-specialist language students, who spent a period abroad as part of degree programmes in business or administration studies. The aim was to gain insights into the experience of students for whom a priority during the period abroad was to continue study of core subjects other than languages and to find out what linguistic challenges they faced and how they felt they coped.
Barclift, P.L.   (2001).   Study abroad: Teaching Christology in an area of conflict.   Teaching Theology and Religion, 4(3), 166-173.
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Abstract:  Theological study abroad programs in countries like Israel can actually benefit from the political tensions in those countries when the tensions are treated with due caution and when the course is designed to account for them. Focusing on Israel as its test case, this article offers suggestions for ensuring safety in countries of conflict. At the same time, it lays the groundwork for assuring a balanced approach to studying the present conflict in Israel within the framework of a course in christology while addressing the demands of Seattle University's Catholic Jesuit philosophy.
Barker, J. M., et al   (1998).   Impact of diasporic travel on the ethnic identity development of African American college students.   College Student Journal, 32(3), 463.
Barnes, L. R.   (1982).   Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes.   International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, 28(3), 373-376.
Barnett, G. A., & Wu, R. Y.   (1995).   The international student exchange network: 1970 & 1989.   Higher Education, 30(4), 353-368.
Abstract:  Using data published in UNESCO Statistical Yearbooks (1972 & 1991) on the 50 countries with the largest number of exchange students, this article describes the international student exchange network and its changes between 1970 and 1989. The results indicate that the network changed significantly over this 20-year period. While the United States and some Western developed countries have remained at the center of the network, Asian and Middle Eastern countries have become more central and African countries have become more peripheral. The changes of the network reflect the hierarchical structure of the hegemonic powers in the modern world system.
Baron, B., & Bachmann, P.   (1987).   Study abroad in western Europe: A bibliography.   European Journal of Education, 22(1), 101-113.
Barrutia, R.   (1971).   Study abroad.   The Modern Language Journal, 55(4), 232-234.
Bartell, M.   (2003).   Internationalization of universities: a university culture-based framework.   Higher Education, 45(1), 43-70.
Abstract:  This paper employs Sporn's(1996) organizational culture typology indeveloping a framework to assist in theunderstanding of the process ofinternationalization of universities. Both thecollegial process and executive authority areacknowledged as necessary to position theuniversity to bring about substantive,integrated, university-wideinternationalization in response to pervasiveand rapidly changing global environmentaldemands. Internationalization, viewed as anorganizational adaptation, requires itsarticulation by the leadership whilesimultaneously institutionalizing a strategicplanning process that is representative andparticipative in that it recognizes andutilizes the power of the culture within whichit occurs. The orientation and strength of theuniversity culture and the functioningstructure can be inhibiting or facilitating ofthe strategies employed to advanceinternationalization. Two examples arejuxtaposed to illustrate the range ofcircumstances confronting universities in acomplex and dynamic external environment andtheir responses with respect tointernationalization. Drawing from theseexamples, discussion centers on the alignmentof internal culture with theinternationalization objectives and strategiesselected by the institution in order to enhanceeffectiveness of outcomes. It is concludedthat the framework provided helps to understandthe different approaches tointernationalization and may be helpful fromboth a managerial and research perspective.
Bartlett, C. Z.   (1991).   Consortium provides international educational programs for community college students.   College and University, 66(3), 139-141.
Abstract:  This short article describes the Illinois Consortium for International Studies (ICIS), which was founded to assist community colleges in offering affordable study abroad programs for community college students. The article presents the goals of the consortium and background information on how it was developed. Details about the consortium activities and programs are provided as well.
Beach, R.   (1995).   Multicultural learning at home and abroad.   Washington, DC: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education.
Abstract:  This report describes a three-year project to establish and staff a new office at Colgate University, the Office of Intercultural Resources, to originate and implement programs to build bridges between Colgate's intercultural and multicultural programs. Appended are the resource guide, the training guide, and the sensitivity course syllabus.
Beach, R., & Sherman, G.   (2000).   Rethinking Canada: Canadian studies and study abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6(Winter), 59-72.
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Abstract:  Canada is certainly among the least understood of the numerous countries on the "shopping list" of American students planning to study abroad. For this reason, it is often passed over by students who might choose otherwise if they were better informed. Students thinking about an international experience may know little if anything about most countries under consideration—this they will freely admit. But most people believe they know Canada cold: "It's just like the United States." And it is not really "abroad," not even in the sense that Mexico can be considered "abroad" because of the stark cultural contrast that exists between Mexico and the United States.
Beck, H.   (1996).   W.E.B. Du Bois as a study abroad student in Germany, 1892-1894.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 2(Fall).
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Abstract:  This paper examines Du Bois's study in Germany, making use of a variety of documents relating to his stay in Berlin. Du Bois describes his life as a student in Berlin quite vividly in chapter 10 of his Autobiography, which is largely based on diaries and notes Du Bois kept as a student. The Du Bois papers stored at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst)' provide an interesting perspective on chapter 10, for here we can see the diaries in their original form, unedited by Du Bois, who wrote the Autobiography many years later and who left out much that is of interest not only to students of Berlin in the 1890s but also to biographers of Du Bois. In this paper I will draw not only on his correspondence and Autobiography but also on unpublished sources, including documents I found in Berlin. Although the focus will be on Du Bois, it is also important to sketch in the cultural and political climate of the time, since this provides the setting for Du Bois's development and helps explain some elements in the further course of life.
Bedore, G. L.   (1991).   Trends impacting graduate business education in the coming decade.   Journal of Education for Business, 67(2), 69-73.
Beerkens, E.   (2003).   Globalisation and higher education research.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(2), 128-148.
Abstract:  Globalisation has become one of the key concepts in the social sciences today. In higher education research, too, the term is used frequently. Maybe even so frequently that it sometimes seems possible to pronounce virtually anything under the heading of globalisation. This article attempts to identify the various interpretations of globalisation in general, as well as in higher education research. It will do so in an interdisciplinary manner. The different interpretations of globalisation are related to the different past realities that are taken as a point of departure. Four different conceptualisations are identified and will be further explored. These are also explored for the field of higher education research. The following broad topics are identified in this field: the changing nature of international linkages, government authority over higher education, threats to diversity, and the loss of national identities.
Beers, G., et. al.   (1990, July).   A model international program for the year 2000.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the League for Innovation in Community Colleges, "Leadership 2000", San Francisco, CA.
Abstract:  in keeping with a recommendation of the Commission on the Future of Community Colleges that students be informed about other peoples and cultures, Foothill College (FC) has implemented a number of programs with an international focus. These efforts include the following: (1) the F-1 Visa Program enabling students from other countries to remain in the United States until they complete their degree requirements; (2) the First Year Experience Guidance Program providing counseling and a 6-week, one-credit college orientation for international students; (3) FC's and the American Institute for Foreign Study's joint Campus Abroad Program, in which FC faculty teach credit courses to FC students at overseas locations; (4) intensive short-term programs conducted through sister schools in Japan offering instruction in survival skills, cross-cultural awareness, and the exchange of ideas; (5) the Business International Studies degree program for students and business people either considering or already working for multinational corporations; (6) a satellite Foothill Campus in Osaka, Japan, offering Japanese students English-as-a-Second-Language courses for FC credit to facilitate transfer to FC as full-time students; (7) the Japanese Cultural Center at FC promoting cross-cultural awareness through the sponsorship of public programs dealing with Japan and Japanese-U.S. relations; and (8) the international work exchange program providing yearly work internships for 230 California students and another 230 English-speaking European students. Brochures on the F-1 Visa International Student Program and FC's international programs are attached.
Bennett, J. M.   (1993).   Cultural marginality: Identity issues in intercultural training.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 109-135). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Bennett, J. M., Bennett, M. J., & Allen, W.   (2003).   Developing intercultural competence in the language classroom.   In Lange, D. L., & Paige, R. M. (Eds.), Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Bennett, M. J.   (1986).   A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179-196..
Bennett, M. J.   (1991).   Developing intercultural sensitivity.   Training and Culture Newsletter, 3(5), 4, 16.
Bennett, M. J.   (1991).   New insights for "intercultural sensitivity" model.   Training and Culture Newsletter, 3(5), 5.
Bennett, M. J.   (1992, Aug./Sept.).   Les stades de developpement de la sensibilite interculturelle.   Paper presented at the Seminaire Point Ameriques.
Bennett, M. J.   (1993).   Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 21-71). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Bennett, M. J.   (1994).   A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.   Perry Network Newsletter, 16(1), 6-7.
Bennett, M. J.   (2000).   High profile: Dr. Bennett revitalizes the model for intercultural sensitivity.   Cultural Diversity at Work, 12(3).
Bennett, M. J.   (2001).   Developing intercultural competence for global leadership.   In Reineke, R.D. & Fussinger, C. (Eds.), Interkulturelles Management: Konzeption-Beratung-Training (pp. 207-226). Wiesbaden, Germany: Gabler.
Bennett, M. J.   (2002).   In the wake of September 11.   In Leenen, W. R. (Ed.), Enhancing intercultural competence in police organizations (pp. 23-41). Münster, Germany: Waxmann.
Bennett, M. J., & Deane, B. R.   (1994).   A model for personal change: Developing intercultural sensitivity.   In Cross, E. Y., Katz, J. H., Miller, F. A., & Seashore, E. W. (Eds.), The promise of diversity: Over 40 voices discuss strategies for eliminating discrimination in organizations (pp. 286-293). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin..
Benton, W.   (1966).   Education as an instrument of American foreign policy.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 366(1), 33-40.
Berg, W. J., Cholakian, R., & Conroy, Jr., P. V.   (1975).   The year abroad in France: An inside look.   The French Review, 48(5), 819-835.
Bergan, S.   (n.d.).   Providing standards for higher education: International education conventions as alternatives to trade agreements.   Riga, Latvia: AIC.
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Abstract:  Judging from the amount of laws, regulations and other formal stipulations concerning human behavior and relations between humans from the time of Hammurabi to our own days, the quest for standards must respond to a deeply felt human need. The reasons for this are complex and exploring them is well beyond the scope of this article. However, it may be worth remembering that the search for standards for higher education is not an isolated occurrence, but part of a much larger social and societal phenomenon.
Bernstein, E.   (2003, Feb. 7).   Study-abroad programs grow in uncertain times.   The Wall Street Journal.
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Berry, H.   (1996).   Observations on minorities abroad.   Forum on Underrepresentation in Education Abroad Newsletter.
Berry, H. A.   (2002).   The global voices: Is U.S. higher education listening?.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 231-237.
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Abstract:  Is there any content to the many university mission statements claiming to educate the total student and to prepare them for the world they will enter? Of course some universities have not stood aside completely from globalism. But their rush to membership in global society has been mainly to the economic sector: business internships, MBAs, university/ business research affiliations. But what of education for the other realities of globalism?
Betts, S. C. & Norquest, J.   (1997).   Professional development through travel to Zimbabwe: One year follow up.   Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 89(1), 50-53.
Bing, A. G.   (1989).   Peace studies as experiential education.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 504, 48-60.
Abstract:  This article argues that peace education and good peace studies at the university level must include peace action as well. Despite general agreement in the peace studies field that such inclusion of peace action is important, few colleges or universities have successfully incorporated an experiential component into their academic programs. Using the Peace and Global Studies Program at Earlham College as a model, this article attempts to show how peace action, in the form of on-campus cocurricular experiences, off-campus internships, and foreign study, gives new meaning to the study that precedes it but also is modified by further course work.
Bird, S. A.   (1994).   Crisis management in foreign education.   World Education News & Reviews, 7(3)(Summer), 18-20.
Bird, S. A.   (1994).   The use of partner support agencies.   World Education News & Reviews, 9(1)(Winter), 18-19.
Bird, S. A.   (1995).   International education- So much more than study abroad.   World Education News & Reviews, 8(2)(Spring), 1, 19-20.
Abstract:  Educational opportunities overseas have mushroomed in the past five years. Study abroad programs themselves have expanded, embracing new geographic areas, academic disciplines, and program models. Other varieties of programs have gained widespread acceptance as legitimate components of an undergraduate education. Within the general framework of "experiential learning," three growing categories of overseas opportunities are internships, service learning opportunities and work-abroad programs. This column will focus on internships, with subsequent issues devoted to service learning and work abroad.
Bird, S. A.   (1995).   Service learning overseas: A new & exciting option.   World Education News & Reviews, 8(3)(Winter), 20-21.
Birtwistle, T.   (2002).   Liability and risk assessment in study activity abroad- the UKCOSA survey.   Education & the Law, 14(4), 231.
Abstract:  Studies liability and risk assessment in student activity. Assessment of activities of universities in England; Minimization of risk and potential liability; Role of risk management in universities.
Blackall, C. H.   (1922).   Architectural education: Part III- travel and study abroad.   The American Architect and the Architectural Review, 121(2391), 295-297.
Blair, D., Phinney, L., & Philippe, K. A.   (2001).   International programs at community colleges.   Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.
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Abstract:  In 2000, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a survey regarding community colleges' involvement in international programs and services, following on a 1995 survey gauging the colleges' involvement in these areas. International programs and services were defined as programs and activities designed to increase global awareness in the college community and to support the process by which students prepare for successful integration into a multicultural and interdependent world. The 2000 survey sought information about initiatives in three broad areas: internationalizing curriculum; providing campus and community activities designed to increase global awareness; and facilitating person-to-person international experiences and cooperation.
Blythe, C.   (1999).   No age limit for study abroad.   Transitions Abroad, 23(3), 71.
Boatler, R. W.   (1992).   Worldminded attitude change in a study abroad program: Contact and content issues.   Journal of Teaching in International Business, 3(4).
Böhm, Davis, Meares, & Pearce   (2002).   Global student mobility 2025: Forecasts of the global demand for international higher education.   Melbourne: IDP.
Bolen, M.   (2001).   Consumerism and U.S. study abroad.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5, 182-200.
Abstract:  This article combines U.S. higher education history, consumer theories, and study abroad practices and policies to explore the effects of consumerism on American study abroad. Consumer theory states that in consumerist ideology, identity formation and the meaning of life are to be found in the buying of prepackaged experiences. Higher education became one of these experiences in the 1970s with increased federal funding and the accompanying growth to a mass market. This mass market helped change the ideology of higher education. Study abroad commercialization in the 1990s has paralleled U.S. higher education commodification; therefore, this history provides insights into the implications of this process for study abroad. The implications include changes in student attitudes, governmental policies, international education practices, and advertising methods. This article describes the potential advantages and disadvantages of these changes to study abroad.
Bomberger, E. D.   (1991).   The German musical training of American students, 1850-1900.   (Doctoral dissertation, Universirt of Maryland, College Park). Available from University Microfilms International. (No. 9225789).
Abstract:  During the second half of the nineteenth century, approximately 5,000 Americans studies music in Germany. This dissertation explores the trend in detail, examining individual schools and teachers in Germany and the American students who studied there. Since most American music students in Germany enrolled in conservatories, the dissertation examines in detail the German conservatory system. An additional chapter is devoted to Franz Liszt's masterclasses in Weimar. An appendix lists American students known to have studied in Germany with information on their studies. Most of America's influential musicians about the turn of the twentieth century have been trained in Germany, and this study attempts to characterize their studies.
Bond, D. G.   (1988).   Values clarification and international education: The Yonsei experience.   Paper presented at the 29th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, St. Louis, MO.
Abstract:  This study probed the experiences of Korean-American students participating in a study abroad program at Yonsei University in Korea. Data were primarily obtained from essays written by students in a "Topics" class, in which all students were required to participate. This paper discusses how Korean-American students made the choice to study in Korea, and the role their immigrant parents played in the decision. It describes both the expectations of Korean-American students, with regard to how they think they will be perceived, and their actual experiences. Some of the cultural identification issues these students face are presented as examples of their confusion over whether they were "American" or "Korean. " The author provides many anecdotes to illustrate his discussion, and he concludes the article with his opinion on the importance of individual freedom and assessment of the program success and value.
Bond, M. L. & Jones, M. E.   (1994).   Short-term cultural immersion in Mexico.   Nursing & Health Care, 15(5), 15.
Abstract:  There is much evidence supporting the claim that real-life experiences go a long way in increasing cross-cultural understanding and sensitivity. In order to address this and expand their curricular offerings, a short-term immersion program was developed by the University of Texas at Arlington to send a group of nursing students to Mexico. This article provides a description of the program and an assessment of its success. The program was five weeks in length, with two weeks actually spent in Mexico. Students took a mini course, lived with host families, studied Spanish, and went on field trips. The mini courses were in such topics as traditional medicine and the Mexican health care system. The authors describe some of the difficulties the 10 students faced in adjusting to the Mexican culture and other findings obtained from the course evaluations surveys. In addition to these surveys, nine of the ten students were also surveyed a year after their experience to determine how it had impacted their nursing practice and personal views.
Bonfiglio, O.   (1999).   The difficulties of internationalizing the American undergraduate curriculum.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 3, 3-18.
Abstract:  Institutions that "internationalize" their curricula are driven by shifting societal purposes, governmental constraints, institutional structures, theoretical assumptions about curriculum, and comprehensive data about students' learning. These five factors, however, lack the substance needed to prepare students for the challenges of a global society.
Booker, R. W.   (2001).   Differences between applicants and non-applicants relevant to the decision to study abroad.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (62(04), 1337A).
Abstract:  In a study conducted at a large, public, mid-western university, applicants to study abroad and interested non-applicants were compared with respect to personal characteristics, study abroad preferences, and perceptions of institutional support for international education. Additionally, they were compared with respect to the influence of perceived outcomes or consequences of study abroad, perceived social pressures from important referents, and perceived obstacles to study abroad as related to the decision to apply or not apply. Factor analyses produced belief-based factors. Factors that made significant independent contributions to separating and defining the two groups were identified by stepwise discriminant function analysis. Academic constraints and the amount of influence of academic relationships become independently significant when the directional social factors are ignored.
Bosselman, R. H., Fernsten, J. A., Manning, P. B., & Kisseleff, M.   (1989).   The international study abroad experience and its effects on hospitality students.   Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 13, 287-297.
Abstract:  Study abroad programs, long a part of the university educational experience, are increasing in importance as American students develop cross cultural knowledge which prepares them for careers in the hospitality and tourism field. This paper will discuss a single study abroad program in hospitality and tourism administration. This program, now in its third year, has proven to be very successful from the perspectives of students, faculty, and administration. An evaluation instrument was designed to measure student characteristics, the educational experience, sociocultural experiences, and individual development. Data reported in this paper are from the 1988 summer program. Results suggest previous foreign travel and some foreign language skills enable program participants to more fully appreciate their study abroad experience. Nearly all students in the program commented favorably on their personal growth, increased interest in learning languages, and an increased receptiveness to different cultures and values. As the hospitality and tourism industry becomes a major participant in our global economy, students with crosscultural experiences will be better prepared for management positions in the industry. Hospitality and tourism programs which are associated with study abroad programs will likely enhance their position with industry, and with their own educational institution.
Bousquet, G.   (2003, Jan.).   Back to the future: Internationalization in professional schools.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges and U.S. Higher Education Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
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Bova, R.   (2000).   The double transition in Russian area studies.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6(Winter), 127-154.
Abstract:  The transitions shaping both Russia and Russian area studies clearly carry implications for how to teach our students and prepare them to understand the area. Thus, following a detailed discussion of the double transition in Russian area studies, this essay will consider the pedagogical implications for undergraduate education in Russian studies, in area studies in general, and for study abroad programs in Russia in the early 21st century.
Boyd, B. L., Giebler, C., Hince, M., Liu, Y., Mehta, N., Rash, R., et al.   (2001).   Does study abroad make a difference? An impact assessment of the international 4-H Youth Exchange Program.   Journal of Extension, 39(5).
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Brademas, J.   (1997).   New initiatives.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 1, 125-131.
Brecht, R. D., & Robinson, J. L.   (1993).   Qualitative analysis of second language acquisition in study abroad.   Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center.
Abstract:  A study undertaken by the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) and National Foreign Language Center (NFLC) is described. The project was designed to examine the process and results of language study abroad. Implications of the findings for second language acquisition research are analyzed. A brief bibliography is included.
Brecht, R. D., & Walton, A. R.   (1994).   Policy issues in foreign language and study abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 532, 213-225..
Abstract:  As exchange and study abroad programs proliferate and the range of countries and languages involved broadens, the role of language competence in such programs is in vital need of examination. Long-neglected policy issues, like standards and assessment as well as program design and management, must be addressed. Programs relying on or developing language competence are in need of a new national architecture, which brings to bear expertise from the field of second language acquisition, target languages and cultures, and exchange and study management.
Brecht, R. D., Davidson, D., & Ginsberg, R. B.   (1993).   Predictors of foreign language gain during study abroad.   Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Council.
Abstract:  This paper presents the first large-scale statistical study of the predictors of language gain in the study-abroad environment. It shows that certain characteristics of students going abroad are significant predictors of successful language learning, among them gender, experience in learning other foreign languages, and strong command of grammar and reading skills.
Brewer, E., & Boatman, K.   (1991).   The Boston University professional international linkage program in Niger: An exchange model for education students and faculty.   The Phi Beta Delta International Review, 2.
Brickman, W.   (1954).   A course in international education.   Journal of Teacher Education, 5(2),141-144.
Brinkmann, U., & van der Zee, K.   (1999).   Benchmarking intercultural training: Is experience its biggest competitor?.   Language and Intercultural Training, 17, 9-11.
Brislin, R. W.   (1980, Nov.).   Outcomes, human relations, and contributions to task effectiveness as key variables in educational exchange.   Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany.
Abstract:  An agenda for research on study abroad is set forth. This includes research on effects on individuals, negative outcomes and how to cope with them, human relations in cross-cultural studies, and relating educational exchange to task-oriented goals.
Brockington, J.   (2002).   Moving from international vision to institutional reality: Administrative and financial models for education abroad at liberal arts colleges.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 6(3), 283-291.
Abstract:  The recent efforts of liberal arts colleges to examine the administrative and financial structures of their offices and programs has been prompted in part bythe desire of these institutions to internationalize so as to better respond to the pace of globalization and is in part in response to the increasing attention being directed to international education at all levels, including judicial. Byintr oducing the concepts of autonomy, authority, and responsibility with regard to administrative and financial structures, this article seeks to move the discussion of international program administration at liberal arts colleges beyond the centralization-decentralization dichotomy to a consideration of forms and functions that will allow the international office to better translate the institutional international vision into an operational reality.
Brockington, J. L.   (2003).   Bringing the international home: Rethinking the role of study abroad in institutional internationalization.   IIENetworker, Spring, 14-16.
Brod, R., & Huber, B J.   (1992).   Foreign language enrollments in United States institutions of higher education.   ADFL Bulletin, 23(3), 6-10.
Abstract:  In August 1991 the Modern Language Association completed work on its fall 1990 survey of foreign language registrations in United States institutions of higher education, the seventeenth in a series of surveys conducted since 1958 with the support of grants from the US Office of Education or its successor, the US Department of Education. Data for the survey were obtained from postcard questionnaires sent to the registrars of 2,796 two- and four-year institutions. All but 51 of these institutions replied, yielding a response rate of 98.2%. Among the respondents, 2,401, or 87.5%, reported registrations in at least one language other than English.
Brogan, M. L.   (1990).   Trends in international education: New imperatives in academic librarianship.   College and Research Libraries, 51(3), 190-206.
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Abstract:  The author describes new directions in international education during the past decade and links them to new imperatives in academic librarianship. Five major areas of development are considered: foreign language instruction, study abroad, internationalizing the curriculum, foreign students and scholars, and technical assistance and international development. The author recommends six ways in which ACRL might strengthen its role as an advocate of international education. This article was written in connection with the work of ACRL's task force on international relations.
Brooks, B.   (2001).   Business globalization: Broader view.   The State of Business, 14(3).
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Bryant, D.   (1995).   Survival of the interventionist: The personal cost of immersion and social change.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1(Fall), 81-95.
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Abstract:  This article explores the personal distress that interventionists-community psychologists and others whose work requires immersion in a foreign culture-must survive. Considering that an interventionist acts to bring about social change, the article asks whether the issue of burnout has been adequately addressed. This is particularly critical with projects operating abroad because team members must simultaneously learn about and facilitate change within a new culture. Such traumas may not be considered adequately when designing a project and anticipating the shape of the intervention. Furthermore, they historically may not have been considered relevant to reporting findings. Yet the contemporary shifting of paradigms from reliance on quantitative, objective analysis to acceptance of qualitative, subjective inquiry has seen more frequent calls for reports on the human element of community intervention as well as the measurable outcomes (Schumacher, 1973; Trickett, 1984, 1991; Chavis, 1993). To meet the needs of team members, program development should be holistic; that is, personal cultivation and skills acquisition should receive equal attention.
Bu, L.   (1999).   Educational exchange and cultural diplomacy in the Cold War.   Journal of American Studies, 33(3), 393-415.
Bu, L.   (2001).   The challenge of race relations: American ecumenism and foreign student nationalism, 1900-1940.   Journal of American Studies, 35(2), 217-237.
Abstract:  American missionary movements in the nineteenth century contributed to the increasing numbers of foreign students in the United States. Many of those foreign students came from non-western societies where American missionaries were active. The missionaries encouraged and helped young natives of other lands to come to the United States for Christian education with the belief that American education was a vital process for training indigenous leaders for Christianity. Missionaries of different denominations tended to recommend students to the educational institutions they were affiliated with. For instance, Methodist missionaries directed the students to educational institutions of the Methodist Church; the Presbyterians, the Episcopalians, and the Catholics, and other denominations did likewise." They hoped that the students, upon completion of their studies, would go back to their homelands to assume leadership in spreading Christianity.
Bucks, C.   (1996).   A world of options: A guide to international exchange, community service and travel for persons with disabilities.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Abstract:  A guide to international exchange, study, and volunteer opportunities for people with disabilities
Burak, P. A., & Hoffa, W. W. (Eds.)   (2001).   Crisis management in a cross-cultural setting.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  When a crisis hits, we often ask a series of questions: "What?" "Who?" "Where?" "When?" "How?" and then, "What now?" International educators know that responses to these questions may differ from culture to culture. Indeed, the very definition of what is and isn't a 'crisis' may depend upon its cultural context. A compendium of experience and expertise from many professionals in the field of international educational exchange, Crisis Management in a Cross-Cultural Setting is an essential sourcebook, designed to prepare international educators and others to respond appropriately, expeditiously, and comprehensively to crises that befall students and scholars living and learning a long way from where they call 'home.' Its thesis is simple: advance planning and cross-cultural sensitivity can make all the difference.
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs   (1974).   A human contribution to the structre of peace: international education and cultural exchange.   Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
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Abstract:  This publication discusses and provides statistics on United States travel abroad and foreign travel to the United States. Contents include a discussion of the following: (1) trends in travel and exchange programs; (2) scope and relevance of U.S. exchanges; (3) cultural exchanges, programs, and travel between the West and Russia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, the People's Republic of China, and the Middle East; (4) programs involving foreign visitors who came to the United States to study the democratic process; (5) exchange programs aimed at fighting drug abuse; (6) environmental and urban projects; and (7) other nations' support for exchanges. Names, addresses, and descriptions of groups that provide exchange opportunities are provided. The tables in the appendices, which comprise half of the publication, contain statistics on exchange programs from 1949 to 1972. Included are numbers of both U.S. and foreign persons exchanged, origin or destination by area, kinds of exchange grants, and what the travelers taught or studied.
Burgess, W. R.   (1968).   Education for international understanding.   NASSP Bulletin, 52(332), 95-111.
Burkart, B., Hexter, H., & Thompson, D.   (2001).   Why TRIO students need to study abroad.   Washington, DC: Pell Institute.
Abstract:  The emergence of "the global village," the increasing interdependence of economies and the advent of new telecommunications technologies have brought changes to all American institutions, including institutions of higher learning. As pressures have increased upon corporations to "internationalize" their operations, so have colleges and universities been urged to expand their curricula and train students and faculty to operate in an international arena.
Burn, B. B.   (1980).   Expanding the international dimension of higher education.   San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Burn, B. B.   (1980).   Study abroad and international exchanges.   Annals of the America Academy of Political and Social Science, 449, 129-140.
Burn, B. B.   (1990).   The contribution of international educational exchange to the international education of Americans: Projections for the year 2000.   New York: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Abstract:  This paper attempts to forecast the scope and profile of educational exchanges between the United States and other countries in the year 2000 as one approach to assessing the contribution of those exchanges to the international education of U.S. citizens. The forecasts are based in part on predictions relating to political stability, economic growth, and likely developments in higher education in major world regions. The first part reviews major world regions including the following highlights: the probable growth in exchanges with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; the centrality of solving the debt crisis to the future of Latin America nations and exchanges with those countries; and the likely growth in exchanges involving Asia, propelled by its burgeoning economic situation, especially in Japan. The second part of the paper focuses on the contribution of international educational exchanges to U.S. citizens learning about other countries, culture, and international issues. This is done in terms of foreign students in the United States, U.S. students going abroad, faculty exchanges, and how international learning might be enhanced by each activity. The paper concludes that special efforts are required if international educational exchanges are to make a more significant contribution to U.S. international education; the mere existence of exchange does not assure this contribution. This situation should be more widely understood if such efforts are to receive the support they require. Some specific recommendations propose strategies and programs to strengthen the contribution of exchanges to international learning in the United States.
Burn, B. B.   (1994).   The Council's role in research.   In The power of educational exchange: Essays in honor of Jack Egle (pp. 57-64). New York: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Burn, B. B.   (1997).   No pain, no gain - International education research: Obstacles and imperatives.   International Educator, 6(4), 16.
Abstract:  In this half-page article, Burn lists some deterrents to conducting research that international educators encounter and provides a simple explanation that these excuses are not really valid. Burn provides information on where international educators and students can publish and suggests that NAFSA convene a research council.
Burn, B. B., & Briggs, A.   (1985).   Study abroad: A European and an American perspective.   Paris: European Institute of Education and Social Policy.
Abstract:  Study abroad by American undergraduates is increasing in scope and importance although reliable statistical data is not available to document this in detail. Recent trends point to increases in the numbers of students in professional fields and the sciences that study abroad as well as an increase in the number studying in the developing and/or nonwestern countries; however, these numbers are still very limited. The rationale for U.S. study abroad relates to the need for more knowledge of other countries and cultures and their languages by more Americans as part of citizen and professional education and the contribution of study abroad to students' personal growth. Among ten deterrents to U.S. undergraduate study abroad are lack of foreign language proficiency, finance, demographic factors, anti-foreign and parochial attitudes, inadequate structures in colleges and universities to foster and facilitate study abroad, unwarranted priority in some quarters to graduate study abroad, and the lack of research and evaluation documenting impacts. Notwithstanding the deterrents, undergraduate study abroad should be a growing priority, and prospects for strengthening it are increasingly favorable. Nine recommendations to advance the field are set forth, most of which are aimed at reducing or eliminating the deterrents described earlier.
Burn, B. B., & Perkins, J. A.   (1980).   International education in a troubled world.   International Education, 449, 17-30.
Burn, B. B., et al   (1992).   Program review of study abroad.   Tallahassee: State University System of Florida.
Abstract:  Three consultants participated in the 1992 review of study abroad programs at the nine campuses in the Florida State University system. The review found that the State University System study abroad programs are impressive in their scope, in the institutional commitment they enjoy, and in the dedication of many faculty and staff at the different universities. This is noteworthy because, at a number of the universities, a heavy teaching load inhibits faculty members from taking on extra duties that study abroad programs would entail.
Buschman, J.   (1997).   Global study: A world of possibilities.   The Black Collegian Online/Global Study.
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Buschman, J.   (2000).   Study abroad in Africa: A personal memoir.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 130-132.
Buxton, W. J.   (2003).   John Marshall and the humanities in Europe: Shifting patterns of Rockefeller Foundation support.   Minerva, 41, 133-153.
Abstract:  John Marshall is best remembered as the first resident director of the Rockefeller Foundation's Study and Conference Center at Bellagio. Yet, his influence on knowledge, thought, and practice rivalled that of any of his contemporaries at the Rockefeller. This paper describes how he 'went about his business' as a Foundation officer, and examines his contribution to the creation of a transatlantic community of like-minded theorists and practitioners of communications.
Byam, E. C., & Leland, M.   (1930).   American undergraduates in France.   French Review, 3(4), 261-269.
Byrnes, R. F.   (1962).   Academic exchange with the Soviet Union.   Russian Review, 21(3), 213-225.
Campbell, D. M.   (1982).   Attitudes of selected black and white American students towards study abroad programs.   Master's thesis, American University.
Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE)   (2002).   Creating new knowledge and bringing it to market more quickly.   Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE).
Abstract:  This paper presents response of CBIE (Canadian Bureau for International Education) to innovation strategy including creating new knowledge and bringing it to market more quickly.
Carew, J. G.   (1993).   Minority students abroad: An inspiring experience.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 39(18), B3.
Carlson, J. F., & Widaman, K. F.   (1988).   The effects of study abroad during college on attitudes toward other cultures.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 1-17.
Abstract:  The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in attitudes and perceptions toward international understanding by university students who had spent a year of study abroad at a European university. Using a quasi-experimental design, a questionnaire was sent to 450 students who spent their junior year abroad and 800 students who remained on their home campus during their junior year. The response rates were 67% and 65% respectively. The questionnaire asked for retrospective views before the junior year as well as for views presently held. In addition, subjects were queried concerning shifts in attitudes during the junior year. Factor analytic and analysis of variance procedures were used to analyze the data. Consistent with the main hypotheses guiding the study, the results indicated increased levels of international political concern, crosscultural interest, and cultural cosmopolitanism for the study abroad group. This group also reported more positive, yet also more critical views of the United States than did the comparison group. The results were discussed in terms of the general goaIs of international educational exchange programs.
Carlson, J. S., Burn, B. B., Useem, J., & Yachimowicz, D.   (1991).   Study abroad: The experience of American undergraduates in western Europe and the United States.   New York: Council on International Education Exchange.
Carmical, B. H.   (2002).   Internationalizing the campus - what do you need to know?.   New Directions for Higher Education, 117(Spring), 79-86.
Carroll, C. M.   (1998).   Accrediting international education programs.   College Journal, 69(2), 38-42.
Abstract:  This brief article discusses some of the issues, particularly regarding accreditation, that community colleges should think about when developing international education programs. The author was the chair of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges. Included is a minimal checklist for community colleges to consider before setting up international education programs.
Carter, H. M.   (1991).   Minority access to international education.   In CIEE (Ed.), Black students and overseas programs: broadening the base of participation (pp. 6-13). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Carter, W. D.   (1973).   Study abroad and educational development.   Paris: UNESCO.
Carter, W. D.   (1976).   Study and training abroad in the United Nations system.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 67-77.
Abstract:  The United Nations and its Specialized and Associated Agencies have, since their foundation, provided fellowships, study tours, training courses, and workshops to enable specialists from their member states to obtain further training and to exchange experience on problems of mutual interest. Such programs have played a major role in the work of the United Nations system in the developing countries. The present article describes the main features of these programs over the past three decades, some of the problems they have faced, and how they have developed in response to changing perspectives and needs of the member states of the organizations. Some notable developments in these programs during the past five years are discussed, for example, the increased contribution of international, regional, and national training institutes in the organization of training programs and their researches on program content and methodology; new departures in the field of evaluation; the co-ordination of international training programs situated in the developing countries and the potential role of technical co-operation among the developing countries.
Casale-Giannola, D. P.   (2000).   The meaning of international experiences for the professional development of educators.   (Doctoral dissertation, New York University).
Abstract:  Each year universities and numerous professional associations offer increased opportunities to teachers for international study, travel and employment. Study abroad programs are argued to be beneficial for personal and professional growth of participants. For educators specifically, a greater global awareness, often attributed to teachers' international experience, has led to better global education for students. However, individual and international experiences vary widely and meanings are socially constructed. The purpose of this study was to define and interpret the meaning of international travel and study for teachers by describing the process of developing meaning through interpretations of symbols and interactions.
Cash, W. R.   (1993).   Assessment of study-abroad programs using surveys of student participants.   Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Chicago, IL..
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Abstract:  Study-abroad programs are among the many academic programs being evaluated in the assessment of colleges and universities. One evaluation tool is the survey of students who participate in these programs. This paper discusses the use of such surveys by St. Mary's College (Indiana) during the past decade to gather information regarding program strengths and weaknesses and assess the impact of the study abroad program on participants. Statistical data are presented showing what St. Mary's College has learned about its study-abroad program and student needs over the years. These data were collected not only from student surveys of those completing their study-abroad programs, but also routinely from incoming freshmen as well as from outcome measures administered during and after the college experience. While the surveys provide compelling evidence of the immediate effects of these programs, long-term effects were found to be more difficult to determine. Part of the value in assessing these programs has been enhancing the school's ability to make program changes and modifying the program experience and student preparation to achieve greater positive impacts.
Castro, F. P.   (1967, Jan.).   New directions in academic exchange.   Paper presented at CIEE's third Conference on American Academic Programs, Florence, Italy.
Chabbott, C., & Elliott, E. J.   (2003).   Getting more from international comparative studies in education.   Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
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Chase, A. M., & Mahoney, J. R. (Eds.)   (1996).   Global awareness in community colleges - A report of a national survey.   Annapolis Junction, MD: Community College Press.
Chen, L.   (2002).   Writing to host nationals as cross-cultural collaborative learning in study abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 144-164.
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Abstract:  Unlike education in the home country, where academic life generally separates itself from other aspects of students' lives, study abroad opens up the classroom to the whole society. Students' learning about cultural differences occurs, to a large extent, in their leisure time and in serendipity: with host families, in dorms shared with host-country students, in restaurants, parks, on the streets, and so on. All these out-of-classroom aspects are where ambiguity starts. Many students find study abroad appealing exactly because these aspects resemble vacationing (Altschuler). Thus, in the context of study abroad, traditional classroom education, independent of students' experiences, falls short of guiding students to reach their learning potential. Experiential education, by contrast, rests on drawing students' daily experiences into a "process" of "collective" learning (Carver 8-9). Such pedagogy answers the unique challenges of teaching study abroad courses.
Chichester, M., & Akomolafe, S.   (2003).   Minorities and underrepresented groups in international affairs and the foreign policy establishment.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges & U.S. Higher Education Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
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Abstract:  This paper articulates a research agenda to address the issue of minority underrepresentation in international affairs. It presents a synopsis of the problems posed by minority underrepresenation in international education at U.S. colleges and universities, and it points up as well as the ramifications for the formulation and implementation of foreign policy. It then examines, through a review of select and prominent literature, the types of research necessary to inform efforts to improve minority enrollment in international education programs, most importantly the development of data banks on emerging trends. If and when available, such information can be used to assess the nature of the relationship between minority enrollment in certain programs in higher education and minority underrepresentation in international affairs, to see if a correlation can be established as is presumed. However, given the inconsistency and scanty availability of data, formulating authoritative conclusions about the status of minorities in international affairs is at best difficult. Even though existing literature seems to suggest an apparent growing movement toward internationalization on many of the nation's campuses, including a small set of minority institutions, current research has yet to focus on the role of higher education in integrating minorities into the foreign policy environment.
Chieffo, L. P.   (2001).   Determinants of student participation in study abroad programs at the University of Delaware: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware).   Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 61(08), 3078A).
Abstract:  The University of Delaware initiated a long tradition of study abroad programs sponsored by American colleges and universities when it founded the Junior Year Abroad in 1923. Since that time the number of American undergraduates participating in overseas study opportunities has grown to over 115,00 per year, and the University of Delaware consistently ranks among the top schools nationally in the number of students it sends abroad. Over the years educators have promoted foreign study in the belief that a sojourn abroad yields certain personal and academic benefits, and in fact this appears to be the case. Research indicates that under specific circumstances students who study abroad demonstrate increased second language proficiency, intercultural understanding, and knowledge of the host country, and a more mature, realistic self-appraisal than their peers who remain on the home campus. Given the benefits of study abroad, and the current emphasis on global communications and trade, it is surprising that the majority of students, both nationally and at the University of Delaware, do not take advantage of this educational opportunity. The purpose of this quantitative study is to investigate why some students study abroad and others do not, and to analyze the factors which influence their participation decisions. The primary data collection instrument is a survey which was distributed to over 1,000 students in thirty classes at the University of Delaware during the fall of 1999. Statistical data analysis yielded intriguing results. In general, students reported not being very well informed
Chieffo, L. P.   (n.d.).   The freshman factor: Outcomes of short-term education abroad programs on first-year students.   Newark, DE: University of Delaware Center for International Studies.
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Abstract:  This project investigated the short-term study abroad experiences of first-year (freshman) students compared to those of older (sophomore and junior) students, both those studying abroad for the first time and those who also went abroad as freshmen. Over 100 respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data which illuminated reasons for studying abroad, perceived personal growth during time overseas, likelihood of additional sojourns, and more.
Chieffo, L. P., & Griffiths, L.   (2003).   What's a month worth? Student perceptions of what they learned abroad.   International Educator, 12(4), 26-31.
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Abstract:  A study of one institution's short-term programs shows how participating students grow in ways their stay-at-home peers don't.
Chieffo, L. P., & Zipser, R. A.   (2001).   Integrating study abroad into the foreign language curriculum.   ADFL Bulletin, 32(3), 79-85.
Abstract:  In order to avoid preaching to the choir, we have purposely said little in this article about the many benefits students derive from study abroad. Instead we have provided examples of integration between our programs abroad and those on campus and have given some suggestions for ensuring their success. It goes without saying that we designed all our programs with the pedagogical goal of providing unique learning opportunities for our undergraduates. Well-designed overseas programs, when combined with on-campus programs that incorporate coursework done abroad, can provide powerful incentives for students—even those with marginal interest in learning a foreign language—to continue their language study and move up the ladder from the lower to the most advanced level. We mentioned the numerous advantages that successful programs abroad can bring to foreign language departments: stronger relations with other units and a higher profile on campus, increased enrollments in advanced courses, faculty development, and the like. Yet apart from their benefits to individual students and departments, study-abroad programs are very highly valued at the university level as well. They help attract the best applicants to our institution, and they play a major role in the ongoing effort to internationalize the undergraduate student body. In short, treating study-abroad programs as an integral (and integrated) part of the on-campus curriculum yields benefits for students, departments, and the institution as a whole.
Choquette, C. A.   (1940).   A substitute for sabbatical leave.   The Modern Language Journal, 24(5), 353-355.
Christian, J. J.   (1996).   Notes from the receiving end: A program director's perspective from the United Kingdom.   World Education News & Reviews, 9(2)(Spring), 19-20.
Abstract:  The article aims to offer the reader some insight into the trials, tribulations, and rewards experienced by overseas support staff as we try to provide visiting students with an educational experience that is compatible with our own institutional requirements and which will meet their diverse needs. This goal can only be achieved if students have realistic expectations, are flexible, and committed to learning.
Christie, R. A., & Ragans, S. W.   (1999).   Beyond borders: A model for student and staff development.   New Directions for Student Services, 86, 79-87.
CIEE Committee on Underrepresented Groups in Overseas Programs   (1991).   Information and ideas on underrepresented groups in overseas programs.   In CIEE (Ed.), Black students and overseas programs: broadening the base of participation (pp. 40-42). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
CIEE Working Party on Science Study Abroad   (2003, July).   Study abroad for science and engineering students: Barriers to students and strategies for change.   Report presented to the Committee on Curriculum Integration of Forum.
Citron, J. L.   (1995).   Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity.   American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese.
Abstract:  This article explores the hypothesis that having a mind which is open to other ways of looking at the world may facilitate one's ability to learn a new language. Ethno-lingual relativity is a perspective. Having such a perspective might facilitate second language acquisition, in view of support for this hypothesis-drawn from second language research in language aptitude, motivation, personality differences, social and psychological factors, acculturation theory, and pragmatic competence.
Citron, J. L. & Kline, R.   (2001).   From experience to experiential education: Taking study abroad outside the comfort zone.   International Educator, 10(4), 18-26.
Clemens, C. R.   (2002).   A descriptive study of demographic characteristics and perceptions of cross-cultural effectiveness of diverse students at Ohio University in relation to study abroad.   (Doctor Dissertation, Ohio University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis dtabase. (UMI No.3062149).
Abstract:  Our changing interconnected world demands that students have knowledge and understanding of world events, other cultures, and languages. In higher education in terms of international education, and specifically at Ohio University, ethnically diverse students have not considered study abroad in larger numbers. The goals of this study are: (1) to provide some base data on students of color in relation to study abroad, (2) to define perceived barriers to study abroad, and (3) to determine if there is a relationship between selected demographic variables of a diverse student population at Ohio University, and attitudes of cross-cultural effectiveness. During Fall Quarter, 2000, 114 African American, Latino and Multiracial students were surveyed to gather demographic information, and using the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI), to measure four dimensions of cross-cultural effectiveness (emotional resilience, flexibility and openness, perceptual acuity, and personal autonomy). The data was analyzed using descriptive data, and ANOVA set at .05 alpha level. Results from the demographic survey indicated that there was high parental educational attainment, medium to high parental income, prior travel experiences by students, and Europe was still regarded as an important travel destination in addition to Africa and South America. Barriers identified were similar to those previously found in the literature. These included financial constraints, fears associated with racism, and leaving the country, and lack of language competency. Results of the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory indicated that over half the students were highly emotionally resilient, half were flexible and open, and half had high perceptual acuity and personal autonomy. One significant finding was that males were found to be more emotionally resilient than females. It is recommended in further research, to include Asian American and Native American populations, and conduct impact studies on students of color who study abroad.
Cluett, R.   (2002).   From Cicereo to Mohammed Atta: People, politics, and study abroad.   Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 17-39.
Cocciole, C., & Ansara, S.   (1996).   No longer so exotic destinations: South and Southeast Asia.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(1)(Winter), 18-19.
Coffman, J. E.   (2000).   Study abroad in Africa considered within the new world economy.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 49-53.
Cohen, E. C.   (2003).   Tourism and religion: A case study - Visiting students in Israeli universities.   Journal of Travel Research, 42(1), 36-37.
Abstract:  The factors motivating students to take part in overseas study programs are instrumental in understanding the phenomenon of visiting students and other participants in educational tours to Israel. In this study, the reasons why American Jewish students come to study in Israel are examined. Multidimensional data analysis reveals four motivational categories: religion, tourism, religion and tourism combined, and other.
Cohen, W. J.   (1972).   Education legislation 1963-68: Various vantage points.   Educational Researcher, 1(3), 4-10.
Cole, J. W., & Lapidus, G. W.   (1980).   Patterns of daily life.   IREX Occasional Papers, 1(4).
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Abstract:  Two papers are presented which were originally prepared for delivery at a conference to evaluate the results of 20 years of scholarly exchange between the United States, the USSR, and Eastern Europe. Participants included over 300 members of the public affairs community, including government officials, public policy makers, business leaders, journalists, and educators. Both papers deal with the daily life of Eastern European Citizens. In the first paper, "In a Pig's Eye: Daily Life and Political Economy in Southeastern Europe," by John W. Cole, emphasis is placed on the necessity of viewing Southeastern European culture in terms of its own past experience and in comparison with other agrarian areas rather than in comparison with Western Europe or the United States. In the second paper, "Studying the Soviet Social System: The 'Soviet Citizen' Revisited," author Gail Warshofsky Lapidus focuses on the importance of and changes which have occurred since publication of the original "Soviet Citizen" (by Alex Inkeles and Raymond Bauer, Harvard University Press) in 1959.
Coleman, A.   (1925).   American students and French universities.   Modern Language Journal, 9(7), 413-422.
Coleman, J. A.   (1998).   Language learning and study abroad: The European perspective.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(Fall), 207-229.
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Abstract:  The purpose of the present paper is to describe, for a North American audience, how "study abroad" or "residence abroad" is understood in the European context. Here, it is not merely an educational matter: the historical, geographical and political context of Europe has an important influence on the rationale for student residence abroad and on its organisation. As well as highlighting differences from the American context, the paper will describe features of current practice, focusing particularly on the United Kingdom, for several reasons. Residence abroad has been a compulsory part of most degrees in modern languages in the UK for many years, the UK has larger numbers of students involved in the process, and the evaluation of residence abroad has arguably been more systematic than elsewhere in Europe, where residence abroad is normally optional, is not closely integrated into the degree structure, and (at least until recently) has carried little or no weight within the credit structure of the degree. Finally, I shall review the published research into residence abroad, especially with regard to foreign language proficiency and to intercultural competence. The paper is divided into four sections dealing respectively with the European context, residence abroad in Europe, UK specific information, and research findings.
College Entrance Examination Board   (1970, Jun.).   The foreign graduate students: Priorities for research and action.   A colloquium held in Wingspread, Racine, Wisconsin.
Abstract:  The purposes of the colloquium were to identify the pertinent questions relative to the growing influx of foreign graduate students relative to the growing influx of foreign graduate students to the United States and to reach consensus on priorities for research and action.
Collins, N., & Davidson, D.   (2002).   From the margin to the mainstream: Innovative approaches to internationalizing education for a new century.   Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 34(5), 50-58.
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Colorado Commission on Higher Education   (1994).   Report of the committee on education abroad.   Denver: Colorado Commission on Higher Education.
Abstract:  The purpose of this report was to promote further development of international education in Colorado through the expansion of foreign language instruction, students and faculty exchanges, enrollment of international students, collaboration with state and private sector entities in international commerce, and the establishment of consortia agreements. It also addresses the need to convince the public that international education is a worthwhile goal, and reviews the current status of international education programs at various colleges and universities on Colorado.
Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe   (1979).   Fulfilling our promises: The United States and the Helsinki Final Act. A status report.   Washington, DC: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Abstract:  This report examines compliance by the United States with agreements made in the Helsinki Final Act. The Act was signed in 1975 by leaders of 33 East and West European nations, Canada, and the U.S. It contains numerous cooperative measures aimed at improving East-West relations. This report was prepared by the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), an independent advisory agency that monitors the implementation records of the U.S. and other countries which signed the Final Act. One of the report's purposes is the conscientious examination of the U.S. implementation record, including shortcomings pointed out by some CSCE participants and domestic critics. Four major chapters review U.S. actions in four conceptual areas. The chapter titled "Security in Europe" explores principles such as soverign equality, inviolability of frontiers, and non-intervention in internal affairs. It also examines aspects of military security. The chapter titled "Human Rights" covers political and civil rights, social and economic rights, women's rights, and religious liberty. The chapter on economic and scientific cooperation explores implementation in areas of commercial exchange, industrial cooperation, environment, and science and technology. The chapter on cooperation in humanitarian and other fields examines reduced restrictions on individual travel, radio broadcasts, and cultural and educational exchanges. A conclusion and appendices are included.
Comp, D. J.   (2000).   Undergraduate sojourner change as a result of a study abroad experience.   (Master's thesis, University of Nebraska).
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Abstract:  A qualitative approach was used to explore the personal changes that undergraduate sojourners encountered as a result of their study abroad experience. This research project also investigated the factors or experiences in the host country that influenced change during the sojourner's cross cultural learning experience. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 10 undergraduate students from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who participated on at least a semester long study abroad program during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participant interviews were coded and analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data suggested that undergraduate sojourners experienced intellectual, psychological, social and/or physical changes as a result of their study abroad experience. The data also revealed that very few factors or experiences influenced sojourner change. Identified change was more of a gradual process rather than precipitated by any specific factors or experiences. A theoretical model is proposed that explains, in part, what changes undergraduate sojourners experience as a result of a study abroad experience. The results of this project may be useful to Study Abroad staff and administrators in promoting and coordinating study abroad programs as well as in facilitating pre-departure and re-entry orientations and programs. This project may also stimulate ideas for future research on the effect study abroad experiences have on undergraduate sojourners.
Confederation of EU Rectors' Conferences, & Association of European Universities   (2000).   The Bologna declaration on the European space for higher education: An explanation.   Paris: UNESCO.
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Connell, C.   (2003).   Internationalizing the campus 2003: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  In the pages that follow you will find a series of captivating accounts about international education exchange from the points of view of the people engaged in international education activities at 16 colleges and universities.
Connell, C.   (2003).   Internationalizing the campus: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Coordinating Office for Student Work Placement Abroad   (2002).   Quality assurance in international work placements.   The Hague, Netherlands: Nuffic.
Abstract:  In this brochure, as in the report "Quality in internationalization", published by the Association for Dutch Universities of Higher Professional Education (HBO-Raad) and Nuffic (The Hague, 1995), a number of guidelines are provided, based on experience, for quality assurance in international work placements within institutes of higher education. The Introduction outlines a policy framework. After that a number of indicators are provided for the three main phases in the implementation of international work placements (preparation, supervision and evaluation) from the viewpoint of the three parties involved: the student, the educational institution and the organization offering the work placement.
Cormack, M. L.   (1968).   International development through educational exchange.   Review of Educational Research, 38, 293-302.
Cory, M. E.   (1975).   A mini-semester abroad.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 8(2), 116-119..
Cotner, J. S., & Smith, D.   (2000).   EMBA international field studies: A comparative perspective.   Journal of the Academy of Business Education.
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Abstract:  The majority of EMBA programs include a significant international study experience. The content and process, though, vary considerably in length, location, and method. To provide insight to the effectiveness of different approaches, the researchers conducted extensive interviews with 40 EMBA program directors. This paper presents results of the investigation along with observations from EMBA directors and faculty. Results are presented along several dimensions, including length, location, cost, organizations visited, special events, learning objectives, and participant satisfaction.
Council on International Educational Exchange   (1991).   Widening the base of participation: Black students and study abroad.   New York: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE)   (2002).   A history of the Council on International Ecuational Exchange: 1947-1994.   New York: Council on International Educational Exchange.
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Craig, S.   (1998).   Global leadership for African-American collegians: A 21st century imperative: Study and travel abroad enhance leadership skills.   The Black Collegian, 29(1), 78.
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Craig, S.   (1998).   Global study: Reflecting the norms of an international society.   The Black Collegian, 28(2), 138.
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Craig, S.   (1998).   Study abroad adviser: Top 10 reasons for African American students to go abroad.   Transitions Abroad, 10(1), 89-91.
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Craig, S.   (1999).   Study abroad 101: The basic facts.   The Black Collegian Online, 8.
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Crawford, R. L.   (1986).   The Fulbright teacher exchange program: A few caveats.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 19(1)(Spring), 81-83.
Cressey, W. W.   (2000).   Study abroad and area studies.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 46-48.
Cummings, M. C.   (2003).   Cultural diplomacy and the United States Government: A survey.   Center for Arts and Culture.
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Abstract:  The essay that follows has two objectives. First, to provide a brief survey of some of the major cultural policy initiatives of the United States government from the 1930's until recent times. Second, to underscore some of the broader patterns and trends that can be discerned in America's cultural relations with other countries and other peoples.
Currie, D. M., Krbec, D., & Matulich, S.   (2003, Nov.).   The use of a global business practicum in promoting international competence.   Paper presented at the Business Education and Emerging Market Economies conference, Atlanta, GA.
Abstract:  Higher levels of education for international business require that students experience what it is like to work in another country. One way to meet this need is through a business practicum, in which students work on a project assigned by a sponsoring company. A business practicum abroad provides an opportunity for students to apply business principles while they learn about the decision-making process and work environment in another country. This paper reports the results of a collaborative practicum between universities in the United States and Croatia. The practicum achieves several goals on the part of students, faculty, the universities and the government of Croatia.
Currier, C., Omar, M., Talarczyk, G., & Diaz Guerrero, R.   (2000).   Development and implementation of a semester program in Mexico for senior nursing students.   Journal of Professional Nursing, 16(5), 293-299.
Abstract:  The College of Nursing (CON), Michigan State University (MSU), in collaboration with the School of Nursing and Obstetrics, University of Guanajuato, Celaya, Mexico, developed a semester-long study-abroad program for senior MSU nursing students offered for the first time in the fall of 1998. The program provides intensive Spanish language classes and allows students to take required nursing courses in Mexico with a substantial amount of course content provided by Mexican faculty without an MSU CON faculty member on site at all times. Students receive a broad perspective of nursing and health care in Mexico, and develop an appreciation for its language and culture as well. This program represents an innovative approach to the development and implementation of a study-abroad program in nursing.
Curthoys, A.   (2000).   Australian studies and study abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(Winter), 47-57.
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Cushner, K., & and Mahon, J.   (2002).   Overseas student teaching: Affecting personal, professional, and global competencies in an age of globalization.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 6(1), 44-58.
Abstract:  Conditions in the world today demand that teachers have increased international knowledge and experience that they can transmit to the students in their charge. Developing the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve such objectives requires significant immersion experiences in cultures other than one's own.Schools of edu cation, however, give scant attention to this reality.This study examined the nature of the international student teaching experience and its impact on the professional and personal development of new teachers.Fifty returned student teachers reported how such an experience affected them personally as well as professionally.Findings reflect the study-abroad literature in general, suggesting that an overseas experience has immense benefits for the student teacher.Students reported impact on their beliefs about self and others as evidenced through increased cultural awareness and improved self-efficacy, as well as professional development in terms of global- mindedness.
Dahl, A. G.   (2000).   Piquing the interest of African American students in foreign languages: The case of Spelman College.   ADFL Bulletin, 31(2), 30-35.
Abstract:  The author who is an Associate Professor of Spanish at Spelman College describes the increase in interest in foreign languages with a specific focus on Spanish and French. The author discusses a variety of observations regarding this increase and discusses its relationship with study abroad programs.
Daly, A. J.   (1993).   Australian and New Zealand university students? articipation in international exchange programs.  
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Abstract:  With increasing competition within the marketplace, graduates require skills such as intercultural competencies to make them more employable. Study abroad and student exchange programs are effective means by which students may gain such international knowledge and skills. Moreover, studies in the US and Europe have shown that students acknowledge that participation in student exchange programs are beneficial, but very few students take this opportunity. Unfortunately, data relating to Australian and New Zealand students? plans for participating in exchange experiences is not readily available. This study aims to develop the body of knowledge surrounding Australian and New Zealand student exchange programs. Staff at the International Offices of 27 Australian and four New Zealand universities completed surveys, which examined the demographics of students participating in programs from 2000-2001. Overall, the findings indicate that despite greater government focus on internationalisation and student exchange opportunities, less than one percent of Australian and New Zealand students participate in student exchange programs.
Davidson, D. E.   (2002, October).   When just being there is not enough.   Paper presented at the Conference on Language Gain in the Study Abroad Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Abstract:  The student records database of the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR) on study abroad learning now contains more than 3000 learning histories for study abroad participants of varying backgrounds and immersion durations. The present report updates previous studies (including "Predictors of Gain," Brecht, Davidson, Ginsberg) on the effects of varying durations of immersion on typical post-program language outcomes (language gains expressed in proficiency terms) for speaking, reading, and listening typical for summer, semester, or academic year-long program durations. The study considers a fairly broad range of learner variables including initial language levels, years of prior study, learning styles, and learning backgrounds represented within the student population. Such outcomes-based data are seen as significant for study abroad program evaluation and policy formation more generally, given the size of the learner population and the broad range of institutions represented in the ACTR data. Having established baseline data for different program durations and learning histories, the paper then turns briefly to report on the results of four specific intervention strategies on predicted program outcomes; 1) meta-cognitive preparation of learners in self-managed learning; 2) targeted training of teachers in Russia in student-centered learning and proficiency-based program development; 3) a revised mechanism for selection and monitoring of homestay placements. Data collected over the past four years show that the specific interventions produced statistically significant (.002) "yields"/ improvements in oral proficiency gains/ in comparison to learners of equivalent background and initial levels of language competence in control groups. Possible and on-going adjustments in study abroad immersion-learning models are noted for learner groups with different threshold levels of language competence.
Davidson, D. E., & Lehman, S.   (2001-2005).   A longitudinal survey of the language learning careers of ACTR advanced students of Russian: 1976-2000.   Russian Language Journal, 55, 193-221.
Davis, J. M.   (1964).   Some trends in innternational education exchange.   Comparative Education Review, 8(1), 48-57.
Davis, P. W., & Mello, N. A.   (2003).   Beyond study abroad: The value of international experiential education.   International Educator, 12(1), 40-48.
Davis, T.   (1995).   Flows of international students: Trends and issues.   International Higher Education, 1, 2-3.
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Dawson, N. J.   (2000).   Study abroad and African American college students at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 124-129.
Abstract:  In this paper, I discuss some of the obstacles, challenges, and benefits associated with bringing African study-abroad experiences to African American college students at SIUC. This essay is part of a larger body of research I am conducting through a grant I received from the Association of International Educational Administrators to assess African American students' participation in the African Cultural Continuities program. The last section of this paper includes excerpts from reflection essays written by students who participated in the program in 1999.
Day-Vines, N. L.   (1998).   Study abroad: An investigation of the impact of African diasporic travel on the psychosocial development of African American college sojourners.   Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State Univeristy.
Abstract:  This study examined the main effects of an African diasporic travel intervention on the psychosocial development of African American college sojourners. The treatment group consisted of 12 African American college students who participated in the deliberate psychological education intervention during a six week study abroad program in Ghana. As part of the deliberate psychological education, treatment group members participated in weekly discussion groups and maintained journals detailing their African diasporic travel experience. Control group members consisted of 12 African American college students who were either enrolled in an African American studies course or who were members of a Black student campus organization.
de Vries, E.   (1965).   Study and research concerning international relations and exchanges in the fields of education, science and culture.   Paris: UNESCO.
De Wit, H.   (1994).   Erasmus meets Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci: The impact of European programs.   World Education News & Reviews, 7(2)(Spring), 1, 20-23.
De Wit, H.   (1996).   European internationalization programs.   International Higher Education, 4, 5-6.
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De Wit, H.   (1996).   The cultures of education: The European Asssociation for International Education.   International Higher Education, 5, 6.
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De Wit, H.   (1997).   Studies in international education: A research perspective.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 1(1), 1-8.
Abstract:  This article seeks to place "studies in international education" within the broader context of educational science, and to contribute to the improvement of the theoretical basis of analysis and research methods of international education. Recognition of "international education" as a special research area is, given its growing importance in practice and in research, inevitable and necessary. The Journal of Studies in International Education can play a role in establishing it as a means off communication and dissemination between researchers and practitioners. The start of the Journal is a marketing point, not only because of its scholarly and global perspective, but also because of its ability to position the study of international education in a specific place and platform within the broad field of educational research.
De Wit, H.   (1999).   Changing rationales for internationalization.   International Higher Education, 15, 2-3.
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De Wit, H.   (2002).   Internationalization of higher education in the United States of America and Europe: A historical, comparative, and conceptual analysis.   Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Decker, D. K   (1999, Nov. 7).   Personal business; M.B.A. classes casting their aspirations abroad.   The New York Times.
Abstract:  Georgetown University and Southern Methodist University business schools, following lead of University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business, now require students to make overseas study trip of one or two weeks in attempt to address increasingly global nature of business.
Delehanty, J. M., & Raducha, J. A.   (2000).   American study-abroad programs and the African university.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 65-68.
DeLuca, L.   (2000).   Representations of African study abroad on video.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 80-83.
Abstract:  The video's target audience includes American college students considering study abroad in Africa as well as their parents. With that goal in mind, the film has a reassuring quality, but it also offers candid insights about study opportunities in a variety of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Its upbeat musical score makes the film entertaining as well.
Demetry, C., & Vaz, R. F.   (2002, Nov.).   International project experiences: Assessing impact on students' educational and personal development.   Paper presented at the ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Boston, MA.
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Abstract:  We are examining the impact of global, inderdisciplinary project experiences on WPI (Worchester Polytechnic Institute) students. A first step is to understand pre-existing differences in students who choose to do their project overseas and those who do not. Here we report results of an analysis of CIRP freshman survey data that shows significant differences in social and civic orientation between these two cohorts of students
DeRuntz, B. D.   (2003).   Assessing the value of short term international experience for industrial technology educators.   Journal of Industrial Technology, 19(4), 2-7.
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Desruisseaux, P.   (1992, Nov. 25).   Abroad, minority students' challenges transcend academics.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 39(14), A27.
Abstract:  Presents comments from Spelman College exchange student, a black American student living in a country where foreigners increasingly are being subjected to verbal and even physical assault. Numbers of people she meets who have never actually met a black person; Her studies at the Technical University of Berlin; Being informed about your environment; People curious about you and your customs; Recruiting more minority exchange students; A positive experience.
Desruisseaux, P.   (1992, Nov. 25).   An older, more diverse group of American students is expected to participate in study-abroad programs.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, A28.
Deupree, J.   (2002).   Strategies to recruit U.S. students to study in other national systems.   New York: German Academic Exchange Service Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD).
Abstract:  This report is an attempt to create a profile of the strategies undertaken by the education systems of selected countries to attract American students to study within those systems either for the short or long term.
Devon, R., Hager, W., Lesenne, J., & Saintive, D.   (1998, Aug.).   Student outcomes of international collaborations.   Paper presented at the International Conference for Engineering Education, Rio de Janiero, Brazil.
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Abstract:  Establishing international collaborations between engineering education programs often entails a number of different activities, none of which are easy to establish or maintain. It is easy to lose sight of the goals. This paper suggests using student outcomes as a way of assessing and focusing these collaborations. The topic will be addressed using the experiences and data from a 5-year collaboration between the Université d'Artois in France and Penn State University in the USA. Anecdotal data will be used from students who have engaged in collaborative design projects, in discussions of ethics, and who have had cross-national co-operative experiences. Key issues studied will be the positive role of cross-cultural differences, the preparatory role of such student experiences for working in the global economy, and the ability of information technology to internationalize the in-house engineering curriculum.
Dewey, D.   (2002, Oct.).   Study abroad in Japan: The ideal environment for learning to read?.   Paper presented at the Conference on Language Gain in the Study Abroad Environment, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Abstract:  In this presentation, I will describe in detail a study of the development of reading processes and comprehension during study abroad (SA) in Japan. I will begin by providing brief overviews of research on language learning during SA in Japan and on the development of reading during SA in general. I will then describe a study involving a comparison between American students learning Japanese in an intensive language program in Japan and students in a summer intensive domestic immersion (IM) program in the U.S. Measures of reading included in this study were think aloud and free recall protocols, self assessments and vocabulary knowledge tests. Findings include: 1) a lack of significant differences between SA and IM groups in terms of changes over time on major measures of reading comprehension; 2) the presence of significant differences in terms of changes in reading processes (IM group monitored understanding less and showed affective reaction more over time than the SA group); 3) differences in the growth of background knowledge (knowledge that can often facilitate reading comprehension). Interaction with others (in particular teachers) in Japanese played a major role in predicting changes in reading processes over time. In addition, variation in terms of changes on reading measures was significantly greater for the SA group than for the IM group. I will discuss these and other results and will conclude with suggestions for further research, in particular on the topic of literacy development during SA.
DeWinter, U. J.   (1997).   Science and engineering education abroad: An overview.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 3(Fall).
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Diehl, C.   (1976).   Innocents abroad: American students in German universities, 1810-1870.   History of Education Quarterly, 16(3), 321-341.
Diez, M.   (1946).   A Junior Year in Zurich for 1946-47.   The German Quarterly, 19(2), 152-156.
Dillon, S.   (2003, Apr. 18).   Islamic world less welcoming to American scholars.   The New York Times.
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Abstract:  In some cases, academic institutions or researchers themselves have canceled trips in response to State Department warnings of danger. In other cases, host countries have denied them study permits. Experts say the war has caused the greatest interruption of overseas study since World War II, forcing the cancellation or postponement of hundreds of expeditions researching everything from Islamic law to the bone knives used by ancient butchers.
Djerejian, E. P.   (2003).   Changing minds winning peace: A new strategic direction for U.S. public diplomacy in the Arab & Muslim world.   Washington, DC: The Advisory Group on Public Diplomacy for the Arab and Muslim World.
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Abstract:  This report presents strategic direction and resources to accomplish the crucial work of public diplomacy, including strategic direction, instruments of public diplomacy, new operating process and architecture for a transformed public diplomacy and specific recommendations.
Dobinson, C. H.   (1970).   Sixteen to twenty: Education for international understanding.   Comparative Education, 6(2), 79-84.
Doherty, K., & Goff, L.   (2002, Oct.).   London calling: Exploring and discovering what students really learn overseas.   Paper presented at the 31st annual Conference of the National Society for Experiential Education, Las Vegas, NV.
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Doi, J. I.   (1958).   Education in a world society.   Review of Educational Research, 28(1), 42-53.
Abstract:  In this chapter primary emphasis will be given to research dealing with education for world affairs,, international ventures in education, and educationa lreconstruction and reform in various countries that reflect the impact of world-wide forces on education.
Doorbar, A.   (2003).   The U.S. study abroad market: What are the barriers to purchase?.   IIENetworker, Fall, 58-60.
Abstract:  This article presents the findings of a new research study on the qualities that U.S. employers seek in their new hires, and if a study abroad experience is one of them. [IIENetworker]
Dougherty, D. M.   (1950).   The value of a year of study in France for undergraduates.   The French Review, 23(4), 304-307.
Abstract:  The advantages of foreign study at the junior year stage can hardly be overestimated. Undergraduate study in France, regardless of the student's major, in no may interferes with subsequent graduate work abroad, provided that the year's work is fitted into his undergraduate program so as to permit him to receive his degree without difficulty at the end of his senior year.
Dowell, M. M.   (1995, Nov.).   Changing perspectives toward the target culture among selected participants in a study abroad program in Cuernavaca, Mexico.   Paper presented in Research Perspectives in Adult Language Learning and Acquisition, Columbus, OH.
Dowell, M. M., & Mirsky, K .P.   (2003).   Study abroad: How to get the most out of your experience.   Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Abstract:  Via personalized exercises, this self-directed workbook guides students through five distinct strands of development, all of which are necessary to fully capitalize on their study abroad experience. Strands include: personal development, learning about one's own culture, learning about another culture, professional development, and learning a language, and each is addressed at the three crucial phases of the experience: before, during and after the sojourn. One major goal of the text is to offer a purposeful agenda to help students move from being the conventional tourist to an explorer who truly acquires an authentic view of another culture.
Dubois, D. R.   (1995).   Responding to the needs of our nation: A look at the Fullbright and NSEP education acts.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 1(Fall).
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Abstract:  Historically, the U.S. government has played little role in international education. Among the reasons for its lack of involvement include the American traditions of isolationism, limited government, education as a local concern, and the State Department's distance from the public at large.
Duffy, M. E.   (1996, Sept.).   Undergraduate student exchange program: Utah and Finland.   Paper presented at the Second Nursing Academic International Congress, University of Kansas, Kansas City, MO.
Duffy, M. E., Harju, L., Huittinen, L., & Trayner, C.   (1999).   An innovative model for international undergraduate education.   Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 20(1), 26-31.
DuFon, M. A., Adams, R., Churchil, E., & McMeekin, M.   (2001, Oct.).   Second language acquisition in study abroad contexts.   Papers presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Abstract:  It is commonly believed that language study abroad is the most effective and efficient road to proficiency in a foreign language. Yet while the empirical research on learners in study abroad programs has determined that study abroad has a strong positive effect on the development of fluency, communication strategies and sociolinguistic competence, many questions pertaining to SLA in a study abroad context remain unanswered. For example, with a few exceptions, the findings of studies to date tell us little about actual language use or the nature of the social interaction between learners and competent native speakers of the host culture and their effects on the process of language acquisition. Furthermore attempts to measure changes in interlanguage development often yield divergent findings (Freed, 1995). In order to advance our knowledge in these areas, this colloquium will begin by taking a critical look at various measures of language assessment that have been used to measure learner gains in study abroad contexts and then present empirical evidence (Paper #1) in support of the use of multiple methods in order to obtain accurate profiles of language learners. Then three more studies will be presented which have incorporated multiple methods to examine the nature of the social interaction between the learners and native speakers of the host culture and the effect of this social interaction on the acquisition of both linguistic and social information. Paper #2 primarily utilizes diary data to examine socialization into American culture via participation in routines. Paper #3 focuses on conversational data to compare the negotiation of meaning in both classroom and homestay situations in Japan and Paper #4 examines the socialization of taste by study abroad learners in Indonesia using microanalysis of discourse and learner journals. Moreover, the pedagogical implications of all the studies will be discussed.
Duke, C. R.   (2000).   Study abroad learning activities: A synthesis and comparison.   Journal of Marketing Education, 22, 155-165.
Abstract:  Learning activities are described for study abroad tours with appropriateness discussed in terms of study tour characteristics of location, integration with academic credit, and time spent on the tour. Journal writing is the most versatile activity. Company visits are the most impressive to students. Simulations engage students but require computer technology. Projects require sufficient research resources. Lecture/testing and treasure hunts require more time on tour.
Dulles, F. R.   (1966).   A historical view of Americans abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 368, 11-20.
Abstract:  Americans have traveled abroad in increasing numbers ever since the formation of the Republic. Their numbers at first were very limited and largely confined to the well-to-do. Newly developed means of transportation, from the trans-Atlantic steamship to the modern jet airplane, have combined with increasing prosperity and enhanced leisure to swell the annual visitation of the Old World by Americans from a few thousands in the early nineteenth century to more than a million in the 1960's. The expansion in this tourist travel has been particularly notable in the postwar years, and there has also been a tremendous increase in the number of Americans living at least temporarily abroad-American military forces and their dependents, government officials, teachers, and students. Ever since its beginnings, business, education, travel for its own sake, and vacations have been the principal motives for the European journeying. "Americans have a special call to travel," a contributor to the North American Review wrote in 1856. "It is the peculiar privilege of their birth in the New World, that the Old World is left them to visit." This is still true today and would appear largely to account for the flood of tourists annually crossing the Atlantic. For a segment of society now including all salaried workers and even numbers of skilled wage earners, as well as businessmen, the professional classes, and others among the well-to-do, travel abroad has become a part of the American way of life.
Dung, K.   (1991).   Students speak for themselves: Experiences in Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic.   In CIEE (Ed.), Black students and overseas programs: broadening the base of participation (pp. 37-39). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Dunstan, P.   (2001).   Internationalizing the student experience: How serious are we?.   International Educator, 10(1), 34-40.
Abstract:  An analysis of how internationalization works in Australia yields insights and ideas for improved practices worldwide.
Durbin, D. J., & Franz, S. L. B.   (2003).   The development and delivery of a three-week study abroad programme in construction science.   World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 2(1), 125-128.
Abstract:  This paper details the development and delivery of a study abroad programme for students in the Construction Science Department at the University of Cincinnati (UC). The programme was developed over an eighteen month period beginning in the spring of 2001 and took place during a three week period in September of 2002. This programme was a cooperative effort involving faculty members at the University of Cincinnati, the University of Technology-Sydney (UTS), the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) along with the staff at the Institute for Global Studies and Affairs (IGSA) at UC. Twelve students and two faculty members from the Construction Science Department at UC spent the first three weeks of September studying Australian architecture, construction techniques and culture. Those participants who submitted a twenty page research paper on the Australian construction industry received three technical elective credits. Student evaluations of the programme were overwhelmingly positive. Further work is now underway to institutionalise this programme and make it an annual offering from the Construction Science Department.
Durgin, W. W., & Zwiep. D. N.   (2000, Oct.).   Global projects prepare WPI students for the 21st Century.   Educating the Engineer for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Global Engineering Education, Aachen, Germany, October 1.
Abstract:  The WPI project based curriculum, which emphasizes discovery based learning are an alternative to the traditional information transfer process, has proved successful in delivering global engineering education. More than 25% of the learning process of the students is integrated into two formal projects, the Major Qualifying Project (MQP) which is designed as a capstone for professional technical competence and the Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP) which relates science and technology to societal concerns and student needs. Both the MQP and IQP may be completed on- or off-campus. Currently, over 50% of the graduating class will have completed one of the projects at an overseas location under WPl's Global Perspectives Program. Each year, more than twenty faculty members will be advising and sharing a learning experience with the students at international locations spanning six continents. Living and working in an unfamiliar culture while pursuing real world problems of importance to local agencies or organizations provides a unique and stimulating learning environment. Students are fully immersed in the local culture and conduct their studies under the guidance of WPI faculty members. Traditionally, global projects have emphasized the inter-relationship of technology and society through the IQP. More recently, technical projects and research have been added through the MQP and graduate research efforts. The result of the student projects which arc generally carried out by small teams, 3-5 students per team is typical, includes oral presentations and a tinal written report which is presented to a sponsoring agency as well as filed for future use at the WPI library. This paper describes the WPI global program and is based on the experiences of the authors in advising project activities. It emphasizes the preparation of the WPI students for global projects, the infrastructure needed to support such activities, and the outcomes in terms of global aspects of some graduates' careers.
Durnall, E. J.   (1967).   Study-abroad programs: A critical survey.   The Journal of Higher Education, 38(8), 450-453.
Earle, R.   (1998, Mar.).   Connecting to a worldwide network to participate in international internships.   Paper presented at the 44th Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Orlando, FL.
Easterley, J. L., (Ed.)   (1994).   Promoting global teacher education: Seven reports.   Renton, VA: Assocation of Teacher Educators.
Abstract:  This book addresses the following questions from a number of perspectives: (1) what is global education? (2) what does "globally aware" mean? (3) what does it mean to teach with a global perspective? and (4) what must teacher educators do to prepare themselves and their students for an increasingly more complicated world order?
Eaton, E. M.   (1957).   Language and the experiment in international living.   The Modern Language Journal, 41(7), 330-331.
Ebuchi, K.   (1991).   The effects of governmental policies on foreign students in Japan: A brief statement of general policy trends: Country report on Japan.   Higher Education, 21(3), 407-422.
Edgerton, W. B.   (1976).   Who participates in education exchange.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 424, 6-15.
Abstract:  International education has been a growing field in the United States since the beginning of major exchange activity with the establishment of the Fulbright-Hays Fellowships shortly after World War II. This article briefly examines many of the factors that have promoted the growth of large-scale exchange and discusses reasons why they can be expected to play a significant role in determining the future of exchange.
Edwards, J.   (2000).   The "other Eden": Thoughts on American study abroad in Britain.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6(Winter), 83-98.
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Abstract:  Here I will attempt to untangle some of the issues that characterize what might be termed "British studies" on American campuses. These issues are of interest to American international educators because Britain plays a prominent role in exchange activities of all kinds. Common campus assumptions in respect to Britain have significant effects on the way in which we think about study abroad in Britain for our students, about the nature of British academic institutions, and about the quality of transatlantic academic interactions. Some of these assumptions, I will argue, need re-evaluation. Exploring this usually taken-for-granted corner of our intercultural lives may help us see with new eyes the ways in which our institutions shape and influence our students' understanding and experience of this still (somewhat shakily) sceptered isle.
Edwards, J. & Humphrey, T.   (1990).   Internationalizing the community college: Strategies for the classroom.   Developing International Education Programs, New Directions for Community Colleges, 70, 17-26.
Einbeck, K.   (2002).   Using literature to promote cultural fluency in study abroad programs.   Teaching German, 35(1), 59-67.
Abstract:  This article describes a literature course designed for study abroad students to help them become both culturally and linguistically fluent.
Ellingboe, B .J.   (2003).   Finding your path: Working effectively with an internationalization consultant.   International Educator, 12(3), 22-29.
Elliott, A.   (1966).   Comparison and interchange: The relevance of cultural relations to comparative education.   Comparative Education, 2(2), 63-70.
Abstract:  The viewpoint expressed in this article is that another important facet has to be taken into account-that which concerns the actual processes of interchange across boundaries. Nowadays it is not sufficient to take into account only historical background as a determinant of differences and similarities between systems. One must also consider contemporary events through which nations bring influence to bear on each other, and among them the large number of official and unofficial programs of educational exchange for the purposes of technical assistance, cultural relations and scientific co-operation. These programs may consist of fellowships, scholarships, visiting professorships, teacher exchange, conferences, meetings, seminars, advisory missions, visits by delegations.
Elliott, A. J. A.   (1965).   The evaluation of international education: An administrative approach.   Social Science Information, 4, 61-78.
Elliott, J. A.   (1967).   Foreign students in perspective.   Social Science Information, 6(189).
Emanoil, P.   (1999).   Study abroad expands cultural view, life skills, and academic experience.   Human Ecology Forum, Summer.
Abstract:  Four human ecology students traveled to Spain, Italy, Indonesia, and Sweden to learn more about themselves and the world around them.
Endicott, L., Bock, T., & Narvaez, D.   (2003).   Moral reasoning, intercultural development, and multicultural experiences: Relations and cognitive underpinnings.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 403-419.
Engberg, D., & Green, M. F. ( Eds.)   (2000).   Promising practices: Spotlighting excellence in comprehensive internationalization.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
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Abstract:  Promising Practices: Spotlighting Excellence in Comprehensive Internationalization showcases the efforts of eight U.S. colleges and universities that are leading the movement to educate a globally competent citizenry. Each case study, written by one or more representatives of the institution profiled, details the college's goals, programs, and activities related to internationalization, as well as challenges and future plans. Taken together, the case studies suggest a comprehensive road map to internationalization for any institution committed to internationalizing undergraduate education. [ACE]
Engle, J., & Engle, L.   (1999).   Program intervention in the process of cultural integration: The example of French practicum.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abraod, 5(Fall), 39-59.
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Engle, J., & Engle, L.   (1999).   Study abroad levels: Notes towards a classification of program types.   Paper presented at the NAFSA: Association of International Educators Annual Conference, Denver, CO.
Engle, L.   (2003).   Study abroad program elements.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Engle, L., & Engle, J.   (2003).   Study abroad levels: Toward a classification of program types.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Fall, 1-20.
Ewart, A.   (1996, Apr. 18).   A woman of color in Russia.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
Fairfield, R. P.   (1964).   The peace corps and the university: Promises and problems for higher education.   The Journal of Higher Education, 35(4), 189-201.
Abstract:  The Peace Corps is the most imaginative and possibly the most successful New Frontier idea-become-reality. Despite the skeptics' predictions and a continuing bombardment of biting cartoons, volunteers have gone overseas, performed their tasks effectively, and managed to escape identification with the more controversial issues of the Cold War. True, Moscow has called the volunteers "agents of imperialism"; the Nigerian postal-card incident shocked many Americans into an awareness of the high stakes invo1ved;l and a few volunteers proved inefficient or delinquent and returned home involuntarily. But these instances have been rare. The Peace Corps has become a viable American institution. The forty-six nations receiving assistance have asked for second, third, and fourth contingents, and the prospects for continued demand seem promising. Congressional support has been bipartisan. In general, press coverage has been both extensive and kindly.
Falcetta, F. M.   (2001).   The globalization of community colleges. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 7-9).   Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation.
Retrieved from:
Falk, R., & Kanach, N. A.   (2000).   Globalization and study abroad: An illusion of paradox.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 155-168.
Retrieved from:
Fantini, A. E.   (2002).   Academic mobility programs and intercultural competence.   SIT Occasional Papers Series- Study Abroad: Student Essays and Research, 3(Winter), 15-20.
Fantini, A. E. (Ed.)   (2002, Winter).   SIT occasional papers series: Study abroad - Student essays and research.   Brattleboro, VT: School for International Training.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  The SIT Occasional Papers Series is dedicated to advancing knowledge, skills, and awareness of theory and practice in the fields of intercultural communication, language education, training, and service. The Series presents items of interest to educators, trainers, practitioners, researchers, and students. These include essays, articles, reports of current research, and evaluations, as well as information about SIT, World Learning, Projects in International Development and Training, The Experiment in International Living, and the international federation to which they belong.
Farone, C. A.   (2001).   Final report of the Ad Hoc Committee on International Programs.   Chicago: University of Chicago.
Farrell, P., & Suvedi, M.   (2003).   Studying abroad in Nepal: Studying impact.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9(Fall), 175-188.
Abstract:  The purpose of this study is to analyze the reported or perceived impact of studying in Nepal on student's academic program, personal development and intellectual development. The study draws upon adult learning theory to analyze survey instrument data, interviews, and case studies to discern the impact of the program on college students and to contribute to the body of longitudinal research on U.S. study abroad programs.
Farthing, L.   (1997).   Homestay/village stay study in the Americas, 1994-1996 (report).   Educational Resources Information Center.
Abstract:  The report presents strategies and guidelines to manage and administer homestays and village stays for U.S. students, based on a survey of academic directors and homestay coordinators, with a focus on such activities in Latin America and the Caribbean. It reviews the literature on the role and cost of homestay and village stay programs in semester and year-abroad programs. Based on survey responses, it then goes onto examine such issues as the variables that influence successful homestays and village stays, the role of academic directors and homestay coordinators, family selection and payment, family composition, orientation/follow-up, and problems and resolution mechanisms. Specific guidelines to address problems and concerns in these areas are provided. Three appendixes contain a sample student questionnaire; homestay materials provided by programs in Jamaica, Brazil, and Boliva; and an annotated bibliography.
Faulconer, T.   (2003, Apr.).   These kids are so bright! Pre-service teachers' insights and discoveries during a three-week student teaching practicum in Mexico.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  This study of three female preservice teachers who took part in a practicum teaching experience in Mexico focused on what the students learned, how they met the challenges of the experience, and how the experience affected their personal and professional lives later. This qualitative study used interviews with each student and observation field notes to investigate the relationships of the preservice teachers with their elementary school students and the Mexican cooperating teachers. Key changes in students views were identified. The students learned what it means to function in a new culture without language fluency and without familiarity with the standards for behavior. Students also gained significant insight into their own prejudices related to Mexico and Mexican people, and they gained empathy for those who have to function in a new culture. Students left the program thinking that they would use the new insights as they developed ideas for teaching and for advocating for Hispanic children in their classes. Students comments revealed some profound growth in self-awareness about their own vulnerabilities. Most important to their future as teachers was their discovery that Mexican children were bright, capable, and working at grade level in spite of very limited school, family, and financial circumstances.
Feigenbaum, H.   (2002).   Globalization and cultural diplomacy.   Center for Arts and Culture.
Feinberg, B.   (2002).   What students don't learn abroad.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48(34), B20.
Retrieved from:
Felbeck, C. C., Lebold, C. J., Ganie, L., & Powers, C.   (2001).   Study abroad in the rainbow nation: Post-apartheid South Africa offers interesting and complex educational possibilities.   International Educator, 10(1), 20-28..
Ferguson, C. A.   (1964).   Language study and the Middle East.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 356(1), 76-85.
Fersh, S., & Furlow, R.   (1993).   The community college and international education: A report of progress - Volume III.   Washington DC: US Department of Education.
Abstract:  The third in a series of reports on international education efforts at individual community colleges, this publication highlights the progress made by College of DuPage in Illinois in implementing international education.
Festervand, T. A.   (2001).   Study-abroad programs as a professional development tool for international business faculty: An administrative perspective.   Journal for Higher Education Strategists, 1(2), 147-165.
Abstract:  This article describes, from an administrative perspective, how faculty participation in a study abroad program can enhance a faculty member's professional development and teaching effectiveness. The academic program and development experience described and used as the basis for this commentary occurred within the context of a graduate economics course conducted in Japan. Faculty members who have participated in this program assumed the role(s) of student and/or program assistant, as opposed to that of program leader and instructor. In this juxtapositional role, numerous experiential benefits have been acquired that enhanced the professional credentials and growth of all international business faculty involved.
Festervand, T. A., & Tillery, K. R.   (2001).   Short-term study-abroad programs - A professional development tool for international business faculty.   Journal of Education for Business, Nov./Dec., 106-111.
Abstract:  In this article, the authors describe how faculty participation in a short-term study-abroad program contributed to faculty members' international professional development and teaching effectiveness. The academic program and development experience described occurred within the context of a graduate economics course that was developed in Japan and conducted on several occasions. The faculty who participated in this program assumed the role of student, not program leader, instructor, or coordinator. In this juxtapositional role, numerous experiential benefits, skills, and knowledge were acquired that otherwise would not have been possible. The intent of this article was to identify specific areas in which international professional development takes place and demonstrate how this international experience ultimately contributes to academic improvement.
Festervand, T. A., Clark, J. W., & White, T. L.   (2001).   Teaching a U.S. graduate information systems course abroad: Observations and experiences from France.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(Spring), 79-90.
Abstract:  This article describes the experience of an American professor who taught a graduate information systems course at a French university. In addition to describing the overall experience, several problematic issues identified over the course of the semester are identified and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on three areas of differences: communications, technology, and culture. Awareness of these differences, their impact on course conduct, and possible solutions may be useful to other educators interested in conducting a similar course internationally.
Fields, C. D.   (2001, Aug. 2).   Go abroad, and save the excuses.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
Abstract:  This article attempts to discard the excuses of why underrepresented groups (AA) aren't studying and/or teaching abroad and seeks to provide useful information on how to go about your international journey. Offers advice to fellow Afro-Americans regarding studying or teaching abroad. Reason for uunderrepresentation of Afro-American teachers among those who are studying or teaching overseas; Most common excuses for not studying or teaching abroad; Useful Web sites for those who are interested in teaching abroad; Suggestion before traveling to pursue teaching job.
Fine, B.   (1939, Sept. 3).   Foreign study is upset by war.   New York Times, D5.
Retrieved from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers (1851-2004)
Finn, H. K.   (2003).   The case for cultural diplomacy: Engaging foreign audiences.   Foreign Affairs, Nov./Dec..
Abstract:  To fight foreign extremism, Washington must remember that winning hearts and minds is just as important as battlefield victories. Military force will not do it alone: the United States must offer desperate youth abroad a compelling ideological alternative.
Flack, M. J.   (1976).   Results and effects of study abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 24, 107-117.
Flack, M. J.   (1980, Nov.).   Comment on issues and the state of U.S. research on international exchanges.   Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany, November.
Abstract:  A brief report on research developments since 1974-75, indicating that, basically, the initial characterization offered at the beginning of this paper does not, as of 1980, require major recasting. As before, the period has produced a considerable number of publications<197>chapters, articles, reports, theses and dissertations, monographs, books. As before, many of them are either responses to perceived operational or membership servicing needs of existing agencies, the often delayed publication of results of studies begun years before, the result of idiosyncratic choices by senior or junior academics to explore some research topic of mostly ad hoc or passing concern to the researcher, or compendia gathering within one cover, or within a special journal issue, papers presented at professional conference. Many of these are thoughtful and competent. To what extent they exert an intellectual and research impact, given the lack of cumulative approaches we do not know. To what extent some of the findings or recommendations lead to changes in policy or institutional conduct has not been ascertained. A small number of queries, identifications of need, or proposals is offered at the end of the report. They are presented in four categories: a) Practical-operational, b) substantive-informational, c) macro-conceptual, and d) 7 methodological-conceptual. Their purpose is to stimulate and provoke discussion on at least some of the evident problem areas in research on international educational exchanges.
Fordham, T. A.   (2002).   Cultural capital and the making of 'blue blazer kids': An ethnography of a youth exchange program.   (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 63, 899A).
Abstract:  This dissertation is a culmination of three years of participant observation of a Rotary International district in New England. The dissertation explores the ways in which a group of adults teaches teenagers about cultural difference. More specifically, this ethnographic project, which utilizes narrative, discourse, and content analyses, examines the complex pedagogical machinery used by this Rotary International district to recruit, interview, and American high school students for study abroad. The theories that guided this work are The Sociology of Knowledge, Symbolic Interactionism, Critical Theory, and Cultural Studies. I first provide a summary of this Rotary district's youth exchange program, including its goals, strategies and its expectations of and requirements for students. Secondly, I explore the ways in which Rotarians talk about, or discursively construct youth as a social category. I juxtapose Rotarians' narratives surrounding teenagers with dominant discourses extant in the United States regarding American teens. I then examine the ways in which Rotarians talk about and represent travel, particularly educational travel and cultural immersion. Lastly, I discuss Rotary's discourses of culture & how Rotarians talked about culture, itself, and the ways in which they represented specific cultures to students and to one another. I assert that the Rotary Youth Exchange Program, by recruiting and sending middle class kids to live in upper-class environments, reinscribe race and class privilege. Rotary's program, for American kids in particular, is a form of cultural capital that exists to reproduce a global business class. I also posit that Rotary Youth Exchange students, however, have agency as they resist and transgress the specific boundaries of Rotary's program and negotiate issues of cultural adaptation and personal change. [Author]
Foster, P. B.   (2001).   A language and cultural practicum course in Nanjing : maximizing the students' use of Chinese.   Frontiers : The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7(3), 121-128.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  This paper examines an experience-based language course operating in the field during an intensive language training program in Nanjing, China, during the summer of 1999. The objectives are to report on the design success of the 'language and cultural practicum' course, and thereby address best practices and challenges of experience-based language learning. In addition to four hours of classroom instruction each morning, students participated in an afternoon practicum course in which they were required to go off campus and interact with the Chinese community at large and gather specific information for specific assignments. Assets of the practicum course were its flexibility of design, allowing for student self-design of exercises, efficiency in tracking the students' whereabouts and structuring of their time, and production of an overall synergy of language learning by consciously exercising spoken skills in the field, reinforced with written practice in a daily journal write-up, capped off by a daily presentation during the evening debriefing class. [Author abstract, ed]
Fountain, A.   (2001).   Developing a program for Spanish heritage learners in a small college setting.   ADFL Bulletin, 32(2), 29-32.
Abstract:  A small private woman's college in Raleigh with a traditional student base from the eastern part of North Carolina seems, at first glance, an unlikely locale for a program designed for Spanish heritage learners. Yet, in recent years, the United States Hispanic population has grown significantly even in areas not traditionally Hispanic, such as North Carolina. With a now burgeoning Spanish-language heritage population, North Carolina's educational institutions are being challenged at all levels to provide both a hospitable setting and appropriate curricular adaptations to serve the needs of this group, and small private colleges are no exception. The experience of Peace College provides an example of how a school that has not traditionally served Hispanic students can build programs for such heritage learners and how institutions with a relatively small Hispanic population can provide appropriate curriculum and resources for such learners.
Franco, R. W., & Narimatsu, S   (1996).   Study abroad in the Pacific Islands: More than an international experience.   Dimensions of the Community College: International, intercultural, and Multicultural Perspectives, 6.
Franco, R. W., & Shimabukuro, J.   (1992).   Beyond the classroom: International education and the community college. Volume II: Internationalizing the campus environment.  
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  Part of a four-volume set in which community college educators discuss their efforts to internationalize the educational experience of the students and communities they serve, volume II in this series considers the challenges, pitfalls, and rewards of creating campus environments with rich international and intercultural programs and activities. Volume II contains the following articles: (1) "Developing an Intercultural Center," by Donna E. Willoughby; (2) "Developing a Foreign Student and Immigrant Program," by David Wong; (3) "Internationalizing KCC's (Kapiolani Community College's) Campus," by Loretta Pang; (4) "Creating an International Campus through Student Advising," by Robin Fujikawa; (5) "Celebrating Our Multicultural Origins," by Jane Fukunaga and others; (6) "A Supportive Environment for International Students," by Regina V. Ewing; (7) "The New American," by Frank Noji; (8) "Developing Library Support for Kapi'olani's Asian-Pacific Emphasis," by T. D. Webb; (9) "The Maile Aloha Singers," by Robert Engle; (10) "Filipino Student Transfer Programs," by Ernest Libarios and Danilo Campos; (11) "Internationalizing the Technical College Campus," by Carolyn Mewhorter, and others; and (12) "A Tapestry of Possibilities: Internationalizing the Campus Environment," by Su Cutler. Concluding comments discuss similarities and differences in the approaches of the colleges, successful implementation strategies, and future issues.
Frankel, C.   (1966).   New initiatives in international education: From an address delivered at the 1965 meeting of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.   The Journal of Higher Educaton, 37(3), 121-128.
Freed, B. F.   (1998).   An overview of issues and research in language learning in a study abroad setting.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Fall, 4.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  It has long been assumed that the combination of immersion in the native speech community, combined with formal classroom learning, creates the best environment for learning a second language. The power of this assumption is so great that there has evolved a popular belief, one shared by students and teachers, parents and administrators, that students who spend a period abroad are those who will ultimately become the most proficient in the use of their language of specialization. Consequently, hundreds of thousands of students depart annually for education abroad experiences with the expectation that they too will "pick up" if not become "fluent" in the target languages they have chosen to study, returning home with greatly enhanced language skills. Unfortunately, these popular perceptions aside, relatively little scholarly attention has been devoted to documenting changes in the communicative language proficiency of students who have studied abroad. Similarly, little research has focused on examining the actual experiences that students have in the context of their sojourn abroad. The purpose of this chapter therefore, is to review what is currently known about second language acquisition (SLA) in a study abroad context and to identify some of the issues that confront those who wish to explore this topic in greater depth.
Fry, G. W.   (1984).   The economic and political impact of study abroad.   Comparative Education Review, 28(2), 203-220.
Abstract:  The migration of scholars seems to be a nearly universal phenomenon, characteristic of most societies with the possible exception of nations with highly isolationist policies, such as Burma and Albania. Americans and Europeans tend, however, to associate the phenomenon of study abroad to enhance prestige as primarily pertaining to Third World societies. Actually the phenomenon is much more pervasive, and in industrial societies such as the United States and Germany study abroad also carries high social prestige. The intense competition for the Marshall, Rhodes, and Fulbright overseas fellowships reflects the importance of study abroad in the United States. Though the study-abroad phenomenon is important in nearly all societies, the focus in this article is on the impact of study abroad in the developing nations.
Fryer, T. B. & Day, J. T.   (1993).   Foreign language curricular needs of students preparing for an internship abroad.   Modern Language Journal, 77(3), 277-288.
Abstract:  This article focuses on the language needs of interns abroad. The report describes a pre-departure language program designed to meet the specific needs of interns, and is based on a survey of past participants. The program described is the language curriculum developed to prepare students in the Master of International Business Studies program at the University of South Carolina. Six-month internships are an integral part of the program, and are preceded by intensive language training.
Fugate, J. K.   (1982, Dec.).   The Kalamazoo College foreign study program: the present and the future.   Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Modern Language Association of America, Los Angeles.
Abstract:  The Kalamazoo College Foreign Study Program has been in operation since 1958 and continues to enroll 85% of its students for one, two, or three quarters. Unlike many other programs, this one is endowed. This endowment makes it affordable for the college as well as for the students.
Fulbright, J. W.   (1961).   The first fifteen years of the Fulbright program.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 335, 21-27.
Furumoto, M.   (2000).   Creating support: A booklet of student reflections on their study abroad experiences.   The Forum Newsletter, March.
Gahungu, A.   (2001).   U.S.-Africa cooperation in education at Northern Arizona University: Unexpected lessons.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(2), 146-164.
Abstract:  A total of 114 African educators came to Northern Arizona University (NAU), in Flagstaff, from 1988 to 1992 to attend a 45-day Summer Institute sponsored by the United States Information Agency. Two former participants in the program, who came back to NAU as graduate students, interviewed campus personnel and students and members of the surrounding community to examine the impact of the 5 year experience. The program's year-by-year evaluations were analyzed in light of interview responses. It was shown that the program helped the academic and surrounding communities discover other facets of African education and life that media often misrepresent in the mainstream subconscious. Participating African educators were very appreciative of the innovative curriculum and instructional methods they learned and were mesmerized by minority inclusion policies on campus. However, interviewees and the African educators deplored the United States's lack of awareness and interest in cooperation with Africa.
Gallagher, P. L.   (1993).   Issues of adjustment: A case study of international students attending Vancouver Community College.   Master's thesis, Simon Fraser University. Available from National Library of Canada (No. 0315911743).
Abstract:  In recent years the government of British Columbia has become active in international education activities. Several programs have been initiated with the intent of attracting larger numbers of international students to the Province's colleges and universities. The main target of these initiatives has been students in countries of the Pacific Rim. This thesis considers potential adjustment issues that need to be addressed by host institutions if they are to maximize benefits for international students, and reports the results of a questionnaire survey of adjustment problems experienced by international students attending Vancouver Community College.
Gallagher-Brett, A.   (n.d.).   Seven hundred reasons for studying languages.   Southampton, England: Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  The research project has created a taxonomy of reasons for language learning which will enable languages to be more effectively marketed, and will also provide information that could be used for the purposes of curriculum and course development. The research included an extensive review of academic and policy documents and a series of fieldwork studies, during which information on reasons for studying languages was obtained from language learners across two educational sectors (16 to 19s and undergraduates).
Gallant, M.   (2002).   Getting the most from study abroad: Students helping students.   New York: Natavi Guides.
Galtung, I. E.   (1965).   The impact of study abroad: A three-by-three nation study of cross-cultural contact.   Journal of Peace Research, 2(3), 258-276.
Gangrade, K. D.   (1962).   Study abroad, as seen through the eyes of a participant.   International Social Work, 5, 7-10.
Ganz, M. A.   (1991).   The Spelman experience: Encouraging and supporting minority students abroad.   In CIEE (Ed.), Black students and overseas programs: Broadening the base of participation (pp. 29-34). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Ganz, M. A., & Eastman, V. M.   (1997).   Promoting student diversity.   In Hoffa, W. & Pearson, J. (Eds.), NAFSA's guide to education abroad for advisers and administrators (2nd ed., pp. 183-200). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Ganz, M., & Sideli, K.   (2002).   Diversity.   In W. Hoffa (ed.), It's your world: Student's guide to education abroad (pp. 28-31). Chester, PA: Educational Directories Unlimited.
Abstract:  The contents of this handbook are intended for the use of students, advisors, and administrators. This handbook is the result of an approved project by NAFSA's Section on U.S. Students Abroad, SECUSSA. This "Diversity" section has a segments titled "Minority Students;" "Picking the Right Country and Program;" and on "Exploring your Heritage."
Garelli, C.   (1996).   The view from France.   World Education News & Reviews, 9(3)(Summer), 18-19.
Geelhoed, R. J., Abe, J., & Talbot, D. M.   (2003).   A qualitative investigation of U.S. Students' experiences in an international peer program.   Journal of College Student Development, 44(1), 5-17.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  This qualitative study was designed to gather information, using focus groups, about U.S. host students' experiences in a U.S. international peer program and about how the program influenced their cross-cultural awareness. Researchers of this study noticed host students' unconscious need for guidance to become interculturally competent and heard their suggestions to maximize their experiences in a cross-cultural peer program.
Geller, J.   (2003, Oct.).   The ethnographic participant/observer in study abroad: Training the eye.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Society for Experiential Education, Minneapolis, MN.
George, D. E. R.   (1969).   The American study center in Germany.   Comparative Education Review, 13(1), 104-118.
Gerhardt, L. A., & Martin, S.   (1999, Nov.).   The global engineering education exchange program - A worldwide initiative.   Paper presented at the 29th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Abstract:  It is imperative and incumbent upon our educational system that an engineer for the 21st century is not only technically talented, but culturally cognizant, societally supportive, and environmentally erudite. The practicing global engineer of the next millennium must be global in a management, marketing, and technological perspective. So must the student who pursues an undergraduate degree in engineering as the liberal arts degree of the 21st century, upon which to build a professional career as in medicine or law. To satisfy these diversified needs, it is important that engineering education especially must provide heightened global awareness and global enrichment opportunities both on and off campus. For example, in the U.S., there are about 15 million students in higher education annually, but only some 100,000 or 0.67% go abroad each year. Moreover, of these less than 2,000 are studying engineering, or 0.01% of the total.
Gerlach, S.   (2000).   Access abroad: Is there a way to get there?.   Transitions Abroad, 14(2).
Retrieved from:
Gillespie, J., Braskamp, L. A., & Braskamp, D. C.   (1999).   Evaluation and study abroad: Developing assessment criteria and practices to promote excellence.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5(Fall), 101-127.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  This paper describes how the authors worked with a Task Force to develop the IES Model Assessment Practice (MAP), a set of detailed criteria to use in evaluating IES study abroad programs, and how IES is beginning to implement MAP. Two sets of theories provided the framework for the project: current thinking about educational program evaluation and assessment in the U.S., including current definitions of academic quality; and organizational learning, whereby the processes of planning and decision-making involve members of the organization in gathering, sharing, and interpreting information. The 18-month project was sponsored by IES, The Institute for the International Education of Students (formerly the Institute of European Studies). With this publication, we propose that study abroad practitioners join a dialogue about program evaluation and share models of good practice for the benefit of our students.
Gillespie, S. H.   (2002).   The practice of international education in the context of globalization: A critique.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 6(3), 262-267.
Abstract:  This article argues for a redefinition of international education to take account of its political implications in the contemporaryer a. Accepted goals of international education such as global competence are incoherent and, more important, morally, philosophically, and politically inadequate. This is especiallytrue in the American context in light of the United States's role as a real or perceived global hegemon. The article describes several experimental collaborative programs, jointly created by American and international educational institutions, which demonstrate the viability of international education projects that incorporate an anti-hegemonic stance based on principles of mutualityand equality.
Gilliom, M. E.   (1971).   Social studies teachers and world citizenship- Bridging the credibility gap.   Journal of Teacher Education, 22(3), 277-280.
Ginsberg, R. B.   (1992).   Language gains during study abroad: An analysis of the ACTR data.   Washington, DC: National Foreign Language Center.
Abstract:  This report presents results of a systematic analysis of an extensive database on study in the former Soviet Union assembled by the American Council of Teachers of Russian over a period of nearly 20 years. The purpose of this report is to document in detail the data used, the analytical strategy and methods employed, and most importantly the grounds on which substantive conclusions from the data rest.
Gladfelter, A.   (2002).   A lab with a view: American post-docs abroad.   Cell Biology Education, 1(Winter), 128-131.
Retrieved from:
Glaesel, H.   (2000).   How to support and expand strong, existing study-abroad programs: The Elon College experience.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 77-79.
Gliozzo, C.   (1980).   The international education of minority students.   Minority Education, 2(5), 1, 6-7.
Abstract:  Stresses the importance of giving minority students an opportunity to participate in Michigan State University overseas programs or in other overseas projects based on a $15,000 grant given by the International Communication Agency (United States Information Agency) in 1979. It explains the procedures in selecting eligible minority students, type of allocations, and the beneficial results of minority participants who study abroad.
Glusker, A.   (1992).   A student's guide to planning a career in international social work.   In Estes, R. J. (Ed.), Internationalizing social work education: a guide to resources for a new century.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work
Göbel, K., Hesse, H.-G., & Jude, N.   (2003, July).   The perception and interpretation of cultural difference: On the assessment of intercultural sensitivity in the EFL classroom.   Paper presented at the sixth European Regional Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Budapest, Hungary.
Goldberg, D., & Welles, E. B.   (2001).   Successful college and university foreign language programs, 1995-99: Part 1.   New York: Modern Language Association.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  With funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MLA's Office of Foreign Language Programs conducted a survey in the fall of 1999 to determine what factors contribute to the success of foreign language departments. Because the MLA's enrollment surveys of 1995 and 1998 had revealed a significant decline in student interest in some traditionally taught languages, we defined successful departments as those that had stable or increasing enrollments between 1995 and 1999 in beginning and advanced courses and also those that had steady or growing numbers of majors. We realize that this definition is artificial. Departments may lose enrollments despite excellent teaching and effective practices. For example, a newly introduced credit transfer arrangement with a local college may draw students away from one institution to another. However, because administrators tend to look at student numbers as a criterion for determining departmental support, we concluded that enrollments do count from an institutional point of view.
Goldberg, D., Welles, E. B., & Lusin, N.   (2001).   Successful college and university foreign language programs, 1995-99: Part 2.   New York: Modern Language Association.
Retrieved from:
Abstract:  THE MLA's Office of Foreign Language Programs has undertaken a project funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to discover what factors make foreign language programs successful. The field is increasingly aware of evolving conditions affecting foreign language programs in colleges and universities in this country. For one thing, enrollment patterns are changing. Before the project was undertaken, the MLA's 1995 and 1998 enrollment surveys showed that while the number of students studying languages remained relatively stable, Spanish enrollments represented more than half the total, and student interest had declined in three traditionally taught languages—French, German, and Russian. Enrollment in less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) was increasing slightly, and of those students not taking Spanish a greater number were studying a greater number of languages (Brod and Welles 23 and 28; table 1). The most recent enrollment survey for fall 2002 shows a marked change: registrations are up in all the fifteen most commonly taught languages. Increases are particularly notable for American Sign Language, Arabic, and Italian. The downward trends for German, French, and Russian have stabilized or shown signs of reversal. The number of LCTLs offered and the number of students studying them increased substantially as well (Welles, tables 1a and 1b).
Golden, D.   (2002).   Foreign students and fudging facts.   International Higher Education, 29, 7-8.
Retrieved from:
Gonzalez, A.   (1993).   Teaching beyond the classroom: Business internships in Latin America - Issues in cross-cultural adjustment.   Hispania, 76(4), 892-901.
Abstract:  More and more business programs are beginning to include international components such as internships in their curriculum. One such program is the international internship incorporated into the Master in International Business Studies Program at the University of South Carolina. This article reports on a survey that focused on assessing this internship component. Specifically, the survey examined four areas, including students' perceptions of language ability, their living situation, their social interactions, and their "on-the-job" performance. Although students participate in internships to a number of different countries, this qualitative study focused on participants in the Latin American program. A total of 20 students from the 1990 cohort and 12 students from the 1991 group participated. Data were collected through hour-long, in-depth interviews with the participants. Follow-up interviews were conducted with some of the employers and on-site staff.
Good, J. L., & Campbell, S. L.   (1997).   The impact of a study abroad program in Jordan on undergraduate university students.   Texas: Ambassador University.
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Abstract:  A study abroad program in Jordan has been run by Ambassador University (Texas) for the last 15 years. During this time, nearly 150 Ambassador University students have participated in a work-study program in Amman sponsored by the Ambassador Foundation. During their stay in Jordan, the students teach Jordanian students with physical and mental disabilities at one of three special education centers. The 20 students selected annually for the program are prepared for their teaching responsibilities by taking special education and conversational Arabic courses. Returning students have commented on how the exchange program has affected their lives and changed their outlook toward people of other cultures.
Goodspeed, T.   (1916).   A history of the University of Chicago: the first quarter century.   Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Goodwin, C. D. & Nacht, M.   (1988).   Abroad and beyond. Patterns in American overseas education.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Abstract:  An Institute of International Education-commissioned study of the reasons for the rapid growth of U. S. college student study abroad in the 1980s features case studies of effective programs and suggests ideas for planning and evaluation of study abroad by U. S. colleges and universities. Focus is on the integration of international study into scientific, professional, and graduate fields. Reasons for the growth include: young Americans want to understand the world in which they live; foreign study gets less expensive as the dollar grows stronger; America's views of other nations have softened; and foreign travel is now very familiar. Topics include: "the point of it all" (educational and social goals and potential accomplishments, institutional and administrative goals and potential accomplishments, and institutional renewal); "ways to do it" (total immersion, brief stays, and U. S. facilities abroad); "tasks to be done" (for faculty, department, and central administration); "some questions to consider" (appropriate approach, focus, reciprocity, etc. ) "innovation" (in the liberal arts, science and technology, and graduate and professional); "where to go for help" (national organizations, models for a modest beginning, the overall scene); and conclusions and recommendations (the object lessons at hand and specific advice to campus officers). The appendix lists institutions visited in California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Washington, D. C. An index is provided.
Goodwin, C. D. W., & Nacht, M.   (1991).   Missing the boat: The failure to internationalize American higher education.   Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gorka, B., & Niesenbaum, R.   (2001).   Beyond the language requirement: Interdisciplinary short-term study-abroad programs in Spanish.   Hispania, 84(1), 100-109.
Abstract:  In order to show students the interdisciplinary relevance of language study and to encourage nonlanguage majors to study abroad in programs where English is not the principal language of instruction, we propose the development of interdisciplinary short-term study-abroad programs. Using our course in cultural and environmental conservation in Latin America as a model, we offer evidence that short-term programs can provide students with an initial exposure to Latin American culture and diversity, give them a different perspective on their own field of study, spark their interest in further language study, and inspire them to find a way to fit a semester- or year-long study-abroad experience into their academic careers.
Grad, F. P.   (1984).   Decision-making procedures for university projects abroad.   Human Rights Quarterly, 6(1)(Feb), 27-39.
Graham, P. G.   (1962).   Why an undergraduate year abroad is so worthwhile - A reply.   The German Quarterly, 35(1), 1-4.
Grandin, J. M.   (1991).   Developing internships in Germany for international engineering students.   Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German, 24(2)(Autumn), 209-214.
Gray, D.   (2003).   Crisis and study abroad: Managing study-abroad programs in times of crisis.   IIENetworker, Fall, 45-46.
Gray, K. S., Murdock, G. K., & Stebbins, C. D.   (2002).   Assessing study abroad's effect on an international mission.   Change, 34(3), 44-51.
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Abstract:  Describes Missouri Southern State College's assessment of its study abroad program as an example of how one institution has attempted to trace the effects that the program has had on student.
Greathouse-Amador, L. M.   (2003, Feb.).   Preliminary results of academic exchange programs: The making of global citizens.   Paper presented at the AAPLAC: Association of Academic Programs in Latin America & the Caribbean 14th Annual International Conference, San Antonio, TX.
Green, M. A.   (2001).   The overseas option: Life, lessons and adventure.   The Black Collegian Online/African-American Issues, 2.
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Green, M. F.   (2003, Jan.).   The challenge of internationalizing undergraduate education: Global learning for all.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges and U.S. Higher Education Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
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Abstract:  This paper summarizes research conducted by the American Council on Education (ACE) on the state of internationalization of U.S. higher education, analyzes barriers to internationalization at the campus level, and suggests strategies to achieve internationalization throughout the undergraduate experience. It summarizes the findings of a two-phase research effort, funded by the Ford Foundation, which included a review of research conducted before 2000; surveys of public opinion before and after September 11, 2001; and a survey of college-bound high school seniors. It also included surveys of institutional policies and practices (n=752), of faculty (n=1,200), and of students (n=1290). Together, these data provide a picture of the climate for internationalization, interest among prospective and current students, and the attitudes and practices of faculty members. While attitudes of students, faculty, and the public are largely positive and favorable toward international education, institutional practices and policies reveal that most institutions are only minimally internationalized.
Green, M. F., & Olson, C.   (2003).   Internationalizing the campus:  A user's guide.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Green, M. F., & Purser, L.   (2000).   The faculty of the future: A transatlantic dialogue.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Abstract:  Since 1989, the Transatlantic Dialogue Program has provided some 150 North American presidents and European rectors with the opportunity to reflect jointly and in some depth about higher education and their institutions. The initiative challenges the unexamined cultural assumptions that define our map of "the way things are" and, at the same time, encourages leaders to place their own institutions (by necessity the center of their daily universe) in a much broader, worldwide context. Whatever their differences, higher education institutions on both sides of the Atlantic have a great deal in common in terms of tradition and mission. The importance of probing these commonalities and differences, and of fostering greater collaboration, forms the basis of the Transatlantic Dialogue, a bi-annual meeting of presidents, rectors, and vice-chancellors sponsored by the American Council on Education and CRE: The Association of European Universities.
Green, M., Eckel, P., & Barblan, A.   (2002).   The brave new (and smaller) world of higher education: A transatlantic view.   Washington DC: American Council on Education.
Greenholz, J.   (2000).   Assessing cross-cultural competence in transnational education: The intercultural development inventory.   Higher Education in Europe, 25(3), 411-416.
Griffin, W. H.   (1960).   American educators abroad.   Journal of Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-39.
Groennings, S.   (1997).   The Fulbright program in the global knowledge economy: the nation's neglected comparative advantage.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 1, 95-105.
Abstract:  The end of the Cold War has led to considerable retrenchment in aspects of American foreign affairs-virtually across the board. The assumption was that because the U.S. did not have some of these programs before the Cold War, surely it would need less of them after the Cold War. The Cold War provided a competition of ideas. Its existence increased appropriations for the Fulbright Program.
Gruber, L. J.   (1994).   Beyond borders: A validation of the areas and indicators of quality of international education programming in U.S. two-year colleges.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Northern Illinois University).
Abstract:  The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and validate the areas and indicators of quality international education programming in two-year U.S. colleges. Analysis of such indicators will provide colleges seeking to internationalize with a baseline of information from which to work. The validation process involved a review of literature on the topic and gathering of expert opinions from two panels. The first panel, numbering 10 jurors, was asked to judge the content, accuracy, and clarity of a validation document. A rating instrument of 12 areas and 175 indicators was established. The second panel, consisting of 30 raters, then rated the areas and indicators in the rating instrument using a Likert scale. The raters were grouped into professional categories to ascertain relationships between groups of raters and their ratings. Analysis of the data produced areas rated as most important (in descending order): faculty development, internationalizing the curricula, American student study abroad, presence of international students on campus, administrator development, student exchanges, intercultural studies, co-curricular events, area studies, membership in international educational consortia, technical assistance projects with international institutions or countries, and work abroad. The author recommends that the high-rated areas receive more attention and resources from internationalizing colleges.
Gullahorn, J. E., & Gullahorn, J. T.   (1966).   American students abroad: Professional versus personal development.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 368(1), 43-59.
Abstract:  Interview and questionnaire data from approximately four hundred American students in France and from over five thousand Fulbright and Smith-Mundt grantees provide information concerning the sojourners' overseas interaction and postaward communication experiences as well as their evaluations of the personal development and professional consequences of their work abroad. Multivariate analyses of the survey data reveal that evaluations of professional development and prestige are closely related to the lecturers', research scholars', and exchange teachers' appraisals of personal development and overall satisfaction with their sojourns. For students, however, professional and personal development appear to be alternative outcomes of study abroad: those reporting more extensive interaction with host nationals and greater personal development and satisfaction tend to be less settled in adult roles and less committed to academic goals; whereas those indicating that study abroad furthered their professional development and advancement tend to be older, advanced graduate students who incorporated data gathered abroad in dissertations for advanced degrees, enabling them to obtain college faculty positions. Implications of these findings in terms of the goals of agencies sponsoring international educational exchange are discussed.
Gupta, D., Nerad, M., & Cerny, J.   (2003).   The road home: Exploring the choice to stay or return of international PhDs.   International Higher Education, 31, 15.
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Gwynne, M. A.   (1981).   The effects of study abroad on community college students.   (Doctoral dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University).
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine if the attitudes of world mindedness and tolerance for out-groups were influenced positively by study abroad. The influence and significance of other selected variables were also studied in relation to study abroad by community college students. Study abroad is an option for students in increasing numbers of community colleges. Little research on study abroad in community colleges has been published. The available research on four-year colleges and university programs and students, and on foreign students studying in America is hardly applicable to the diverse student populations in community colleges. Students on campus and students studying abroad were tested at the beginning of the fall semester and again at the conclusion of the semester sixteen to eighteen weeks later. The changes in attitudes as a result of the semester of study at home or abroad were determined. Also, demographic factors were contrasted between the home campus and the study abroad groups. Day classes on the campus of Rockland Community College were randomly selected for testing.
Haddad, M. R.   (1997).   Engineering students abroad.   Journal of Chemical Education, 74(7), 757-759.
Abstract:  Describes the history of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute's study abroad program for engineering students, its unique approach, and the structure that led to its success. Discusses the history of the Global Perspective program, the project centers and programs, traditional exchanges, student participation and selection, program costs, successes, problems, and future plans.
Halder, J.   (1997, Feb.).   How Iowa community colleges developed a consortium for study abroad.   Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Community Colleges for International Development, Orlando, FL.
Abstract:  This document provides materials developed by Iowa's community colleges in establishing the Iowa Community College Consortium for Study Abroad, as well as materials from a Consortium study abroad program in England. First, a timeline is presented of actions taken between April 1994 and November 1996 in the development of the Consortium, including meeting dates, mailings to Iowa college presidents, the creation of a brochure, site visits to London, and the determination of colleges with students enrolled in the program and those interested in participating colleges are presented, reviewing methods for voting, responsibilities of the Consortium, methods for developing curricula, and minimum requirements for student participants. Following an overview of the Consortium, including a mission statement and description of goals, information is provided on a semester abroad program in England developed by the Consortium and Kirkwood Community College (KCC). Information is provided on the length of the program, available courses, travel, housing, and the cost per participant, indicating that charges for the program fee, a damage deposit, airfare, and KCC tuition total $5,745. Next, a sample mid-program evaluation instrument developed for the KCC program is presented, including questions on courses taken; instructional quality; satisfaction with housing, classrooms, and transportation; and student's best and worst experiences. Finally, sample responses are presented from a fall 1996 mid-program evaluation.
Halpern, J. I., & Hodinko, B. A.   (1992).   Adjustment difficulties of American students in Israeli institutions of higher learning.   Publication information not available.
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Abstract:  This paper examines the extent to which American undergraduate students find problems adjusting to study in Israeli colleges, universities, and yeshivot with respect to the Hebrew language, academic matters, personal situations, and living arrangements. The study asked 671 undergraduate American students studying in Israel how difficult it was for them to make 53 specific school-related adjustments. It was found that, among the four problem areas considered, living arrangements posed the most serious and most frequent adjustment difficulties. The other areas, in descending order of seriousness, were the Hebrew language, academic matters, and personal situations. Living arrangement problems included lack of phone facilities (the most serious adjustment difficulty reported), lack of adequate facilities to prepare food, mobility problems on the Sabbath, problems concerning laundry facilities, and lack of privacy. Writing term papers and speaking Hebrew were the most serious difficulties in using the language; secretarial services and finding academic resources were among the academic problems frequently mentioned; and relating to Israeli students was the most formidable personal adjustment problem. The paper recommends that high school advisors in America and counselors of students planning to go to Israel for postgraduate study provide an orientation program addressing these problems and helping students develop strategies for dealing with them.
Hameister, B. G., Matthews, P. R., Hosley, N. S., & Groff, M. C.   (1999).   College students with disabilities and study abroad: Implications for international education staff.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5(2), 81-100.
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Abstract:  Students with disabilities are first and foremost students. As significant as their disability may appear to be, it often has relatively little significance to the study abroad experience. Other factors, such as selecting a program, academic planning, gaining family support, locating resources and housing, transportation plans, and cultural differences are often of far greater importance. In other words, the same issues that concern all students concern students with disabilities. Disability-specific issues can usually be translated into minimizing barriers to increase accessibility, and providing individual, ollaborative, and inclusive accommodations and supports. University staff may yearn for a concise set of rules for what they must do to allow students with disabilities to study abroad, but such rules do not exist. Our goal is to help international education staff collaborate with disability service providers and others in delivering services to students with disabilities. While writing this article, we experienced our own collaborative process as we discussed issues from the perspective of international education staff, disability services staff, and special education faculty.
Hammer, M. R.   (1992).   Research, mission statements, and international student advising offices.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 217-236.
Hammer, M. R.   (1999).   A measure of intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory.   In Fowler, S. M. & Fowler, M. G. (Eds.), The intercultural sourcebook (Vol. 2, pp. 61-72). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Hammer, M. R.   (1999).   Cross-cultural training: The research connection.   In Fowler, S. M. & Mumford, M. G. (Eds.), The intercultural sourcebook (Vol. 2, pp. 1-18). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R.   (2003).   Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421-443.
Hampden-Turner, C.   (1995).   Stages in the development of intercultural sensitivity and the theory of dilemma reconciliation: Milton J. Bennett and Charles Hampden-Turner's approaches contrasted and combined.   Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Judge Institute of Management Studies, Cambridge University.
Hannigan, T. P.   (2001).   The effect of work abroad experiences on career development for U.S. undergraduates.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Fall, 1-23.
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Abstract:  The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of vocational exploratory behavior on vocational self-concept crystallization (VSCC) and work commitment for U.S. undergraduates who participated in practical experiences overseas, compared to two groups: 1.) students not involved in practical experiences, and 2.) students who participated in practical experiences within the U.S. The above constructs are well-established in the vocational psychology literature and will be discussed later. In reviewing the literature, the effect of learning experiences in the workplace on work commitment and vocational self-concept crystallization has not been clearly demonstrated. In spite of the lack of definitive empirical support for this relationship, a long historical tradition exists for the learning-by-doing method, and this tradition is an important means of training students in a profession or trade.
Hanratty, K.   (2001).   Full circle learning in study abroad.   International Educator, 10(3), 28-34.
Abstract:  Integrating predeparture orientation and training with pos-experience analysis can enhance what students learn and retain from their study abroad program. [Author]
Harley, B.   (2001).   Going native or standing firm: Cultural relativism.   Transitions Abroad, 24(4).
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Harris, J.   (1926).   How can an American student best profity by a year in France?.   The Modern Language Journal, 10(7), 401-409.
Harris, R.   (1995).   Overseas students in the United Kingdom university system.   Higher Education, 29(1),77-92.
Abstract:  This paper is in two main sections. The first offers a brief historical account of the involvement of overseas students in the UK University system; the second reviews the literature on student attitudes to their stay, relating this to the contemporary experiences of a small cohort of students on a postgraduate professional training course in an older university.While overseas students have traditionally been perceived as somewhat problematic, more recently, driven by economic, political and intellectual considerations, the mode of analysis has moved away from situating the cause of any problems in the students themselves, and towards exploring the relations between the needs of overseas students and the resources dedicated by universities to meeting them. Unless universities take seriously the implications of having overseas students, which include organisational and staff development issues as well as the proper adaptation of teaching methods and techniques, there is serious potential for things to go wrong.
Harrison, G.   (1990).   Study abroad: A view from the community college.   International Studies Notes, 15(2), 71-74.
Abstract:  This short article provides a description of a study abroad program designed to meet the non-traditional student population at Floyd College in Georgia. It discusses the importance of study abroad and how the institution developed a study abroad program to target working class, older, and under-represented students. The details of the program are discussed along with a description of the difficulties faced and an evaluation of the first program. While the program was positive for those who participated, it did not reach the intended non-traditional student population.
Harteker, L.   (2001).   Road safety for study abroad: A shared challenge.   Association for Safe International Road Travel.
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Hartung. E.   (2002).   The student as outsider.   International Educator, 11(2), 28-34.
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Abstract:  To be an outsider or stranger in a foreign culture is always a challenge. Although the outsider has an opportunity to better understand a different culture as well as find out more about him or herself, the experience isn't always a comfortable one. Study abroad students often find themselves in this position. The lessons they learn while away from home studying language or the arts are not necessarily those that the student expected, but out of tension and incongruity, they may derive a different sense of who they are. This article examines that process for a group of U.S. university students.
Haug, G.   (1996).   Student mobility between Europe and the US.   European Journal of Education, 31(2), 181-192.
Haug, G.   (1997).   Capturing the message conveyed by grades: Interpreting foreign grades.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(2)(Spring), 1, 12-17.
Abstract:  Grading systems differ widely in philosophy and practice from one country to another, and the fair interpretation of foreign grades into national ones is a major issue, both for students returning after a study period abroad and for university staff required to assess the credentials of foreign applicants.
Hayden, M. C. & Thompson, J. J.   (1994).   Towards the establishment of a research network for international education.   Skepsis (Journal of the International Schools Association, Geneva), 2, 31-32.
Hayden, R. L.   (1980).   U.S. government exchanges: The quest for coordination.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 449, 114-128.
Abstract:  Since 1953, attempts have been made to collect data about federal exchange programs and to coordinate this activity. Increasingly, better data and interagency information sharing will be needed to assess the impact of exchanges and areas where shrinking funds can best be invested. Better infusion of exchanges experiences into educational programming aimed at educating Americans about other peoples and cultures is similarly a challenge in the eighties.
Hayes, W. D.   (1996, Apr. 4).   Over there: Exchange programs and colleges seek to send more minority students abroad.   Black Issues in Higher Education, 26-29.
Abstract:  This article discusses the attempts being made by larger organizations (i.e. United States Information Agency, UNCF, etc.) to encourage and support travel abroad among minority students. Through collaboration with ISEP ( a program established in 1979 under the Fullbright-Hayes Act, which ensures that study abroad is available to all qualified participants, regardless of social and economic background), students are matriculated directly into host universities for year-long placements in countries that include: Argentina, Tanzania, Austria, France, and UK. Three HBCU's have recently been included into ISEP.
Hayward, F. M., & Siaya, L. M.   (2001).   Public experience, attitudes, and knowledge:  A report on two national surveys about international education.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
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Abstract:  This is a report detailing the findings of two surveys related to international education. The first examined the public's international experience and knowledge, and attitudes about international education, while the second surveyed high school seniors' plans to participate in international activities once they enter college. A Report on Two National Surveys About International Education reveals a growing public recognition that international knowledge and experience are increasingly important to daily life and global economic success.
Hebel, S.   (2002, Jan. 11).   No interpreter: Advocates for students with disabilities criticize Education Dept. ruling on study-abroad program.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, A31.
Hembroff, L. A. & Russ, D. L.   (1993).   Minorities and overseas studies programs: Correlates of differential participation.   New York: Council of International Educational Exchange (CIEE).
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Abstract:  Despite increased efforts on the part of many institutions and program administrators to provide support and outreach, minority students continue to be underrepresented in study abroad. This study attempts to identify the reasons for this lower participation rate, and focuses on the Michigan State University, which has a very large study abroad program. Data for the study were collected by distribution of an extensive survey to both on-campus and off-campus student populations. The off-campus students received the survey through the mail and the on-campus students through Resident Assistants. A total of 1,139 students participated in the study. The report documents extensive findings from the survey, which include some of the reasons for lower participation in study abroad by different ethnic/racial groups.
Hemesath, M., & Pomponio, X.   (1998).   Cooperation and Culture: Students from China and the United States in a prisoner's dilemna.   Cross-Cultural Research, 32(2), 171-184.
Abstract:  An important question facing those interested in comparative economic systems is how well the assumptions underlying market economic models fit in nonmarket contexts. Does individual economic behavior vary across cultures? The authors brought together Chinese undergraduates and students from an American college to play the classic prisoner's dilemma game. Facing monetary payoffs, each student played the game several times with different partners. A probit analysis is used to examine what influenced the students' decisions to cooperate or defect in each game. The authors found that American students behaved in a more self-interested, less cooperative manner than the Chinese students did in the prisoner's dilemma experiment. They also found that when foreign students studying in the United States are included with the American students to create a sample of students who grew up in a variety of different market economies, these students also behaved in a less cooperative manner than their Chinese counterparts.
Henson, H.   (2001).   An effective consortial model for study abroad: A history of the college consortium for international studies.   In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 10-11). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation.
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Henthorne, T. L., Miller, M. M., & Hudson, T. W.   (2001).   Building and positioning successful study-abroad programs: A ``hands-on'' approach.   Journal of Teaching in International Business, 12(4), 49-62.
Abstract:  The growth in importance of international education is inescapable. The ability to effectively compete in the global environment is linked to many factors-one of which is a knowledge and understanding of the cultures involved. The traditional classroom approach to international business education, while useful, is limited in scope and impact. We approach the issue of international business education from a hands-on, action-oriented immersion approach-the study-abroad program. This paper examines the specifics of developing and implementing such a program, as well as pitfalls to avoid.
Hershberg, D., & van Fleet, J. A.   (1987).   Work exchange programs: Achieving more for less.   The Modern Language Journal, 71(2), 174-179.
Abstract:  Although work exchange programs have existed since the early 1960s under the aegis of the United States Information Agency (USIA) and its predecessor cultural affairs offices, their numbers are modest in comparison with formal study abroad activities which have experiences substantial growth over the past decade.
Hertzler, A. A., & Wall, V. J.   (1984).   University home economics programs in the United States: A survey of international involvement.   Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 12(3), 420-432.
Hess, G.   (1982).   Freshmen and sophomores abroad: Community colleges and overseas academic programs.   New York: Teachers College Press.
Hesse, H.-G., & Göbel, K.   (2003, Mar.).   Evaluation and quantitative methods in global learning: A contribution from the field of intercultural sensitivity.   Paper presented at the Global Education Network Europe (GENE) expert meeting.
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Hewett, E. A.   (1979).   Economic management and mismanagement.   IREX Occasional Papers, 1(2).
Heyl, J. D.   (2003, January).   International education and teacher preparation in the US.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges and US Higher Education National Conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Higgins, M. A.   (2003).   Developing a process for study abroad participants with disabilities.   International Educator, 12(2), 41-43.
Hinga, J. D.   (1990).   Student travel-study programs- Some considerations.   NASSP Bulletin, 4, 65-68.
Abstract:  Overseas travel-study programs can be rewarding experiences for students and teachers, but consideration must be given to the sponsoring organizations' credibility and liability.
Hinkelman, J. M.   (2001, Aug.).   Preparing students for the international marketplace: International work programs.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.
Abstract:  Today's global marketplace demands that employees have cross-cultural skills and an understanding of international business as well as different cultures. College and university students have unique opportunities available to them to gain these skills and obtain experience working abroad, which may help them attain international careers. College and university (and other) career centers have a responsibility and role in helping students achieve these goals. One university's work abroad program developed by, and run through, a university career and student services offices is described.
Hochauser, G. A.   (2001).   Demographic factors redefining education abroad. In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 12-13).   Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation.
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Hoff, J., Van Der Meid, J. S., & Doan, T.   (2002, Nov.).   Asian American participation in study abroad.   Paper presented at the Annual CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange Conference, Atlanta, GA.
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Hoffa, W.   (1997).   Study abroad adviser: Study abroad and community colleges.   Transitions Abroad, 20(4), 81.
Hoffa, W.   (2002).   It's your world: Student's guide to education abroad.   Chester, PA: Educational Directories Unlimited.
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Abstract:  The contents of this handbook are intended for the use of students, advisors, and administrators.
Hoffa, W.   (2002).   Teaching short-term off-campus courses: An overview.   In Spencer, S. E., & Tuma, K. (Eds.), The NAFSA guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 174-176). Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
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Hoffa, W., Pearson, J., & Slind, M. (Eds.)   (1993).   NAFSA's Guide to Education Abroad for Advisers and Administrators.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  This volume offers a series of papers and essays as a guide to higher education advisors and administrators in the field of education abroad. Papers are organized into three section which address education abroad in general, advising, and program development and evaluation.
Hoge, Jr., J. F.   (2003).   The benefits of public diplomacy and exchange programs.   Washington DC: National Council for International Visitors.
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Holden, R.   (1934).   Ten years of undergraduate study abroad.   The Modern Language Journal, 19(2), 117-122.
Holland, K. M., & Kedia, B. L.   (2001, Sept.).   Internationalizing business students through the study abroad experience: Marketing and recruitment challenges.   Paper submitted for the International Roundtable on Study Abroad Programs in Business Schools, Michigan State University.
Abstract:  This paper examines the reasons for the lack of study abroad experiences among business school students as compared to liberal arts students. An extensive survey of AACSB accredited institutions was conducted to understand their practices for providing (or lack thereof) international experience through study abroad programs. The paper specifically focuses on marketing challenges for study abroad programs. Suggestions are made to improve the situation for providing international experiences to business students to make them more effective in the global economy.
Holmes, J.   (1997).   Guardian angel: How to be a supportive parent or guardian when your young adult decides to work or study abroad.   Ottawa, Canada: The Canadian Bureau for International Education.
Holmes, P.   (1997).   Future Directions in Internaitonal Science Education.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 3(2), 233-39.
Holt, A. M., Jordan, S. A., & Jorgensen, J. S.   (2002, September).   How to assure learning outcomes of study abroad.   Paper presented at the Annual EAIE Conference, Porto, Portugal.
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Abstract:  We send students abroad expecting them to develop their language skills, their personality and to acquire an intercultural competency. This is generally expected to happen by osmosis, that is, by being surrounded by people from a foreign culture speaking a foreign language. Between 1997 and 2000, a study was undertaken in the UK to analyse how studies abroad are integrated into modern language programmes in the UK and identify ways to enhance the learning outcomes. The result is the LARA project (Learning And Residence Abroad): its course materials are designed to train students to take responsibility for their own linguistic and intercultural learning, using ethnographic methods. The session investigated ways to assure learning outcomes of study abroad and discussed how we can create an understanding of the importance of issue in order to have it brought on the political agenda. [Authors]
Holtermann, S.   (1991).   Norwegian students abroad and foreign students in Norway: Country report on Norway.   Higher Education, 21(3), 437-444.
Abstract:  Although the history of Norwegian universities in a European context is fairly short - our first university was founded less than 200 years ago in 1811 - the history of Norwegian university students dates far back.
Honigsblum, G.   (2002).   Internships abroad: The view from Paris.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 95-112.
Hope, A.   (1955).   Educators abroad.   Journal of Teacher Education, 6(4).
Horvath, A.   (1988, May).   Possibilities of cooperation with Eastern Europe.   Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Forum on Education and International Competence, St. Louis, MO.
Abstract:  This paper presents possible methods of cooperation in the area of U.S. educational exchange with Hungary and other Eastern Bloc countries. Specific problems are featured, and information is provided about legal, political, and economic issues and concerns. This paper stresses the need to stop thinking of these countries as politically homogenous and to learn that socialist countries are becoming politically diverse.
Houston, P.   (2002, Apr.).   Widening the circle: Finding homestays for participants with disabilities.   IIE Network.
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Houston, P.   (2002, June/July).   Widening the circle: Funding strategies for inclusion.   IIE Network.
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Houston, P.   (2002, May).   Widening the circle: International exchange makes a difference: A disability perspective.   IIE Network.
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Houston, P.   (2002, Sept.).   Widening the circle: Accommodating for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.   IIE Network.
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Hovde, P.   (2002).   Opening doors: Alternative pedagogies for short-term programs abroad.   In S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 11-23). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Hoye, W., & Dwyer, M.   (2001, February).   Legal liability and study abroad from the perspective of a lawyer and a client.   Paper presented at the Annual National Conference on Law and Higher Education, Florida.
Huang, H.   (2002).   Overseas studies and the rise of foreign cultural capital in modern China.   International Sociology, 17(1), 35-55.
Abstract:  The process of social transformation and opening to the outside world in modern China accompanied a process of rising importance and popularity of overseas studies. As a result, foreign education (mainly western education) gradually replaced traditional Chinese education as the dominating cultural capital and the most important means of social mobility in modern China. However, foreign education was by no means assumed valuable in the initial stage of its introduction, but experienced a long process of transformation from negative social meanings to positive cultural capital. The careers and life experience of the first group of returned students from the USA in the 1880s represent very well the process of such transformation. Three factors were crucial in the explanation of such a process: social contexts, occupational contexts and group formation. The unique social contexts of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries in China provided the first returned students' opportunities to demonstrate their outstanding performance and professional accomplishments. At the same time, the process of adopting western practices and lifestyles created increasing demand for western knowledge and western skills in China, and subsequently caused an occupational transformation which helped the rise of the new occupational sector in which the returned students made careers. Finally, the first returned students as a group actively promoted western education in China and constructed the identity of western-returned students as a positive social symbol.
Hubbs, C.   (n.d.).   The impact of communications technology on the study abroad field.   Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Policy.
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Hudson, D. R.   (2001).   Grade point average as a predictor of academic achievement for a credit abroad, language acquisition course. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi).   Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 63(01), 38A).
Abstract:  Academic policymakers and administrators are charged with the responsibility of articulating and applying appropriate threshold criteria in order to affect desired learning outcomes. As international education becomes more central to the higher education experience and as the learning outcomes available for international education become increasingly essential to successful global citizenry, appropriate and judicious policies and practices must be developed. The study examined the relationship between the degree of student success on an academic study abroad program (final course grade) and the independent variables of cumulative grade point average (CPA), status, and gender. Participants included in the study were all students who participated in a 5-week summer study abroad Spanish language acquisition program in Mexico for the years 1996, 1997, and 1998. For program participation, students were required to be in good academic standing at their home institutions and have a minimum of a 2.0 grade point average. There were 107 participants included in the study. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression with a .05 alpha level for all tests of statistical significance. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = .05) between the dependent variable of final course grade and the composite set of variables of cumulative GPA, gender, status, and their interactions. When testing individual variables while controlling for the others present in the full model, only cumulative GPA and the interaction of status and gender were shown to be statistically significant. The general purpose of the study was to determine if cumulative GPA, a commonly employed access threshold, was a reliable predictor of academic achievement on a study abroad, language acquisition course. The growing demand for international experiences for students, as evidenced by governmental and institutional policies and increasing numbers of participants in study abroad programs, will necessitate the development of fair and effective administrative policies grounded in outcomes-oriented research. The results coupled with the mission of the university may be used to assist administrators in formulating policies on admission to such credit abroad programs and generally help undergird procedures utilized to implement international education.
Hudzik, J.   (n.d.).   Why internationalize NASULGC institutions: Challenge and opportunity.   Washington, DC: Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities.
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Abstract:  The case to internationalize higher education is unimpeachable. National borders are increasingly porous. Easier world-wide communication, travel, migration, trade, and the global dispersion of cultures shape local contexts and challenge higher education to "cross borders" in its missions of knowledge creation and knowledge dissemination.
Hudzki, J., & Larsen, D.   (2003).   Study and learning abroad: Integration with and support for internationalizing curriculum and learning.   Durham, NC: Duke Center for International Studies.
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Abstract:  This paper starts from the assumption that study abroad, although widely misunderstood, is growing rapidly and offers huge potential value for undergraduate education in the United States. The paper identifies fundamental problems that currently hinder the acceptance of study abroad on American campuses and the integration of study abroad into undergraduate curricula. Interest in learning about other countries, other cultures and other languages is growing among pre-college students. Growth in study abroad participation by undergraduate students and a simultaneous decline in language learning are noted. The paper then makes the case, not only for providing American students with international knowledge and first-hand inter-cultural experience, but for making study and learning abroad a key strategy for attaining that end. Essential components of the strategy include the integration of study and learning abroad throughout the undergraduate curriculum and recognition that internationalization of the on-campus curriculum and expansion of opportunity to study abroad are mutually reinforcing and equally essential components for achieving overall educational objectives.
Huebner, T.   (1998).   Methodological considerations in data collection for language learning in a study abroad context.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(Fall), 1-30.
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Abstract:  To the extent that study abroad (SA) programs are intended to enhance the language skills of their participants, the design, implementation, and evaluation of them must address the issue of how best one acquires a second language, which in turn entails other questions: What does it mean to acquire a second language? How is the acquisition of another language measured and/or evaluated? How does the SA experience affect it? At least two factors contribute to the fact that these rich data sources are not exploited for answers to these questions more than they are. First, the range of experiences which fall under the rubric of "study abroad" is so varied and complex that generalizations about optimal learning contexts need to be made with great caution. Second, often those best positioned to study this aspect of the SA experience, namely program administrators and teachers, are trained in disciplines which do not prepare them for this task. The purpose of this paper is to outline a series of factors that together provide a framework for looking at SA and to outline some research approaches, methods and techniques appropriate for examining the language acquisition aspects of this experience.
Hughes-Wiener, G.   (1988).   An overview of international education in schools.   Education and Urban Society, 20(2), 139-158.
Hull IV, W. F., & Lemke, Jr. W. H.   (1978).   Research findings and administrative implications for off-campus higher education.   International Review of Education, 24(1), 53-64.
Hull IV, W. F., & Lemke, Jr., W. H.   (1975).   The assessment of off-campus higher education.   International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, 21(2), 195-206.
Hull IV, W. F., Lemke, Jr., W. H., & Houang, R. T.   (1977).   The American undergraduate, off-campus and overseas: A study of the educational validity of such programs.   Washington DC: Office of Education, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Abstract:  The task for this project was to identify the specific goals sought by a group of highly qualified off-campus study program directors and to develop an appropriate instrument to assess whether or not the student participants perceived these goals as having been actualized within themselves.
Hun, H.   (1883).   A guide to American medical students in Europe.   New York: William Wood & Co..
Hurst, A.   (1998).   Students with disabilities and opportunities to study abroad.   Journal of Studies on International Education, 2(2), 117-129.
Abstract:  Within the context of increasing opportunities for study abroad, it is important to ensure that students with disabilities can be included in international programs. However, to ensure that their participation is of the highest quality, there are several additional challenges to be met. The first section of the paper explores these and discusses the availability of appropriate information, financial concerns, and issues of access, both in the physical sense of access to buildings and also the educational sense of access to learning and the curriculum. The next section describes three case studies of disabled students and study abroad, including individual visits, group arrangements, and a European pilot program organized from Ireland. The closing section provides brief practical guidelines to assist in the inclusion of students with disabilities in international programs.
IIE Passport   (n.d.).   The 4 F's: Overcoming barriers to study abroad.   Retrieved April 12, 2011, from IIE Passport website.
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Abstract:  The 4 F's of Studying Abroad were first conceived by Dr. Marjorie Ganz, Director of the Study Abroad & International Exchange Program at Spelman College. We at had the privilege of speaking with Ms. Constance Lundy, Director of International Programs & Services at Lincoln University, who shared some of her wisdom on overcoming these four potential challenges to studying abroad. While family, finances, faculty, or fear can all become objections or possible barriers to studying abroad, Ms. Lundy emphasizes to her students they can all be overcome with the proper information and attitude.
Immetman, A., & Schneider, P.   (1998).   Assessing student learning in study-abroad programs: A conceptual framework and methodology for assessing student learning in study-abroad programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 2, 59-80.
Abstract:  Conventional wisdom dictates that international education promotes student development and the acquisition of worthwhile knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Accrediting agencies, hower, demand concrete evidence to substantiate such claims. This article describes the development of a conceptual framework and methodology for the academic assessment of student learning in study-abroad programs with reference to knowledge acquisitions, skills acquisition, attitudinal development, and social development. Conceptually, the framework is derived from the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the taxonomies of educational objectives developed by Benjamin Bloom and his associates. Methodologically, focus groups are employed to generate assessment data, in a procedure akin to small-group instructional diagnosis (SGID). Based on data colleged in two focus groups conducted as a pilot study, more narrowly circumscribed coding categories were constructed within the broader domains of cognitive learning, behavioral skills acquisition, affective learning, and social development. The responses of students in the two pilot groups suggest that educational gains in study-abroad programs occur primarily in the affective and social domains of learning, including values clarification, attitude change, personal development, and social maturity.
Inglis, A., Rolls, C., & Kristy, S.   (1997).   Study abroad programs: Creating awareness of and changing attitudes to nursing, health and ways of living in other cultures.   Contemporary Nurse, 6(3/4), 152-156.
Abstract:  Multicultural society requires nurses to care for individuals and families with different cultural and religious values to their own. Study abroad programs for nursing students enable the students to be exposed to nursing, health and ways of living in other cultures. Students undertook a program at Chiang Mai University, Thailand through an international university linkage arrangement during 1997. Students concerns, expectations and perceived benefits of study abroad experiences were investigated in this non-experimental descriptive study, which involved a serial interview process incorporating three interviews before, during and after the program. Students undertaking the program acknowledged that they gained increased confidence and an understanding of different cultures. It was concluded that students did develop an increased awareness of and experienced attitudinal changes towards the cultures and health care needs of the country visited.
Inglis, A., Rolls, C., & Kristy, S.   (1998).   The impact of participation in a study abroad programme on students' conceptual understanding of community health nursing in a developing country.   Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(4), 911-917.
Abstract:  A pilot study was undertaken to ascertain the changes in conceptual understanding that resulted from participation in a study abroad programme in Chiang Mai in Thailand of a small group of Australian final year nursing students. Students' conceptual understandings were measured by means of open-ended interviews based on a case study scenario describing health conditions in a hypothetical Thai village. Students were asked to imagine that they had been appointed to work as a community health nurse in the village and describe how they would undertake the task. Shifts in understanding were detected by interviewing the participants before, during and after their participation in the programme and comparing their responses. The results of this limited study indicated that the impact of participation in the programme was less than expected. Furthermore, the factors of which students tended to show greatest awareness were those about which they had been briefed prior to departure.  Nevertheless participants reported they had learnt much from their experiences. It is suggested that the discrepancy between the evidence provided by interview data and students' self-reports may be explained by participation having resulted primarily in the acquisition of the tacit rather than conceptual knowledge.
Inglis, A., Rolls, C., & Kristy, S.   (2000).   The impact on attitudes towards cultural differences of participation in a health focused study abroad program.   Contemporary Nurse, 9(3/4), 246-260.
Abstract:  The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation.
Institute for the International Education of Students   (2001).   The IES MAP (Model Assessment Practice) for study abroad: Charting a course for quality (2nd Ed.).   Chicago: Institute for the International Education of Students.
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Abstract:  The IES MAP (Model Assessment Practice) for Study Abroad was created in response to the growing need for more effective program development and assessment in international education. The IES MAP is an educational tool for designing and evaluating study abroad programs and is the first of its kind in the field. It was developed by a task force of outstanding leaders in both international and U.S. higher education who drew on extensive site visits and solid data analyses of a wide variety of program components. Initially, the IES MAP was created for use by IES to assess existing programs and develop new ones. However, it also can be significant benefit to faculty and administrators at U.S. colleges and universities, to study abroad professionals and accrediting organizations, as well as to students and their parents. The IES MAP focuses on four academic areas: the student learning environment; student learning and the development of intercultural competence; resources for academic and student support; and program administration and development. [IES]
Institute for the International Education of Students   (2003).   The IES map for study abroad: Charting a course for quality (3rd Ed.).   Chicago, IL: Institute for the International Education of Students.
Abstract:  The IES MAP (Model Assessment Practice) for Study Abroad was created in response to this growing need for more effective program development and assessment in international education. The IES MAP is an educational tool for designing and evaluating study abroad programs and is the first of its kind in the field. It was developed by a task force of outstanding leaders in both international and U.S. higher education who drew on extensive site visits and solid data analyses of a wide variety of program components.
Institute of International Education   (1993).   North American higher education cooperation- An inventory of U.S.-Canada and U.S.-Mexico academic linkages.   New York: Institute of International Education.
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Abstract:  This report describes the variety of bilateral linkages which have been developed by U.S. institutions with specific Canadian and Mexican colleges in a wide range of fields. Out of 1,219 U.S. colleges and universities responding (35 percent response rate) to a survey concerning educational linkages, 109 reported linkages with Canadian institutions, 182 listed Mexican linkages, and 56 had linkages with both countries. (Similar surveys were also sent to Canadian and Mexican institutions.) A great many linkages were found at the faculty level, mostly short-term in nature. The primary motivating forces behind linkage development were found to be faculty contacts and the international education program focus of the U.S. institution. Lack of student interest and financial constraints were reported as the main obstacles to linkages with Canadian and Mexican institutions, with the additional problem of language competence in the case of Mexico. All three countries reported undergraduate students as being largely self-funded while involved in linkage programs. Overall, responses described positive impacts from linkages at all levels. Survey comments reflected enthusiasm and support for maintaining and increasing North American linkages while seeking solutions to the barriers that exist. Appendices, comprising 80 percent of the report, includes survey forms and list the institutional partners and fields involved in the linkages.
Institute of International Education   (1996).   Study abroad: You can get there from here - A guide for women and men.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Abstract:  This brochure draws on a study of women's participation in international scholarship programs to provide practical information on a variety of issues in study abroad.
Institute of International Education   (1997).   Survey and evaluation of North American higher education cooperation.   New York: Institute for International Education.
Abstract:  In the fall of 1996, at the request of the trilateral Steering Committee on North American Higher Education Cooperation, the United States Information Agency (USIA) asked the Institute of International Education (IIE) to update its 1993 Inventory of North American Academic Linkages and conduct an evaluation of linkage activities so that decisions relating to the Steering Committee's future could be based on a clear picture of what has been achieved in the past four years and to determine which issues require concentrated efforts in the future. Several noteworthy initiatives have developed since the 1993 survey was conducted.
Institute of International Education   (2001).   Best Practices-Tactics to Increase Access to International Scholarship Programs by Women and Other Under-Represented Group.   Annapolis Junction, MD: IIE Books.
Abstract:  The ideas in this booklet were collected by the Institute of International Education to promote greater participation by women from developing countries in international scholarship programs. Many of the points would be applicable to other underrepresented groups as well. A number of suggestions are made to increase recruitment of women to scholarship and grant programs. These include outreach efforts and carefully worded recruitment materials. Suggestions to help candidates in the selection process focus on written applications and in-person interviews. Also important to the participation of women in international scholarship programs are the terms and conditions of the award. Programs should be as flexible as possible within the limitations of award terms. Monitoring and evaluation are also essential to ensure that representation is documented for planning purposes.
Institute of International Education   (2002).   The impact of September 11 on international educational exchange.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Institute of International Education   (n.d.).   Study abroad: A guide for women.   New York: Institute of International Education.
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Abstract:  This handbook, one product of the Ford-supported project, offers women around the world practical information on the variety of issues involved in study abroad. Much of the material in this handbook is based on in-depth interviews with a group of program alumnae who met with IIE staff to discuss their personal experiences studying abroad. Hailing from countries as widely separated both geographically and culturally as Argentina and the Sudan, Hungary and Indonesia, Costa Rica and South Africa, each participant brought her own perspective and unique anecdotal reflections to the conversation. Despite the group's inherent diversity, it became clear that these women also had much in common—as international students, as engaged and committed professionals, and, not least, as women pursuing their dreams in what is still largely a man's world.
International Education Programs   (2002).   Data report: Academic year 2001-02 & Summer 2002.   Madison, WI: Office of International Studies and Programs, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
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Ireland, Colin   (1999).   Seventh-century Ireland as a study abroad destination.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5(3), 61-80.
Abstract:  As a modern-day International Educator you might easily believe that you are involved in a pioneering endeavor. Would it surprise you to learn that you had predecessors in Ireland thirteen hundred years ago? Did you know that the Emerald Isle attracted swarms of eager foreign students, principally from England, to its monastic schools as early as the seventh century? Monastic schools were the universities of medieval Europe. In this article I will portray—from the scanty records that survive— scenes from the life of these "study abroad students" in Ireland's early medieval centers of learning.
Isabelli-Garcia, C. L.   (2003).   Development of oral communications skills abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisiplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9, 149-173.
Abstract:  This study examines the impact of a semester study abroad experience in Argentina on the second language acquisition of three American university Spanish learners. The goal is to measure development of two aspects of oral communication skills: fluency and performance in the oral functions of narration, and description and supporting an opinion.
Jackson, M. L.   (1964).   The reporting on international education in American press.   Comparative Education Review, 8(3), 344-346.
Abstract:  The aim of the article is to determine what aspects of international education are being presented to the American people in selected newspaper and magazine articles. In essence, this study is an assessment of how informed it is possible for the American public to become in the area of international education by reading what at present is being printed in newspaper and periodical articles.
James, S., & Nef, J.   (2002, Feb.).   Institutional factors in the internationalization of higher education: A critical and interpretative essay.   Paper presented at the Regional Conference on International and Higher Education in Canada, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
Abstract:  The internationalization of higher education is a recognized mission, aim or objective for most Canadian universities. The rationale for it is well documented in the literature (for example in Knight, p. 207) Thus, this paper will not focus on advocacy for internationalization or on reviewing the rationale for promoting critical global consciousness within the educational system. Rather, the purpose of this interpretative essay is to recognize and explore the circumstances and reasons for the contradiction between the rhetoric and the actual practice and achievement of internationalization. In exploring this gap, we are first interested in identifying the factors, or independent and intervening variables, working for and against internationalization, and outlining a framework for diagnosing the obstacles to internationalization. In the second part we will be sketching a suggested prescriptive model for discussion and policy-formulation, based upon the previous conceptual analysis, observation and critical reflection.
James, W. A.   (1987).   A promising future: The Fulbright program with the USSR.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 491, 118-125.
Jamison, A.   (2001).   Diversity issues in study abroad.   Providence, RI: Office of International Programs, Brown University.
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Abstract:  This is a collection of quotes by Brown University students about their experiences abroad. The quotes were gathered through a survey of study abroad students returning from either spring semester/full year 1999-2000 or fall semester 2000-2001 abroad. The survey directly addressed issues of diversity in study abroad including ethnicity, heritage, sexual orientation, religion, minority/majority issues, physical appearance, and language. It was designed to elicit thoughtful and honest responses from participating students. [Author]
Jansen, M. B.   (1974).   Education and the Japan-America tie in the mid 70s.   CIEE Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 18.
Jarrett, C. W., & Lucas, D. M.   (2003).   Rapid rural appraisal: Teaching undergraduates field research in rural México.   Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 2, 46-59.
Abstract:  Principles of ethnographic research, rural sociology, and interpersonal communication formed the basis of a collaborative study between Mexican and/or Hispanic and U.S. undergraduates. Students from both cultures learned to apply principles of qualitative research under the direction of faculty from the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey and Ohio University. Rapid rural appraisal, a methodology appropriate for multidisciplinary research, was used to assess the attitudes of a rural population relative to socioeconomic and political issues. Undergraduates learned principles of field research within the context of a practical and informative pedagogical exercise.
Jarvis, C. A., & Jenkins, K.   (2000).   Educating for the global future.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
Abstract:  A brief synopsis of barriers to study abroad for minorities and the importance of a global education
Jenkins, K.   (1995).   Interested in study abroad? Don't let your fears stop you.   The Black Collegian Online/Global Study.
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Jenkins, K.   (2000, Nov. 9).   Educating for the global future (International opportunities for minority students).   Black Issues in Higher Education.
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Jenkins, K.   (2002, May 9).   Off the beaten path: Studying abroad in 'nontraditional' locations.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
John, G.   (1991).   International comparative approaches to the problems of underrepresented groups.   In CIEE (Ed.), Black students and overseas programs: broadening the base of participation (pp. 14-20). New York: CIEE: Council on International Educational Exchange.
Johnson, D.   (2000).   Enhancing out-of-class opportunities for students with disabilities.   New Directions for Student Services, 91, 41-53.
Abstract:  Discusses the importance of out-of-class activities on positive student outcomes, focusing on ways to improve the involvement of students with disabilities with campus life activities, experiential learning, study abroad, and sports and recreation. Maintains that it is the responsibility of student affairs professionals to ensure that students with disabilities have access to and become active participants in campus life.
Johnson, D. M., & Mader, D. D.   (1992).   Internationalizing your marketing course: the foreign study tour alternative.   Journal of Marketing Education, 14(2), 26-33.
Abstract:  Internationalizing the marketing principles course using a foreign study tour is discussed, and the advantages of the foreign study tour over more traditional internationalization methods are addressed. Multiple pedagogical techniques that can be used for an overseas class and variations for applying this concept to other marketing courses are examined.
Johnson, J. M.   (1998).   Statistical profiles of foreign doctoral recipients in science and engineering: Plans to stay in the United States.   Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
Abstract:  The international mobility of foreign scientists and engineers and their significant presence in the U.S. labor force often begins with their graduate education at U.S. universities. This report provides detailed statistical profiles of students from several major countries who were doctoral recipients in science and engineering (S&E) at U.S. universities. It also provides information on the initial intent of these foreign doctoral recipients to locate in the United States after graduation.
Johnson, J. P.   (2003).   Experiential learning in emerging markets: Leveraging the foreign experience.   Paper presented at the Emerging Markets and Business Education: Trends and Prospects Conference, Atlanta, GA.
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Abstract:  In recent years, business schools in North America have been involved in efforts to internationalize their business curricula, a task given greater urgency by the opening up of markets previously closed to western firms. While most schools have succeeded in infusing some international content in their core business courses, relatively few yet require practical overseas experience as part of the curriculum, even though this appears to be an essential component of developing students' interdisciplinary business competence. Moreover, the business environment in emerging markets is even further from most students' experience and understanding than the relatively stable environment of western market economies, so there is a greater need for students to gain first-hand experience of the challenges of living and working there. This paper critically examines the role of the foreign experience in international business education in emerging markets by applying experiential learning theory to seven types of foreign experience. From this perspective, only four of the seven appear to offer a valuable learning experience in developing interdisciplinary competence.
Johnson, M. M.   (2001, July).   How the United States can leverage the international outreach of our universities.   Paper presented to the Secure Borders Open Doors Advisory Committee.
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Johnston, O. W.   (1978).   Junior year in Germany: Educational experience or profit generator?.   Teaching German, 11(2), 103-111.
Abstract:  Uninspired administrators with eyes fixed on cost-accounting, fund allocations, and educational packaging are looking with ever-increasing voracity at the exchange as a new source of income. The Junior Year in Germany is moving quickly from a culturally oriented educational opportunity to a generator of academic dollars.
Jolly, Y. S., & Jolly, J. A.   (2001, February).   Supplemental thoughts to Bennett's model: Characterization of a sojourner's initial experience.   Nagakute, Japan: Aichi Shukutoku University Intercultural Communication Institute.
Jones, R.   (1999).   Global Status of Engineering Education: Outcomes of the 1998 Global Congress on Engineering Education, Cracow, Poland.   Global Journal of Engineering Education, 3(2).
Abstract:  The 1998 Global Congress on Engineering Education was organized around several major themes: effective teaching methods, curriculum design and evaluation, liberal education for engineers, use of new technologies in engineering education, current issues and trends in engineering education, international collaborations, education for sustainable development, exchange mechanisms in engineering education, academic/industry collaborations, international mobility, linkages between developed and developing countries, and management of academic and engineering institutions. This paper attempts to summarize the major themes and discussions at the Congress, as well as presenting recommendations from the assembled international group of engineering educators.
Jones-Rikkers, C. G., & Douglas, C.   (2000).   The relationship between study abroad programs and worldmindedness: An empirical analysis.   Allendale, MI: Grand Valley State University Management Department.
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Abstract:  The research reported in this paper tests two hypotheses based on study abroad programs. In order to provide a framework for examining our hypotheses, we first review the concept of worldmindedness as it relates to business practice. Next, we provide an outline of the typical study abroad program. We then review research methods and report our results. Finally, we discuss implications and future research.
Jordan, E. L.   (1950).   American students meet German students.   The German Quarterly, 23(3), 168-172.
Kanani, S. S.   (2000).   Study abroad in Kenya: Now and in the future.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 84-88.
Karajewski-Jaime, E. R., et al.   (1993, Mar.).   Developing cultural competence in human service providers.   Paper presented at the Conference on Languages and Communications for World Business and the Professions, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI.
Karelis, C.   (1991).   U.S. & European community begin conversation on exchanges.   World Education News & Reviews, 4(2)(Spring), 1, 23-24.
Kashlak, R. J. & Jones, R. M.   (1996).   Internationalizing business education: Factors affecting student participation in overseas studies.   Journal of Teaching in International Business, 8(2), 57-75.
Kassof, A. et al.   (1979).   A balance sheet for east west exchanges.   IREX occasional papers 1(1).
Abstract:  Four papers discuss research exchanges between the United States and the USSR and East Europe. The first paper considers the evolution of perceptions of social scientists in these countries during the Cold War and Detente. The dominant view of American researchers during the Cold War was that the United States, as the most modern society, was the yardstick for measuring other societies. The United States experienced rapid growth of training and research related to the Soviet orbit. However, Soviet scholars were constrained by Marxist-Leninist doctrine and by educational and research policies. In the 1960s, American social scientists gained a greater appreciation for the complexities of modern societies and East European social scientists began innovative studies. The second paper discusses evaluations of research exchanges between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conclusion is that these exchanges are scientifically valuable to both countries. The most serious problem is Soviet political repression of its scientific community. The third paper discusses problems and accomplishments of East European studies in the United States. Although progress seems to be steady, American social scientists have come to pursue topics that are politically safe, and thus often of secondary importance. The final paper suggests that in exchanges between the Soviet Union and the United States, both academic and government communities profit. The point that Soviet exchanges are generally in sciences and engineering and American exchanges are in history and literature illustrates that each side sends whom it wishes. Thus, the author concludes that this type of exchange is neither unbalanced nor unfair.
Keating, R., & Byles, C. M.   (1991).   Internationalizing the business school curriculum: Perspectives on successful implementation.   Journal of Education for Business, 67(1), 12-16.
Keen, K.   (2003, Feb.).   Widening the circle: Arranging for sign language interpretation abroad: A disability service provider perspective.   IIE Network.
Keeton, K.   (1958).   A critical appraisal of the Fulbright summer seminar, 1957.   The German Quarterly, 31(2), 123-127.
Kelly, B.   (1994).   Foundations of a new developmental model for intercultural sensitivity training.   Sanno Tanki Daigaku Kiyo, 27, 1-13.
Kelly, P., & Graham, J.   (1994).   Global issues - Making international connections.   The English Journal, 83(6), 90-91.
Kemp, N., & Humfrey, C.   (n.d.).   UK-US higher education partnerships: Realising the potential.   Washington, DC: British Council.
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Abstract:  The report highlights the strengths in existing collaborations and it is on these strengths that we need to build. Through programmes such as the UK government funded PMI2 Programme and the US Fulbright programme, we need to ensure that partnerships continue to fl ourish and that they develop in tune with the changing environment. At the British Council, we look forward to working with our partners in the US and particularly with the Institute of International Education to make this a reality.
Kennedy, M. D., & Weiner, E. S.   (2003, Jan.).   The articulation of international expertise in the professions.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges & US Higher Education conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
Abstract:  Over the 1990s, professional schools in US higher education significantly extended their international reference in the mission to globalize. Professional schools articulate that commitment in different ways, however. We review representations of leading professional schools' international ambitions and consider their existing and potential articulation with area studies and its contextual expertise. Beyond obvious markers of affinity with joint degrees and emphases on place, we also explore how one might extend the contextual expertise of area studies into the problem formation of research and education in the professions. In general, we recommend that we consider how to extend the American academy's engagement with publics abroad, on the one hand, and extend the American public's debate about globalization's value and alternatives by drawing professional students from abroad into the constitution of global publics on American campuses.
Kertesz, M.   (2001).   Developing and managing study abroad programs.   Burnaby: British Columbia Centre for International Education.
Abstract:  This handbook is designed for individuals at post-secondary institutions tasked with managing education abroad programs or an office responsible for developing and coordinating exchange programs and field study programs. The module provides an overview of the various types of education abroad programs and services, and outlines strategies for developing and improving programs. The publication includes information and resources to guide the development of education abroad programs as well as providing a collection of forms that can be customized for individual institutional needs.
Kifiy, R., & Nielsen, D.   (2002/2003).   International service learning: The importance of partnerships.   Community College Journal, Dec./Jan., 39-41.
Abstract:  Over the past two decades, study abroad and service-learning opportunities have increased significantly on community college campuses across the U.S. Community college faculty, administrators, presidents and board members who are interested in supporting the development of service-learning programs in their local communities and exchange programs overseas can easily obtain information. A variety of sources includes academic publications, Web sites and professional conferences. Despite the wealth of resources available on the nuts and bolts of developing service learning and study abroad programs, there is comparatively little information available to help community college personnel effectively combine service learning with study abroad.
Kim, J.   (1998).   Economic analysis of foreign education and students abroad.   Journal of Development Economics, 56(2), 337-365.
Abstract:  The role of knowledge accumulation in economic growth has been well discussed in the literature. By assuming the possibility of knowledge import by study abroad, this paper presents a growth model of knowledge creation and import. This paper also derives testable implications in three aspects of foreign education: the choice of host countries by foreign students, the number of students abroad from one origin country, and the growth effect of foreign education. In all these aspects, empirical observations agree well with the predictions of the model.
King, L. J., & Young, J. A.   (1994).   Study abroad: Education for the 21st century.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 27(1), 77-87.
King, M. C.   (1990).   The community college's international vision.   Community, Technical and Junior College Journal, 61(1), 37-40.
King, M. C., & Fersh, S. H.   (1982).   General education through international/intercultural dimensions.   In Johnson, B.L. (Ed.), New directions for community colleges: General education in two-year colleges, No. 40 (pp. 49-57). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Abstract:  In this presentation the authors share the thoughts that have influenced their actions at Brevard Community College and give examples of what they have been doing along with recommendations. The authors believe that, to live effectively and affectively in our rapidly evolving global society, individuals need additional kinds of knowledge and creative ways of becoming more self-educating; it is imperative, they advise, that American educators understand and appreciate the critical relationship of transcultural education and general education.They further point out that general education must be more concerned with the affective as well as the cognitive. Content-centered learning has relied heavily on accuracy and literalness at the expense of style and persuasive power.
Kitao, S. K.   (1993).   Preparation for and results of a short-term overseas study program in the United States.   Bulletin of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, 10, 107-118.
Abstract:  A summer 1992 program in which Doshisha Women's Junior College (Japan) students studied at Mary Baldwin College (Virginia) for three weeks is discussed. Program aspects described include program development, student motivation for joining, student preparation for the study-abroad experience, effects of the experience on their English language proficiency and image of the United States, and student feelings about the program.
Kitsantas, A., & Meyers, J.   (2001, Mar.).   Study abroad: Does it enhance college student cross-cultural awareness?.   Paper presented at CIBER 2001, San Diego, CA.
Abstract:  This study examined the role of study abroad programs on a students' cross-cultural awareness.
Klahr, S. C, & Ratti, U.   (2000).   Increasing engineering student participation in study abroad: A study of U.S. and European programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 4(1), 79-102.
Abstract:  It is generally assumed that undergraduate students in any major benefit significantly from study abroad, with respect to personal, academic, and pre-professional development. For students in all professional programs, and for engineering students in particular, it has become increasingly important to acquire global competency. As nations become more economically interdependent, the engineering profession increasingly involves international bids and projects, demands interaction with international colleagues because of rapid advances in technological developments, and requires engineers to gain an awareness of world events and the global economy as well as acquire intercultural understanding. However, engineering graduates generally do not have the necessary skills to work in an international environment, as few engineering students gain international experience by either studying or interning abroad as part of their education. Engineering students encounter a number of barriers preventing them from taking advantage of international study. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of and compare the types of initiatives in the Untied States and Europe designed to increase the numbers of engineering students participating in international study, and to present recommendations to remove the barriers to study abroad encountered by engineering students. The authors are aware that international experience as part of an engineering undergraduate education is a matter of great concern, and that a number of actions are being implemented to facilitate increased mobility. This paper contributes to these current and future initiatives.
Klahr, S. C.   (1999).   A descriptive study of the barriers to study abroad in engineering undergraduate education and recommendations for program design.   (Doctoral dissertation, Montana State University).
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for the design of study abroad programs, which would be suitable for engineering students. By surveying coordinators of international programs in engineering in the U. S. and in the European Union, different program designs were examined, which led to an understanding of how certain programs have been able to remove some of the traditional barriers. These barriers include problems with credit transfer, lack of support by engineering faculty, lack of foreign language, stringent curricular design, lack of funding to develop appropriate programs, and student's misperceptions regarding study abroad. Findings indicated that the European Union programs were more successful in developing options suitable for engineering students and removing these barriers. Successful programs are typically those which are promoted by the college or department of engineering, offer study options in an English speaking setting, award full credit at the home institution, offer financial assistance, and require students to be at least in their third year of studies.
Klak, T., & Martin, P.   (2003).   Do university-sponsored international cultural events help students appreciate "difference"?.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 445-465.
Klasek, Charles B., et al.   (1992).   Bridges to the future: Strategies for internationalizing higher education.   Carbondale, IL: Association of International Education Administrators, Southern Illinois University.
Abstract:  This book offers 13 papers on the creation, development, and enhancement of international programs in colleges and universities. Following a preface by Charles B. Klasek and a list of contributors, the papers are: (1) "Administration of International Education" (Tannaz Rahman and LaMarr Kopp); (2) "Foreign Students and Scholars" (Ann Kuhlman); (3) "Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty" (Holly M. Carter); (4) "Internationalization of the Curriculum" (Maurice Harari); (5) "Education Abroad and International Exchange" (Marian Aitches and Tom Hoemeke); (6) "International Education: Public Service and Outreach" (Mary Anne Flournoy); (7) "Inter-Institutional Cooperation Guidelines and Agreements" (Charles B. Klasek); (8) "Technical and Educational Development" (Eunice P. French); (9) "The Private Sector/Educational Partnership for International Competence" (Brian J. Garavalia); (10) "The Process of Internationalization at Minority Institutions" (Joseph L. Overton); (11) "Developing a Strategy for Internationalization in Universities: Towards a Conceptual Framework" (John L Davies); (12) "The Need for a Definition of International Education in U.S. Universities" (Stephen Arum and Jack Van de Water); and (13) "University Ethos: The Spark, The Flame, The Fire" (Charles B. Klasek). Reference lists follow each paper.
Klassen, F. H.   (1967).   Teacher education: The world dimension.   Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies.
Abstract:  The preparation of teachers to accomplish the objectives underlying the International Education Act of 1966 is a focal point on which major efforts must be concentrated so that new perspectives can be introduced into the structure and content of American education. The federal government role will be to provide large-scale financing for international teacher education programs, while major responsibility for defining and implementing ideas and activities will lie with the universities. Schools must cooperate to solve such problems as the awarding of inservice growth credit for teacher participation in international programs, and they must systematically promote collaboration between schools of education and the traditional disciplines whose focus in research and teaching involves world affairs. Teacher education programs designed to internationalize future American teachers must consist of overseas teaching experience which (1) enables the prospective teacher to enter the lives of others at a level deep enough to make mutual understanding possible, (2) is accompanied by structured discourse of a course or seminar type, and (3) is undertaken by the student teacher not only as a consumer but also as a producer, one who will be faced with the obligation to transmit the results of his experience to the students in the classroom.
Klein, G., & Maquardt, C.   (1995).   Study abroad: It's for you.   Black Collegian, 40-42, 138-139, 192.
Abstract:  Attempts to dispel some myths about study abroad through concrete information and statistics
Klineberg, O.   (1965).   Research in the fielld of international exchanges in education, science, and culture.   Social Science Information, 4, 97-138.
Knight, J.   (2001).   Monitoring the quality and progress of internationalization.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(3).
Knight, J.   (2003).   Internationalization of higher education practices and priorities: 2003 IAU survey report.   Paris: International Association of Universities.
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Knight, J.   (2003).   Updating the definition of internationalization.   Boston College Center for International Higher Education Newsletter, 33.
Koester, J.   (1985).   A profile of the U.S. student abroad.   Council on International Education Exchange.
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Abstract:  'The first in a projected series which documents the results of a nationwide surveys of U.S. students who study, travel and work abroad. The results of this survey provides a statistical information base of the U.S. students who cross international boundaries. Demographic characteristics of these students, and a description of their intended international experience, attitude, and behavioral characteristics are also included. In addition, students having a prior international experience provide a self-assessment of the impact of that experience. Presents findings related to recurring patterns in (1) relationship between language study and the international student, (2) parental language and international residence, (3) career goals and international experience, (4) the length of time of the student's international trips, (5) notable number of high school students travelling, (6) increasing number of students from business, sciences, engineering and the professions interested in international travel, and (7) significant number of students receiving scholarship/grant support.[PGAJW]
Koester, J.   (1986).   A profile of foreign language majors who work, study, and travel abroad.   Modern Language Journal, 70(1)(Spring), 21-27.
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Koh, H.   (2002).   Trends in international student flows to the United States.   International Higher Education, 28, 18.
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Kohls, L. R.   (1987).   Four traditional approaches to developing cross-cultural preparedness in adults: Education, training, orientation, and briefing.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11(1), 89-106.
Krajewski-Jaime, E. R., et al   (1996).   Utilizing international clinical practice to build inter-cultural sensitivity in social work students.   Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 4(2), 15-29.
Abstract:  This paper describes an international clinical internship that uses a developmental model to build inter-cultural sensitivity in baccalaureate social work students. The paper analyzes the stages students go through as they struggle to develop a bi-cultural professional perspective. This model adheres to the position that cross-cultural practice in a multicultural world not only conforms to the emerging picture of life in the United States, but is also in accord with the values of social work.
Kulacki, G.   (2000).   Area studies and study abroad: The Chinese experience.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6(Winter), 23-46.
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Kuntz, P. S.   (1999).   Overseas students of Arabic and their teachers: Issues in program implementation.  
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Abstract:  A study investigated beliefs about language learning held by American adult students of Arabic studying in two programs, one in Morocco and one in Yemen, and compared them with beliefs held by the teachers. Subjects were 44 students and 10 teachers from the Morocco program and 27 students and 7 teachers from the Yemen program. Subjects were surveyed on the first day of classes, before placement tests were conducted. Some demographic differences were found in the two program populations. Survey questions concerned language learning strategies and patterns, personal motivation for language learning, language aptitude, and the nature of language learning. Results indicate that the student and teachers did hold differing beliefs about language learning. Implications for classroom instruction, curriculum design, and evaluation are explored. The questionnaire is appended. Contains 39 references.
La Belle, T. J.   (2003).   U.S. higher education: The long reach abroad with tight borders at home.   International Higher Education, 33, 10-11.
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LaBrack, B., & Pusch, M.   (2001, Oct.).   "Home sweet home" or shattered social contract? Considering the cultural contexts of reentry.   Paper presented at the conference of the Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research (SIETAR), Minneapolis, MN.
Lambert, R. D.   (1987).   Durable academic linkages overseas: A national agenda.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 491, 140-153.
Lambert, R. D.   (1993).   International education and international competence in the United States.   European Journal of Education, 28(3), 309.
Landau, J., & Moore, D. C.   (2001).   Towards reconciliation in the motherland: Race, class, nationality, gender, and the complexities of American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7, 25-59.
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Abstract:  Over the past fifteen years the worldwide growth of U.S. study abroad locations, the increasing number of "heritage" destinations, and an increasing theoretical sophistication have troubled these general assumptions. The following paper, co-written by an American alumna of a U.S.-based study abroad program at the University of Ghana, Legon, and a U.S.-based American professor specializing in International and Black Atlantic Studies, will explore one particularly freighted instance of the end of such assumptions, by addressing the American student presence at the University of Ghana, Legon. Examination of the Legon case will, we hope, be valuable for all study abroad professionals, because the American student presence at Legon challenges all of the traditional assumptions noted just above. [Authors]
Landers, T. J.   (1973).   Cross-cultural experience: A vital component of inservice education.   NASSP Bulletin, 57, 92-94.
Abstract:  Educators are on the go! A profusion of sirenic articles and advertisements in professional journals lure thousands of school administrators and teachers each year to swap gradebooks for guidebooks and take to the "wild blue yonder" or the "bounding main."
Lash, A. A., Lusk, B., & Nelson, M. A.   (2000).   American nursing scholars abroad, 1985-1995.   Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32(4), 415-420.
Abstract:  To explore the international activities of American nursing scholars from 1985 to 1995, as indicated by their international teaching, scholarship, and consultation. All faculty (N = 2,254) teaching in nursing doctoral programs in the United States were surveyed using an investigator-designed questionnaire. The professional characteristics of American nursing scholars who worked abroad and the dates, nature, and types of international activities they undertook were ascertained. From a total of 928 usable returns, 247 described international activity. Data indicated a three-fold increase in international activity from 1985 to 1995 in the three major areas investigated. Universities in Western Europe and Asia were the most frequent recipients of nursing scholarly activity. The scholars or representatives of the host institutions made approximately half the initial contacts. The international hosts or U.S. universities were the predominant providers of funding. Nurses most likely to participate in international scholarly activity were senior faculty who were full professors in doctoral-granting institutions, published in international journals, presented educational topics, and were recognized by peers through membership in honorary organizations. A substantial increase in international nursing scholarship occurred during the decade studied, particularly related to teaching.
Lashbrooke, Jr., E. C., Hult, G. T. M., Cavusgil, S. T., Yaprak, A., & Knight, G. A.   (2002).   Study abroad programs in business schools: Issues and recommendations by leading educators.   East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Abstract:  The roundtable experts met in small discussion groups organized into 14 thematic topics that correspond to challenges surrounding study abroad. Authors prepared and submitted papers that served as the focus of the discussions in most of the small groups. These papers served to focus the discussions. The topic categories constitute the sections of this final report.
Lavrov, S. V.   (n.d.).   Celebrating fifty years of cultural, scientific and educational exchanges between the United States and Russia/the Soviet Union.   Paper presented at the Carnegie Moscow Center and Spanso House.
Law-Yone, W.   (2001).   AD travels: An education abroad. Study tours with the National Trust.   Architectural Digest, 58(7), 58-67.
Lawerys, J. A.   (1967, Nov.).   National differences in the approach to knowledge - Implications for the planning of exchange programs.   Paper presented at the CIEE Twentieth Anniversary Membership Conference, New York, NY.
Leask, B.   (2001).   Bridging the gap: Internationalizing university curricula.   Journal of Studies on International Education, 5(2).
Abstract:  This article is a case study of how one university is internationalizing all its courses so that all graduates will demonstrate an international perspective as professionals and citizens. This focus on courses and their teaching, learning, and assessment promotes international education, multiculturalism, and the recognition of intercultural issues relevant to professional practice. The first section deals with structural options and pathways for course design when internationalizing curricula and the defining characteristics of such options. The second and final section of the article outlines ways in which an internationalized curriculum broadens the scope of the subject to include international content and/or contact and sets up teaching and learning to assist in the development of cross-cultural communication skills. Internationalizing university curricula is a powerful and practical way of bridging the gap between rhetoric and practice to including and valuing the contribution of international students.
Lee, J. J., Maldonado-Maldonado, A., & Rhoades, G.   (n.d.).   The political economy of international student flows: Patterns, ideas, and propositions.   In Smart, J. C. (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, Vol. XXI, 545-590. Netherlands: Springer.
Abstract:  The flow of international students into U.S. higher education has received substantial attention following policy and enrollment shifts in the aftermath of 9/11. Considerable political debate has surrounded the Bush administration and Congress' promotion and implementation of various policies and practices related to national security that target international students and enlist higher education institutions as collaborators in foregrounding security concerns over those of privacy, civil rights, and unfettered academic exchange. Some presidents of prominent research universities, such as MIT, have been publicly critical of many of the measures, partly because international graduate students are so central to the U.S. higher education economy. Many others in the academy have also voiced concerns, in the context of a higher education environment in which entrepreneurial colleges, universities, and professionals are actively recruiting international students, for cultural as well as economic reasons. In this chapter, we trace such political and economic forces that shape the global flow of international students.
Leons, E.   (2000/2001).   Creating a safe environment for students with learning disabilities on study abroad programs.   SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2(1).
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Levin, D. M.   (2001).   Language learners' sociocultural interaction in a study abroad context..   (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 62(02), 498A).
Abstract:  This dissertation examines the language learning experiences of four female American undergraduate learners in an American university-sponsored study abroad program in the south of France. This ethnographic case study considers how the participants' perceptions of language, identity, and foreign language learning interacted with their year abroad experiences. In order to focus on how they functioned in this learning environment and how they felt their interactions affected their experiences, this study was informed by sociocultural theory and specifically by social identity theory as applied to foreign language learning. This study covered a span of approximately eighteen months, including pre- and post-study abroad periods at the American university and the academic year abroad. Data were collected by using field observation, individual interviews, informal discussions, videotaped interaction, photographs, and documents, including essays, personal journals, and e-mail messages. From a recursive analysis of data sources, the emergent themes highlight complexities of social and cultural dynamics and individual dimensions relating to the participants' experiences abroad. Despite the participants' strong assumption that the most efficient way to learn another language is in a study abroad program, their need to negotiate their identities with regard to educational expectations, peer-group influences, and personal connections led them to create and miss opportunities for language learning. With one exception, the participants positioned themselves as classroom language learners and by doing so, their possibilities to internalize, personalize, and remain open to unexpected cultural interaction were limited. Through their individual stories, this dissertation shows that the study abroad setting provided a holistic experience including formal language study and some informal language contact. However, the study abroad program, as an extension of the American university, strongly defined participants' experiences as a coming of age, primarily tied to personal growth and learning, rather than as an experience of natural or automatic language learning.
Levin, J. S.   (2002).   In education and in work: The globalized community college.   The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 32(2), 47-77.
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Abstract:  This is a multiple case study of seven colleges using field methods research to examine institutional life and organizational context. This study determines that community colleges in both Canada and the United States exhibited educational and work behaviors in the 1990s consistent with the globalization process. Education was oriented to the marketplace, and the needs of business and industry received high priority in educational programming. Work within these institutions was valued for and carried out with economic ends: to realize productivity and efficiency.
Lewis, C., & Sygall, S.   (1993).   A new manual for integrating people with disabilities into international educational exchange programs.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Liljenstolpe, E.   (2002).   The effect of study abroad at the Latin American Studies Program on conceptualization of humanity of other cultures in Caucasian university students.   Washington, DC: Council for Christian Colleges and Universities.
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Abstract:  The purpose of the investigation was to examine how Caucasian students' perceptions of peoples of the host cultures changed during a semester of study abroad. Students pass through five stages of conceptual development in thinking about other cultures. Stage one is characterized by seeing people from the host culture largely as stereotypes without reference to personal interaction. In stage two a person references personal experiences to give examples of generalized or stereotypical behavior. In Stage three a person has had enough experience to see that people in the host culture are as human as themselves. In Stage four the sojourner reflectively applies concepts to the immigrants and foreign or ethnic communities with whom they have had personal experience in their home culture. Stage five is an application of this newfound humanity to people of other cultures whom they have not encountered. A critical pedagogical framework was found to scaffold and support students' transformative experiences.
Lind, M.   (1952).   The U. S. government program for the exchange of teachers.   The French Review, 26(2), 129-134.
Lindahl, F. W., & Fanelli, A. R.   (2000).   Teaching business across cultures: A first person experience.   Journal of Business Education.
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Abstract:  As "international" business programs proliferate throughout the world, the mixing of cultures creates new teaching challenges. We describe a personal experience in which an American professor coped with cultural differences at INSEAD in France. End-of-course student evaluations revealed a variety of problems that the professor needed to resolve. He applied principles of continuous improvement in the next course he taught at INSEAD. The principles applied here should be broadly applicable to college professors, not only those working with "international" students.
Lindsay, B.   (1989).   Integrating international education and public diplomacy: Creative partnerships or ingenious propaganda?.   Comparative Education Review, 33(4), 423.
Lino, M.   (1996).   "Excellent foreigner!": Gaijinization of Japanese language and culture in contact situations.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania). Available from UPenn Dissertation Depository. (No. AAI9627938).
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Abstract:  Although study abroad programs have attracted many language educators and learners, little empirical research has been conducted on what is actually happening in daily interactions that non-native speakers are exposed to in the host country. This ethnographic study is one of the first studies for any language, and is the first such study for Japanese, that focuses on linguistic and cultural learning in natural settings during a homestay program. It explores the linguistic and behavioral features of the Japanese host families in the dinner table contact situations. Since most descriptive conversational studies on Japanese in the past have looked only at the speech of educated, middle-class speakers of the standard dialect, this study is one of the few that includes an examination of other Japanese codes (foreigner talk, regional dialects) that non-native speakers routinely encounter. Methodologically, the study employs video recordings of naturally occurring interactions, collected by what I call the "remote observation method," as well as conventional audio recordings, questionnaires and interviews. One of the major findings was that the Japanese hosts' presentation and interpretation of Japanese language was, mostly unconsciously, modified for the American guest students (gaijinization), the norms of which were different from those of their native situations. In addition to the gaijinization of language use, the Japanese hosts' presentation of Japanese culture and interpretation of the American students' behaviors were also modified (gaijinized) for the American guest students. On the theoretical side, it is hoped that this study provides opportunities to critically evaluate the sociolinguistic concept of "appropriateness" in language interaction with foreigners by paying more attention to the dynamic aspects of language use in contact situations. On the pragmatic side, the findings from this study suggest more effective preparations for participants in homestay settings.
Linton, C.   (1948).   Counseling students from overseas.   Educational and Psychological Measurement, 8, 501-521.
Littmann, U.   (1980, Nov.).   Research in international exchange: Why?.   Paper presented at the U.S.-German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany.
Abstract:  This paper identifies some major research areas which may lead to joint cross-national research projects. The five potential research areas are purely scholarly interests, policy interests, accountability and self-study, interest in planning, and a secondary area, but not to be forgotten, personal interest. In concluding, the author pleads for tolerance: we cannot rely on any conventional wisdom, on common terminology, or on assuming that we know what each one of us is after. Not only the subject of this research, but the research itself is a cross-cultural experience.
Littmann, U.   (1987).   A Host Country's View: The Federal Republic of Germany.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 491, 73-84.
Abstract:  The Fulbright program is evaluated from a host country's perspective. The transition from a program in occupied Germany in 1952 to a truly binational program with sharing of funding and supervision since 1964 is shown in the historical setting, added responsibilities, and the Fulbright Commission's contributions in four areas: cultural foreign relations, academic cooperation, educational reforms, and bilateral cultural consultations. The dual goal of the Fulbright design-to advance academic knowledge and to promote mutual understanding-is pursued in binational and regional cooperation. The role of the Commission, the Board of Foreign Scholarships and the contracting governments places emphasis upon true partnership rather than the image of the Fulbright as being an American government program.
Livingstone, A.S.   (1962).   International students: Part I - The student group, their selection and placement.   International Social Work, 5(1).
Livingstone, A.S.   (1963).   International students: Part II - Entrance requirements and placement procedures .   International Social Work, 6(4).
Livingstone, A.S.   (1963).   International students: Part III - Academic provisions and the study experience.   International Social Work, 6(18).
Livingstone, R.   (2003, Oct.).   Policy support for Australian students on international study programs - The next step.   Panel Paper presented at the 17th Australian International Education Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
Abstract:  This paper gives an overview of the policy in place to support international study programs and highlights the necessity to commence surveying institutions nationally to gather and analyse sets of information on students who study overseas - the types of programs, where they study, what they study and for how long, how they are financed and their gender and ethnicity.
Lloyd, D. T.   (2000).   African studies and study abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 99-116.
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Loew, H. Z.   (1980).   Assessing study abroad programs for secondary schools students.   Language in education: Theory and practice, 29.
Abstract:  This publication is divided into two parts. The first part, "Study Abroad for High School Age Youth: Status, Purposes, and Proposed Directions," is by Stephen H. Rhinesmith. This article describes the status of study abroad programs in secondary education, discusses the purposes of such study, and proposes directions for future developments that will help educate more intenationally sensitive Americans. The second part of the document, "Assessing Study Abroad Programs: A Guide for Local School Districts," by Helene Z. Loew treats guidelines for assessment of programs. Included are sections on information disclosure by sponsoring agencies; recommended insurance coverage: criteria for selection of leaders, chaperones, faculty, staff, and students: academic standards: facilities and accommodations abroad: and suggestions for program evalution. Appendices include a sample preliminary application, a personal reference form, suggestions for student preparation, a postexchange questionnaire and evaluation form, the International Communication Agency criteria for teenager exchange visitor programs, and selected references.
Long, D.   (1997).   The experiential course: An alternative to study abroad for nontraditional students.   Foreign Language Annals, 30(3), 301-310.
Lucas, J. S.   (2003).   Intercultural communication for international programs: An experientially-based course design.   Journal of Research in International Education, 2(3), 301-314.
Ludden, D.   (2000).   Area studies in the age of globalization.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 1-22.
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Ludeman, R. B.   (2001, Mar.).   Bridging nations: The important role of international education in the globalisation of higher education in the south.   Paper presented at the Globalization Conference hosted by the Education Policy Unit, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
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Ludington, J. R.   (1960).   The foreign language program in Title III of the National Defense Education Act.   PLMA, 75(2), 11-15.
Lulat, Y. G-M., & Cordaro, J.   (1984).   International students and study-abroad programs: A select bibliography.   Comparative Education Review, 28(2), 300-339.
Lutterman, A.   (2000, August).   Challenges faced by academic programs abroad: Breaking stereotypes & promoting intercultural awareness.   Paper presented at the International Congress on Challenges to Education, Mexico City.
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Abstract:  What leads human beings from a state of fear, ignorance, and distrust (if not hatred) of those who are culturally different to a state in which they want to understand, communicate, and connect? The indications of widespread denial, defense, and minimization, which surfaced in this case study would lead interculturalists to suggest that the best starting point for concerned educators at Augsburg and other schools where similar attitudes have been identified, is at the most basic level - simply helping students to recognize and appreciate the existence of cultural differences.
Mahan, J. M. & Stachowski, L.   (1990).   New Horizons: Student teaching abroad to enrich understanding of diversity.   Action in Teacher Education, 12(3), 13-21.
Mahan, J. M., & Stachowski, L. L.   (1985).   Overseas student teaching: A model, important outcomes, recommendations.   International Education, 15(1), 9-28.
Abstract:  Presents a model of overseas teaching by which student teachers are placed in foreign schools for eight-week teaching assignments. Finds that student teachers are able to successfully complete assignments in overseas schools, develop a knowledge and appreciation of different cultures, add to their repertoire new teaching skills and techniques, increase their confidence as effective educators, and generally enhance their personal and professional growth and development. Recommends that greater exposure to international issues should be encouraged in teacher- training institutions.[PGAJW]
Mahan, J. M., & Stachowski, L. L.   (1989).   Instructional suggestions from abroad concerning overseas teaching.   Journal of Teacher Education, 40(6), 40-45.
Mahoney, S., & Schamber, J.   (2003, Nov.).   Exploring the application of a developmental model of intercultural sensitivity to a general education curriculum on diversity.   Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Portland, OR.
Malik, C. H.   (1961).   The world looks at the American program.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 335, 132-140.
Abstract:  Technical proficiency is insufficient apart from a liberal education. On the intellectual level, the liberal mind, that trusts reason and rejoices in the truth and, therefore, does not contradict for the sake of contradiction, is the only answer to communism. The United States should see that the foreign students in this country are liberally as well as technically educated. Abroad, the United States would do well to sponsor educational institutions in countries lacking the administrative framework, philosophy of education, organization, trained personnel, and elementary tools to do it themselves. As the universal language of communication, English brings opportunity to those who master it for disseminating knowledge and culture, for good or evil, throughout the world. The United States could, also, assist printing in the vernaculars. Thoroughly trained experts in Asian and African languages and cultures should be prepared and sent abroad. Europe should be drawn into a cultural as well as military and political alliance with the United States in confronting the world. A philosophy and practice of universal humanism are called for. A cultural emergency exists today precisely because cultural obligations were not understood and acted upon in the past.
Manley, T.   (2002).   Study abroad pedagogy: A case study of the development and practice of the Pitzer College Fieldbook.   (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 63, 878A).
Abstract:  Study abroad in recent decades has become more visible in the landscape of American undergraduate education as witnessed by the surging numbers of participants and programs that serve them. Research about the educational practice of study abroad, on the other hand, has tended to lag behind the development of the activity itself, creating a need for scholarship on student learning in that setting. The subject of this study is a pedagogical technique designed to foster and assess intercultural learning. Developed at Pitzer College and known as the Fieldbook, the technique employs an integrated and diverse series of writing assignments, which students complete during their semester abroad. The study uses a variety of methods of inquiry, including historical and content analyses, focus groups and surveys to place the Fieldbook in its historical and theoretical context and to effect a holistic description of its design and implementation. The Fieldbook is a good example of how an innovation can be realized through the collaborative, longitudinal energies of study abroad practitioners: faculty, staff and students. Created for use in a Pitzer College program in Italy, it was revised extensively over a decade, as it was adapted for programs in eight other countries. Feedback from students and staff provided the information critical to improve the Fieldbook, making it a malleable tool for facilitating intercultural learning and a central feature of the Pitzer study abroad model. Challenges addressed in the Fieldbook's development included, among other things, issues of privacy in student writing, the lack of clear criteria for assessing assignments, staff training, student complaints about workload, intercultural sensitivity, and student resistance to high stake (graded) writing. The study concludes with suggestions for strengthening the Fieldbook's design and practice and with recommendations for how research on applied pedagogy can enhance the quality of experientially oriented study abroad and other types of non-classroom learning.
Marcum, J. A.   (2001, May 18).   What direction for study abroad?.   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Abstract:  Study abroad is moving from the academic margins to the core of U.S. higher education. Once primarily an extracurricular program at most institutions, study abroad now has gained new academic significance.
Marcum, J. A.   (2001, May 18).   What direction for study abroad? Eliminate the roadblocks.   Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle Review, B7-B9.
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Margolis, A.   (1988).   Evaluating international credentials: Problems of transfer credit, part II.   World Education News & Reviews, 1(3)(Spring), 5-8.
Abstract:  This second and concluding installment is concerned with the practical issues of determining quality of performance and the amounts of work, in terms of U.S. credits, successfully completed.
Marsh, H. L.   (1994).   NAFSA self-study guide: The assessment of programs and services for international educational exchange at postsecondary institutions.   Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  NAFSA strongly encourages self-regulation or monitoring of programs and services for international educational exchange. Thus, NAFSA's reaffirmation, through this guide, of an assessment process.
Marshall, J.   (1944).   What about an international office for education?.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 235, 33-40.
Abstract:  If the nations are to join together and maintain peace, if we are to participate in what Walter Lippmann calls a nuclear alliance or Winston Churchill calls a Grand Alliance or Mr. Roosevelt calls an international peace and security organization, the education of the world cannot be ignored.
Martens, M. M.   (1992).   An analysis of the perceptions for the participants in the German Marshall Fund of the United States Teacher in-service training.   (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University).
Abstract:  This dissertation analyzed the perception of the Fellows who participated in the German Marshall Fund of the United States Teacher In-Service Training Seminar held in Germany during the summers of 1988, 1989, and 1990. Data were collected through a questionnaire mailed to the teachers who had participated in the GMF In-Service Training.
Martin, J. N.   (1984).   The intercultural reentry: Conceptualization and directions for future research.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 115-134.
Abstract:  While there has been extensive research on the cultural adjllstment of sojourners to a foreign culture, there has been a dearth of literature examining the adjustment of returning sojourners to their home culture (reentry). In order to further understanding of this phenomenon, this article discusses the reentry process as one type of cultural adjustment. First, reentry is defined and described. Secondly, research investigating the two processes of adjustment to a foreign culture and readjustment to the home culture is reviewed, and the two processes are compared and contrasted. Finally. Suggestions are made concerning future research.
Martin, J. N., Bradford, L., & Rohrlich, B.   (1995).   Comparing predeparture expectations and post-sojourn reports: A longitudinal study of U.S. students abroad.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(1), 87-110.
Abstract:  This article reports the results of a longitudinal investigation, based on a modified expectancy violations model, of expectations of students studying abroad. Two hundred forty-eight student sojourners described their predeparture expectations concerning I3 aspects of overseas living. Upon their return, these same students completed a similar postreturn survey reporting the degree to which their expectations were met or violated. Pre- and postdeparture data were submitted to regression and correlational analyses. There were three major findings. First, an unexpected finding that sojourners consistently reported that expectations were met or positively violated. Second, the fulfillment/violation of expectations was related to location of sojourn and somewhat to gender, but not to prior intercultural experience. Finally, there was a positive relationship between the violation of expectations and the overall evaluation of the sojourn experience, supporting the expectancy violations model. Implications for future research are presented.
Mashburn, J., & Brown, C. M.   (2000).   Pharmacy students awareness of and interest in pharmacy-related international educational/study abroad programs.   American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 64(1), 62-67.
Abstract:  This study examined pharmacy students' interest in pharmacy-related international educational/study abroad programs.  The objectives of this study were four-fold: (i) to establish the level of awareness/exposure of pharmacy students to international educational programs; (ii) to determine students' likelihood of participation; (iii) to identify students' perceived barriers/obstacles associated with international educational programs; mographic characteristics.  Two hundred ninety-seven pharmacy students responded to aand (iv) to explore relationships between students' likelihood of participation and students' de questionnaire administered to baccalaureate and Doctor of Pharmacy students.  The majority of pharmacy students was not currently aware of pharmacy-related study abroad programs and was not interested in participating.  Students would more likely participate in a program if it was fully funded, conducted in English, selected by the students from a list of choices and/or was equivalent to U.S. pharmacy clerkships regarding university credit.  Pharmacy students' likelihood to participate in pharmacy-related international education differed based on ethnic background and multilingual abilities.
Massey, W. E.   (2001).   Morehouse College aims to provide global experience for students.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
Masters, R.D.   (1971).   Toward improved Franco-American university exchanges.   Occasional Papers on International Educational Exchange, 17. New York: CIEE..
Mathews, P. R., Hameister, B. G. & Hosley, N. S.   (1998).   Attitudes of college students toward study abroad: Implications for disability service providers.   Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 13(2), 67-77.
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Abstract:  This study investigates the perceptions of college students with disabilities toward study abroad by using personal interviews to rank perceived barriers to participation and necessary accommodations. Subjects are college students with disabilities who would qualify, academically for study abroad. Subjects cited the barriers of lack of knowledge about available study abroad programs, lack of assistive devices and services, and financial barriers. Students favored inclusionary study abroad programs as opposed to programs just for students with disabilities. Most subjects preferred six months advance notice and study abroad in their junior year of college. Disability services staff need to collaborate with international education staff and academic advisers to present timely and accurate information about study abroad options to students with disabilities.
Maurer, I. A.   (1949).   The Fulbright Act in operation.   Far Eastern Survey, 18(9), 104-107.
Abstract:  Good will and understanding among nations can't be measured in pesos or dollars. Fulbright grants are a growing investment with two-way benefits.
Maza, H.   (1963).   American students abroad: A proposal for standards.   Modern Language Journal, 47(1), 4-7.
McCabe, L.   (2001).   Globalization and internationalization: The impact on education abroad programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(2), 138-145.
Abstract:  This article asserts a need for educators to consider the mission and value of study abroad programs and their relation to the processes of globalization and internationalization. As educational systems increase their emphasis on the need for international education, it will be necessary to consider what types of study abroad opportunities are relevant to current world trends. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding the distinction between the terms globalization and internationalization and their relevance to the future of international education and study abroad programs.
McCabe, L. T.   (1994).   The development of a global perspective during participation in semester at sea: A comparative global education program.   Educational Review, 46(3), 275-286.
Abstract:  This article reports on the results of a study seeking to answer: (1) How do students studying abroad change views with respect to different dimensions of a global perspective? (2) How do various elements of the comparative global education program, Semester at Sea, impact the development of a global perspective? Data were collected using limited participation observation (23 participants), interviews and student journals at the beginning and end of a Semester at Sea voyage. Domain, taxonomic and theme analysis were used to identify patterns of change in five dimensions of students' global perspectives. The findings of this study offer some possible conceptual refinements concerning dimensions of a global perspective, and generally reinforce the conclusions of prior research on how tourist and study abroad programs contribute to or detract from the development of a global perspective.
McCabe, L. T.   (2001).   Globalization and internationalization: The impact on education abroad programs.   Journal of Studies on International Education, 5(2), 138-145.
Abstract:  This article asserts a need for educators to consider the mission and value of study abroad programs and their relation to the processes of globalization and internationalization. As educational systems increase their emphasis on the need for international education, it will be necessary to consider what types of study abroad opportunities are relevant to current world trends. This article attempts to provide a framework for understanding the distinction between the terms globalization and internationalization and their relevance to the future of international education and study abroad programs. U.S.-Africa Cooperation in Education at Northern Arizona University: Unexpected Lessons Athanase Gahungu A total of 114 African educators came to Northern Arizona University (NAU), in Flagstaff, from 1988 to 1992 to attend a 45-day Summer Institute sponsored by the United State Information Agency. Two former participants in the program, who came back to NAU as graduate students, interviewed campus personnel and students and members of the surrounding community to examine the impact of the 5-year experience. The program's year-by-year evaluations were analyzed in light of interview responses. It was shown that the program helped the academic and surrounding communities discover other facets of African education and life that media often misrepresent in the mainstream subconscious. Participating African educators were very appreciative of the innovative curriculum and instructional methods they learned and were mesmerized by minority inclusion policies on campus. However, interviewees and the African educators deplored the United States's lack of awareness and interest in cooperation with Africa.
McCarthy, J.   (1992).   Mobilizing faculty for international education: The mini-exchange.   New York: Council on International Education Exchange.
Abstract:  The current emphasis on internationalizing U.S. higher education is largely dependent upon mobilizing faculty to carry out this important agenda. As a short-term, low-cost, entry-level experience, the mini-exchange provides an attractive faculty development option that can have significant impact on efforts to internationalize the higher education curriculum throughout the U.S.
McCormack, W.   (1966).   New directions in study abroad: Opportunities for students in the professional schools.   The Journal of Higher Educaton, 37(7), 369-376.
McCulloch Jr., W. H.   (1990).   Interdisciplinary internationalization of business schools.   Phi Beta Delta International Review, 35-44.
McGladdery, J., & Hudson, C.   (2000).   Negotiating host-student interactions: Some thoughts from the tip of Africa.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 89-92.
McKiernan, J.   (1980).   An evaluation of the consortium for overseas student teaching and its effect on the expressed self-acceptance and acceptance of others of its participants.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama).
McKnight, K.   (1997).   In the wake of Darwin's voyage: Improving international science study for students of biological and environmental sciences.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 3(Fall).
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Abstract:  Values, and problems of students interested in biological and environmental sciences have not changed much since Charles Darwin's day. At the very-undergraduate-sounding age of eighteen, Darwin had largely abandoned the career aspirations of his parents and thrown himself into the study of natural history. His primary mentor, Professor J. S. Henslow, watched Darwin develop the needed discipline to permit productive study and had helped him learn enough local species and fundamental principles of biology until Darwin was ready for his "semester abroad." When Darwin was twenty-two, both he and Henslow felt that the H.M.S. Beagle was the ideal study abroad program for the young naturalist. Planning for the trip, convincing parents both to give permission and financial assistance, and preparing field equipment were also necessary tasks sounding very familiar today.
McLean, J. J.   (1990).   Consortial approaches to international education.   Developing International Education Programs, New Directions for Community Colleges, 70, 47-56.
Abstract:  Describes the College Consortium for International Studies, a consortium offering overseas study opportunities for U.S. students in 18 foreign countries. Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the consortial approach; how consortial membership works; and overcoming prejudice, inertia, and other obstacles.
McMeekin, A.   (2001).   Negotiation and interaction in the Japanese study abroad environment.   Paper presented at the Pacific Second Language Research Forum, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
Abstract:  This study of learners of Japanese studying abroad answers the following questions: 1) What kind of information (linguistic, social etc.) is directly or indirectly made available to the learner through negotiation in the classroom and the homestay setting? 2) What implications does this have toward second language acquisition?
McMurry, R. E.   (1944).   Foreign government programs of cultural relations.   Annals of the American Academcy of Political and Social Science, 235, 54-61.
McNamee, S. J., & Faulkner, G. L.   (2001).   The international exchange experience and the social construction of meaning.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(1), 64-78.
Abstract:  This article examines the notion of applying the social construction of meaning to the experience of an international faculty exchange. Specifically, the article analyzes challenges and changes in the three major sources that people draw on to provide meaning in life: (a) social relationships, (b) work and leisure activities, and (c) convictions to idea systems. It is argued that separation from one's home culture in an exchange produces discomfort and adjustment burdens resulting from the discrepancy between the new cultural setting and these three sources of meaning. Strategies are suggested for coping with sources of potential meaning uncertainty related to the exchange experience within the context of existing relationships, activities, and idea systems.
Mei, D., Rosenblum, J., & Oglensky, B.   (1990).   The Young Diplomats Program 1983-84/1988-89.   Brooklyn, NY: New York City Board of Education Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.
Abstract:  The Young Diplomats Program is an international exchange between the New York City Public School System and several foreign countries. Students in grades K through 12, but largely in grades 8 through 12, participate in student exchanges or pen-pal programs. This publication describes the program and examines the organization and the types of pre- and post-exchange activities involved, and provides a career profile of the participants, their perceptions of their effectiveness, and their perceptions of the impact of the program.
Menton, S.   (1961).   The Costa Rica-Kansas exchange program.   The Modern Language Journal, 45(6), 263-266.
Merkx, G. W.   (2003).   The two waves of internationalization in U.S. higher education.   International Educator, 12(1), 6-12.
Merva, M.   (2003).   Grades as incentives: A quantitative assessment with implications for study abroad programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 7, 149-156.
Abstract:  The problem under investigation is to examine if grades motivate students and, if so, by how much. This article uses a unique data set of 436 students enrolled in an American university located in Europe composed of approximately 50% study-abroad students and 50% degree-seeking students to examine whether there is a significant difference in semester grade point average (GPA) outcomes between students whose grades are averaged into their cumulative GPA with those who take courses on a pass/ fail basis. Using linear regression models controlling for academic ability as well as other relevant variables, the study finds that students whose grades are averaged into their cumulative GPA are estimated to have an increase in the mean semester GPA of .36 points, or 11.4% above the average. For study-abroad students who take courses on a pass/fail basis, the results suggest that academic incentives are adversely affected by this grade transfer policy.
Mestenhauser, J. A.   (2000).   Missing in action: Leadership for international and global education for the 21st century.   Paris: UNESCO.
Mestenhauser, J. A.   (2003).   Building bridges.   International Educator, 10(3), 6-11.
Metzler, J.   (2002).   Undergraduate study abroad programs in Africa: Current issues.   African Issues, 30(2), 50-56.
Michael, I., Armstong, A., & King B.   (2003).   The travel behaviour of international students: The relationship between studying abroad and their choice of tourist destinations.   Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(1), 57-66.
Mildenberger, K. W.   (1964).   The federal government and the universities.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 356, 23-29.
Abstract:  The role of the United States in the Second World War and in world affairs since the war has established the importance of American universities as a national resource for knowledge about the languages and cultures of non-Western peoples. Government agencies turn to the universities for specialized personnel, training programs, informed advice, technical assistance abroad, and mission-oriented research. But professional non-Western resources at universities have been extremely limited, and the government has recognized, in the national interest, a federal responsibility to provide direct financial assistance to strengthen the relevant academic enterprise. The central program of government support is Title VI of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of 1958, which provides aid for language and area centers, for stipends for advanced university study, and for research and studies. A section of the Fulbright-Hays Act of 1961 has augmented NDEA support by provision of funds for travel and study abroad by American faculty and graduate students of non-Western studies.
Miller, E. J.   (1993, Feb.).   Culture shock: A student's perspective on study abroad and the importance of promoting study abroad programs.   Paper presented at the Annual Intercultural and International Communication Conference, Miami, FL.
Milleret, M., Stansfield, C. W., & Kenyon, D. M.   (1991).   The validity of the Portuguese speaking test for use in a summer study abroad program.   Hispania, 74(3), 778-787.
Abstract:  Although most foreign language educators would agree that the opportunity to study in the country where a student's foreign language is spoken is invaluable, there is little research that assesses exactly what benefits accrue to students from such an experience. The dearth of research is particularly acute in reference to summer study abroad programs.
Mills, T. J., & Campbell, J. B.   (1994).   Educational use of foreign students and Americans returned from study abroad: A project to improve global education.   Eugene, OR: Oregon University Office of International Education and Exchange.
Milner, T.   (1998).   Avoiding voyages into confusion: Some reflections on the dangers of assuming a common culture when teaching American high school students abroad.   Paper presented at the Teaching within Anglo-American Study Abroad: Pedagogy, Methodology, Purpose conference, Harlaxton College, United Kingdom.
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Mlama, P.   (2000).   African perspectives on programs for north american students in Africa: The experience of the University of Dar es Salaam.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 24-27.
Mobility International USA   (1997).   A world of options: A guide to international educational exchange, community service and travel for people with disabilities.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (1997).   Equal opportunities in the US and New Independent States.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (1998).   You can study in the NEW Independent States: A resource guide for students with disabilities.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (1999).   Campus collaboration campaign report.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (1999).   Recommendations for future programs.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (1999).   Rights and responsibilities: A guide to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for international organizations and participants.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Mobility International USA   (2000).   Building bridges: A manual on including people with disabilities in international exchange.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA.
Monaghan, P.   (1994).   Study abroad for minority students.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 40(41), A35-A38.
Abstract:  Reports on the efforts of colleges and universities in the United States to involve minority students in international education. Integration of international programs in the curricula, student bodies and faculties; Significance of such integration to the linkage between global awareness and race and ethnic appreciation; Recommendations on how institutions increase the number of minority students study abroad.
Moncrief, III, W. C., Shipp, S. H., & Lamb, Jr., C. W.   (1995).   Student journal writing in an international setting.   Journal of Marketing Education, 17, 71-80.
Morgan, Jr., E. E.   (1975).   Study abroad: A process of adaptation and change.   International Review of Education, 21(2), 207-215.
Abstract:  American students participating in a study abroad program in Switzerland were studied over a three year period (1968-1970) using the methods of participant observation and written questionnaires. The researcher developed a typology of five unique types of student adaptation. From this typology recommendations are made to increase the educational impact of study abroad on participants.
Morgan, R. M., Mwegelo, D. T., & Turner, L. N.   (2002).   Black women in the African diaspora seeking their cultural heritage through studying abroad.   NASPA Journal, 39(4), 333-353.
Abstract:  This article seeks to identify the perceptions of African American women toward a study abroad program in West Africa and to make recommendations to increase their participation. It argues that study abroad programs provide opportunities for Black women and African women to learn about each other and share experiences that empower Black women who question their racial and gender identities.
Mullen, R.   (2001).   Broadening perspectives.   The State of Business, 14(3).
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Myers Jr., E.   (1997).   Some benefits of an education abroad program for elementary preservice teachers.   Education, 117(4), 579-583.
Myers, Jr., E.   (1997).   Some benefits of an education abroad program for elementary pre-service teachers.   Education, 117(4), 579-583.
Abstract:  This paper described the implementation and benefits of a summer study abroad program in Monterrey, Mexico. Undergraduate elementary education majors teach children in a culturally diverse setting. Language arts and multicultural education courses are taught in conjunction with the intensive early field experience.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (1994).   The NAFSA ethics program: Ethical practice in international educational exchange.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  This booklet contains complete information on the NAFSA Ethics Program developed by NAFSA: the Association of International Educators. It includes the NAFSA Code of Ethics, the Principles of International Educational Exchange, and details of the procedures for ethics-related complaints.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2002).   Responsible study abroad: Good practices for health & safety.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  Because the health and safety of study abroad participants are primary concerns, these statements of good practice have been developed to provide guidance to institutions, participants (including faculty and staff), and parents/guardians/families. These statements are intended to be aspirational in nature. They address issues that merit attention and thoughtful consideration by everyone involved with study abroad. They are intentionally general; they are not intended to account for all the many variations in study abroad programs and actual health, safety, and security cases that will inevitably occur. In dealing with any specific situation, those responsible must also rely upon their collective experience and judgment while considering their specific circumstances.
NAFSA Association of International Educators/Alliance for the International Educational and Cultural Exchange   (2000).   Toward an international education policy for the United States.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
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NAFSA Association of International Educators/Alliance for the International Educational and Cultural Exchange   (2003).   Toward an international education policy for the United States: International education in an age of globalism and terrorism.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
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Nance, M., & Hughes, L.   (2001).   Understanding terrorism's impact on study-abroad programs.   SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 2(2).
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Nance, M., & Hughes, L.   (2002).   Top ten ways to not become a victim of crime around the world.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 2(2).
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Narimatsu, S., & Franco, R. W.   (1996).   Study abroad in the Pacific Islands: More than an international experience.   In Raby, R. K. & Tarrow, N. (eds.), Dimensions of the community college: International, intercultural, and multicultural perspectives. New York: Garland Publishing.
Nash, D.   (1976).   The personal consequences of a year of study abroad.   The Journal of Higher Education, 47(2), 191-203.
Abstract:  Using a design involving experimental and control groups, this study evaluates the effect of a year of study abroad on the self-realization of a group ofjunior-year students in France. The kind of self realization which is proposed by the ideologues and custodians of such programs is seen to be aimed at producing a liberal-international version of a typically modern individual. Using this model as a guide, a series of hypotheses regarding the effects on individuals of a year of overseas study were developed. The tests of these hypotheses involved the comparison of changes in the junior-year group and a group which remained at home. Some support for the hypotheses was obtained from assessments made at the end of the year abroad, but a later assessment, using less-than-adequate data, suggests that most of the personality changes derived from the overseas experience did not persist after return home. Further research is called for.
Nash, D., & Tarr, R.   (1976).   The stranger group in an overseas study program.   The French Review, 49(3), 366-373.
Abstract:  Students in most American overseas study programs spend a good deal of time with each other. They may eat and attend classes together, go on group tours, party together, or just hand around with each other during the day or evening. The presence of such a group of strangers in a situation where needs for security and information tend to be aroused would suggest that it be considered a significant factor in a student's overseas experience.
Nasr, K., Berry, J., Taylor, G., Webster, W., Echempati, R., & Chandran, R.   (2002).   Global engineering education through study abroad experiences: Assessment and lessons learned.   Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.
Abstract:  This paper documents the development and implementation of study-abroad programs for engineers and the evaluation process of these programs at Kettering University. Kettering's curriculum of academic and cooperative education make it unique among Engineering schools in the United States. The purpose of these International Programs is to provide students value-added technical and cultural experiences. The need for globally aware engineering students has never been greater than it is today. Technological developments stemming from all parts of the world require our students to be internationally educated. Engineering students who have been internationally educated are more likely to be hired and prepared for the global marketplace. Study-abroad is an investment in the future and prestige of the University and an excellent way for students to gain technical and cultural expertise. Kettering University does this with study-abroad programs that promote understanding across technical programs and nations. Students live abroad for three months and interact with other students and professors from different cultures and academic traditions. Young people return from these experiences feeling confident and knowledgeable about the world in addition to having a broader technical understanding of their field. This paper will discuss the process at Kettering University of setting up study-abroad programs, students' advisement, equivalency and correspondence of courses, grading differences, program assessment and lessons learned. Technical Universities that wish to start study abroad programs would benefit from the recommendations and findings in this paper.
Nasr, K., Berry, J., Taylor, G., Webster, W., Echempati, R., & Chandran, R.   (2002).   Global engineering education through study-abroad experiences: Assessment and lessons learned.   Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2002 ASEE/SEFI/TUB Colloquium, Flint MI.
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Abstract:  This paper documents the development and implementation of a number of study-abroad programs for engineering students. The purpose of these programs is to provide students value-added technical and cultural experiences. The need for globally aware engineering students has never been greater than it is today. Technological developments stem from all parts of the world in a global economy that requires our students to be internationally educated. The interdependence of all parts of the world highlight the outcome that those students who have studied abroad will more likely be hired in and be more ready for a global marketplace. Study-abroad participation for the engineering student is a practical investment in the future and an excellent way to provide value-added technical and cultural expertise. Study-abroad programs promote understanding across technical programs and nations. Students live abroad for three months, interact with individuals from different cultures and are exposed to very different academic environments than those to which they are accustomed. Young people return from these experiences more confident, feeling a sense of growth, and have a broader technical understanding. This paper discusses the process of setting up study-abroad programs, students' advisement, equivalency and correspondence of courses, grading differences, programs assessment, and lessons learned. Universities and other schools wishing to establish similar programs would benefit from the recommendations and findings in this paper.
National Association for Foreign Student Affairs   (1981).   Standards and responsibilities in international educational interchange.   Washington, DC: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.
Abstract:  The guidelines presented in this document are designed to assist personnel and institutions working in any capacity in international exchanges.
National Association of Secondary School Principals   (1970).   Guidelines for the appraisal of travel-study tours for secondary students.   NASSP Bulletin, 54, 116-122.
Abstract:  Each year the number of opportunities offered American young people to study and/or travel abroad becomes larger and the number of students taking advantage of these opportunities becomes greater. But not all of these opportunities are of equal quality, educationally and otherwise. Consequently, school ad ministrators receive a great many requests for advice in selecting from among the many, some well-known and established, others less well-known. Requests for advice also come to the NASSP headquarters. We were pleased, there fore, to find that the North Central Association's Commis sion on Secondary Schools had developed a set of guidelines as one way of meeting this need for advice. A need remains for individual evaluation and decision making, but we believe that the recommendations offered here can steer those operations in the right direction. We are grateful to the North Central Association for permission to reprint the guidelines.
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges   (2000).   Expanding the international scope of universities : A strategic vision statement for learning, scholarship and engagement in the new century.   Washington, DC: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.
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National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange   (1999).   Campus collaboration campaign.   The National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange.
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Abstract:  This booklet is the result of the campus collaboration campeign. It presents the ways of collaboration between Disabled Student Services and Education Abroad Offices on campuses to both increase the numbers of students with disabilities in international exchange and to better serve those students already participating.
National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange   (1999).   Frontline survey of disability and international exchange organizations.   Eugene, OR: National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange.
National Council for International Visitors   (2000).   A salute to citizen democracy: a history of the national council for international visitors.   National Council for International Visitors.
National Security Education Program   (2003).   2003 report to the United States Congress.   Report submitted by the Department of Defense to the U.S. Congress, August 26, 2003 in compliance with section 334 of Public Law 107-336 (the Intelligence Authorization Act for fiscal year 2003).
National Security Education Program   (2003).   United States civilian linguist reserve corps feasibility study.   National Defense University-Department of Defense.
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Abstract:  This report addresses four major issue areas deemed to be most critical in the assessment of CLRC feasibility. Based on a number of major assumptions and conditions outlined in the report, it has been determined that the creation of a CLRC is feasible, and is an important step in addressing both short- and long-term shortfalls related to language assets in the national security community.
Ndiaye, M., & Kosuth, E.   (2003).   International studies: Stats and trends.   Normal, IL: Illinois State University Office of International Studies and Programs.
Neff, A.   (2001).   The ugly American: International education and the image of the U.S. abroad.   Trasitions Abroad, Nov./Dec..
Abstract:  The image of the Ugly American is unchanged since 1959: someone who is ignorant of and indifferent to foreign cultures and believes the U.S. is superior to other countries.
Neff, A. R.   (2001, Aug. 2).   Discovering heritage and more by studying abroad.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
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Neuse, W.   (1962).   The question of an undergraduate year abroad: A summary and reply.   The German Quarterly, 35(1), 7-9.
Niefeld, S. J., & Mendelsohn, H.   (1954).   How effective is our student-exchange program?.   Educational Research Bulletin, 33(2), 29-37.
Nolting, W.   (1995).   International opportunities for students of color abroad.   Transitions Abroad, Jul./Aug., 87.
Nongyao, P.   (1999, Aug.).   Doing research overseas without tears: Adventures of an innocent abroad.   Paper presented at the IFLA Council and General Conference, Bangkok, Thailand.
Norman, C.   (1987).   U.S. policy on exchanges with the Soviets called a "Shambles".   Science, 237(4810), 18.
Noronha, J.   (1992).   International and multicultural education: Unrelated adversaries or successful partners?.   In M. Adams (Ed.), Promoting diversity in college classrooms: Innovative responses for curriculum, faculty and institutions (pp. 54-58). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nunemaker, J. H.   (1930).   The foreign experience.   Hispania, 13(3), 237-242.
O'Brien J. M.   (1991).   Including the sciences in international education.   Liberal Education, 77(5), 19-23.
Abstract:  This article focuses on how the field of science is not being well represented in the push to increase participation in international education. The author pinpoints how non-scientists tend to overlook the importance of including scientists into new directives/initiatives and how scientists lack the actual academic support to facilitate broader participation in new programs such as international study.
Oberst, B. S.   (1999).   A decade of experience: Data from the council on international educational exchange's international faculty development seminars.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 3(2), 73-88.
Abstract:  Little is known about international faculty development and what works to bring about the desired globalization of our American college campuses. The files of the Council on International Educational Exchange's International Faculty Development Seminars are the source of valuable information about the effectiveness of the IFDS format. These data, collected over the ten-year history of the FEDS, are uneven: the questions were not written for the purposes of external research, and the responses do not always lend themselves to quantification. However, the files provide us with some rare information about who has been involved in international faculty development, who pays for these programs, and what the results have been in terms of enhancement of curriculum, research, and service. Since 1990, the IJDS have run 93 programs in 25 countries, enrolling 1,560 people from 613 colleges and universities. Particiants rate the seminars as extremely successful. Data indicate that a large majority of participants return to campus to create new courses, revise existing courses, get involved in new or enhanced research programs, and offer the campus and the community the benefits of their time abroad. It is recommended, however, that the IFDS staff the sending institutions, and the individual participants make more effort to specify the outcomes expected from these seminars. Also, more work must be done to enable more faculty to participate in structured overseas activities, and institutions must examine their own policies to see whether the policies further the goal of increased globalization, a goal that is part of so many campus mission statements and planning documents.
Oberstein-Delvalle, E.   (1999).   Study abroad programs in three California community colleges.   (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University).
Abstract:  This ethnographic study is a comparison of three study abroad programs at community colleges in California. Data were collected by interviews with college presidents, study abroad directors and faculty. The study examines such issues as institutional support, the skills of the director, faculty involvement, programming, and community links. Findings show that the president and study abroad director play an important role in building program support and that a study abroad advisory committee ensures faculty involvement. Obstacles include financial aid support, transfer of credit, and college liability.
Obstrand, K. D.   (1986).   Trips and tours: Combining theory and reality through education travel.   In Lewis, L. H. (ed.), Experiential and simulations techniques for teaching adults, New Directions for continuing education (p. 3). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Office of Policy and Evaluation, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, U.S. Department of State   (2002).   Outcome assessment of the U.S. Fulbright Scholar Program (SRI International Project No. P10372).   Menlo Park, CA: C.P. Ailes & S.H. Russell.
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Abstract:  SRI International conducted a two-year outcome assessment of the U.S. Scholar component of the Fulbright Educational Exchange Program, the U.S. government's flagship international educational exchange program. SRI surveyed a stratified random sample of 1,004 U.S. Fulbright Scholar alumni whose grants began between 1976 and 1999. Eighty percent of the Scholar alumni - 801 people - completed a questionairre about the impact the Fulbright program had on individuals and institutions both in the U.S. and in the Scholar's host countries. SRI found strong evidence that the program is achieving its mandate of promoting mutual understanding and cooperation between the U.S. and other nations, but also on their colleagues, students, friends and families.
Olson, C. L., & Kroeger, K. R.   (2001).   Global competency and intercultural sensitivity.   Journal of Studies on International Education, 5(2).
Abstract:  How do educators enhance their global competencies and intercultural communication skills so they can better educate students in our increasingly diverse societies? In spring 2000, the authors conducted a survey of 52 New Jersey City University faculty and staff to assess the relationships between their international experience, global competencies, and levels of intercultural sensitivity. The survey drew on Milton Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity and definitions of global competency from Wilson, Stohl, Singer, and Hanvey. The authors of this article found that both second-language proficiency and substantive experience abroad increase the likelihood that an educator will be more advanced on the Bennett Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. This survey provides directional information about the relationship between second-language acquisition, experience abroad, and ethnorelativism. The findings suggest that we need global, intercultural, and professional development for faculty and staff that is ongoing, substantial, and inclusive of work in another language and culture. [Authors]
Opper, S.   (1986).   Study abroad.   Higher Education in Europe, 11(2), 69-74.
Opper, S.   (1991).   Study abroad: A competitive edge for women?.   Oxford Review of Education, 17(1), 45-64.
Abstract:  This paper examines whether study abroad as part of a bachelor's degree in law, engineering, business, natural sciences and foreign languages gives graduates a competitive edge in embarking on professional careers. It compares the experience of 172 females and 217 males who graduated from higher education institutions in the UK, France and the Federal Republic of Germany between 1980 and 1984. It is concluded that the study abroad credential did expedite reaching the interview stage to be considered for employment. There was essentially no difference by gender. The study abroad programme, unless designed to prepare for well-defined international positions, was of little direct advantage for males or females in securing employment which initially met their expectations for international work. Although employed on a full-time basis to a greater extent than males, females were less satisfied with their initial employment. The marketability of the academic specialisation of the degree as such was the most influential factor in obtaining employment. As their careers advanced, the graduates in the sample did increase the intensity of international contacts, calling indirectly upon study abroad skills. The change was greater for males than for females. It is concluded this was because males more quickly sharpened their overall career focus.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development   (1999).   Quality and internationalisation in higher education.   Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development.
Abstract:  The book provides an introduction to the concepts of internationalisation of higher education and quality assurance (Part I); an overview of the Internationalisation Quality Review Process and case studies in six countries in four different continents (Part II); and an analysis of the uses, benefits and issues related to the quality review of the international dimension in the broader context of quality assurance in higher education (Part III). The IQRP guidelines are included at the end of the volume.
Orndorff, E.   (2000).   The short-term study travel experience for adult professionals.   (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University).
Abstract:  International education and cross-cultural learning are often achieved through study travel. This phenomenological study was designed to better illuminate the short-term study travel experiences for adult professionals, describing the phenomenon from the perspective of the participants and its meaning for those participants. The focus of the study was the Rotary International Group Study Exchange (GSE) Program, designed to provide participants with the opportunity to develop international understanding, cultural awareness, and professional competencies in a global setting. Co-researchers for the study were selected GSE team members from Rotary District 7570 in Virginia and Tennessee, who participated in the program since 1991.
Orndorff, E. B.   (1998).   The short-term study travel experience for adult professionals: A phenomenological study.   Available from Virginia Tech Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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Abstract:  This study confirmed previous studies related to sojourning and international travel as related to experiential learning, increasing the understanding of the short-term travel abroad experience and its meaning to the adult learner.
Osborn, N.   (2001).   Diagnosing and developing cross-cultural expertise in global leaders.   San Antonio, TX: Team International.
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Paige, R. M.   (2003).   The American case: The University of Minnesota.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(Spring), 52-63.
Abstract:  This case study will be a historical account of the internationalization of higher education at the University of Minnesota. It examines the internationalization process during a 30-year period leading up to the present. The article traces the history of the university's internationalization efforts with reference to the specific components, including the curriculum, the co-curriculum, the role of international students and scholars, international educational exchanges and inter-university agreements, study-abroad programs, organizational/structural arrangements (e.g., central administrative support, committees), funding, and so forth. The key events will be described. The article finishes with an analysis of the lessons that the university has learned about internationalization.
Paige, R. M.   (2003).   The intercultural development inventory: A critical review of the research literature.   Journal of Intercultural Communication, 6, 53-61.
Paige, R. M., Jacobs-Cassuto, M., Yershova, Y. A., & DeJaeghere, J.   (2003).   Assessing intercultural sensitivity: An empirical analysis of the intercultural development inventory.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 467-486.
Paige, R. M., Jorstad, H., Siaya, L., Klein, F., & Colby, J.   (2003).   Culture learning in language education: A review of the literature.   In Lange, D., & Paige, R. M. (Eds.). Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
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Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., Kappler, B., Chi, J. C., & Lassegard, J. P.   (2002).   Maximizing study abroad: A program professionals' guide to strategies for language and culture learning and use.   Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
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Abstract:  This guide was written for study abroad program professionals to assist in facilitating students' culture and language learning before, during, and after their time abroad, providing students with tools that will enable them to best navigate, interpret, and learn from their own cross-cultural encounters. Eight sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Surveys and Indexes" (Learning Style Survey, Learning Strategy Use Inventory and Index, and Culture-Learning Strategies Inventory and Index); (3) "Students' Language and Culture Learning and Development" (e.g., taking students through the learning curve, assessing the study abroad experience, and recognizing students' levels of intercultural sensitivity); (4) "Culture Learning Strategies" (pre-departure, in-country, and post-study-abroad strategies); (5) "Strategies for Language Learning and Use" (facilitating the use of language learning strategies and re-entry and post-study-abroad language learning); (6) "Orientations and Workshops: Sequencing Suggestions and Time Frames" (e.g., facilitating classes and field trips and preparing students for re-entry); (7) "Activities and Handouts" (e.g., becoming familiar with culture, coping scenario, and reacting to changes); and (8) "Resources for Program Professionals."
Palifka, B. J.   (2003).   The effects of study abroad and personality on employment and earnings in Mexico.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin). Available from UT Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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Abstract:  Three essays address the effects of study abroad and personality on earnings and employment. I demonstrate the importance of study abroad and language on earnings, employment, and employment hazards; I also show that self-assessments and supervisor evaluations of an employee's personality differ and may have distinct coefficients in estimated regressions of earnings and occupations. This is also the first examination of the transition from college to work, and of the effects of personality on earnings and occupation, for Mexico.
Palmer, A. M.   (1929).   The American field service fellowships.   The French Review, 2(3), 230-236.
Papatsiva, B.   (n.d.).   Political and individual rationales of student mobility: A case-study of ERASMUS and a French regional scheme for studies abroad.   European Journal of Education, 40(2), 173-188.
Abstract:  This article analyses the rationales of student mobility through the study of official texts and political communications of the European Commission and the French Regional Council of the Rhône-Alps and discusses these in the light of the results of an analysis of French ERASMUS students' accounts on mobility experience.
Park, Y. J.   (2000/2001).   An Asian American outside: Crossing color lines in the United States and Africa. Across the Colorline.   Amerasia Journal, 26(23), 99-117.
Abstract:  Park compares her experiences as a Korean American in Los Angeles, and working and living in South Africa and Kenya with her Black American spouse. To a large degree, racial identifications are based on political and class categories.
Parks, D. W.   (1987).   Purposes, motivations, and learning among adults in an overseas study tour.   (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University).
Abstract:  Many people go overseas for brief periods of work, study, or travel. Some significantly expand their horizons with what they learn on these trips, while others do not. The purpose of this study was to identify relationships, if any, between the awareness of purpose of adults in a short-term overseas experience and their learning. The 45 subjects were on learn-by-working tours in Israel sponsored by Jordan College. They were interviewed at the beginning of their tours about their purposes and at the end about their learning. An exploratory approach was used for the correlational research method. The subjects' recruitment process and religious characteristics limited generalizability of the findings.
Patten, R. J., & Peters, R.   (2001).   Whither thou goest: The intrigue of an international study seminar.   Chicago, IL: College of Commerce, DePaul University.
Abstract:  This paper describes one business school's response to the challenges of globalization. After faculty members taught seminars in other countries, an interest was expressed in conducting international study seminars for the school's business students.
Pearson, J.   (2001).   The role of the institutional setting and its impact on education abroad policy and programs.   In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 17-19). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study.
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Abstract:  Institutionally based education abroad professionals, whether they are program directors or advisors, often find themselves playing the role of advocate, historian, guide and persuader as their day to day work and longer term objectives come into contact with various institutional policies, philosophies and practices. To be successful, we often must balance the desired goals of our office with the impact on these goals of institutional forces. As there is no typical U.S. institution of higher education, so there can be no standard set of guidelines that assist us in working within our institutions.
Pederson de Castaneda, V.   (1992, Mar.).   Three case histories: An ethnographic evaluation of participant experience in the Spanish International Business Program Abroad.   Paper presented at the annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI.
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Abstract:  In this paper the Spanish International Business Program Abroad at Concordia College (Minnesota) is examined. Students in the program live, work, and study in Mexico City (Mexico) for one 4-month semester after completing prerequisite courses in management, accounting, economics, marketing, finance, statistics, Spanish grammar, composition, conversation, Latin American history, and Business Spanish. Pre-travel and re-entry courses are included in the program, and its curricular design is fairly open-ended in order to allow for creative and active experiential learning. The quality of the international experience depends on the degree to which participants can critically reflect on individual action in a cultural context other than their own. The procedures used to document student perceptions (interview, correspondence, journals, etc.) are reviewed and some journal entries are reported. It is concluded that in learner-centered curricula it is important to incorporate student assessments of their own experiences.
Pederson, V.   (1996).   Living a job, learning a culture: A study of international business students in a semester abroad program.   (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Dakota).
Abstract:  This study is a description of student learning experiences in-country during a semester-long international business internship program in Mexico City. This study considers what elements constitute learning from life-experience for undergraduate business majors in a foreign learning environment during a semester-long internship in a multinational corporation, a semester at a foreign university, and a home stay with a Mexican host family.
Pellegrino, V. A.   (1998).   Student perspectives on language learning in a study abroad context.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(2), 91-120.
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Abstract:  This chapter offers an overview of research that has been performed over the past 35 years concerning study abroad participants' perceptions of language and language learning, the role of the language classroom, the influence of the social environment, and the study abroad experience as a whole. The impact of students' perceptions on the language learning process and the value of student perspective research in the field of SLA are also considered.
Pels, M. D.   (1993).   Assumptions of African-American students about international education exchange.   Paper presented at the Presentation Communication Association Convention, Miami, FL..
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Abstract:  This study attempted to identify and compare some of the assumptions concerning international education exchange of first, the international education exchange community, and, second, the African-American student community. The study reviewed materials from published institutional literature for the assumptions held by the international education exchange community, and conducted a series of tape recorded interviews with eight African American students attending California State University (Los Angeles) to identify their assumptions concering international educational exchange. Analysis of the data suggested that there may be a disproportionate cost paid by inner-city African-American students who study on campuses with an "international" focus. Students interviewed experienced expressed the following attitudes: that new strains of racism and class prejudice are imported to their campus by foreign students; that foreign students shun, avoid and are afraid of African Americans; that, overall, there is no benefit to having foreign students on campus; and that, foreign students sap and divert institutional resources, take up needed classroom seats and contribute to an already tense racial environment. In addition, these Black students assumed they would be treated as objects of fear abroad and that institutional efforts keep them ignorant of opportunities for study abroad.
Pendleton, D. C.   (2000).   A Broad perspective: Reflections of an African study abroad.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 117-118.
Perdreau, C.   (1995).   Students of color abroad: Successful strategies for recruiting and advising.   Transitions Abroad, Jul./Aug., 87-88.
Perdreau, C.   (2000).   Building diversity into study abroad programs.   In Tillman, M. (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective (pp. 23-27).  Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation.
Perrucci, R., & Hu, H.   (1995).   Satisfaction with social and educational experiences among international graduate students.   Research in Higher Education, 36(4).
Abstract:  We undertake a quantitative analysis of the determinants of satisfaction among international graduate students at one university. We focus on satisfaction in three areas: graduate students at one university. We focus on satisfaction in three areas: academic program, academic appointment, and nonacademic social relationships. Determinants of satisfaction are theoretically classified as individual resources (e.g., language skills), social resources (e.g., contact with U.S. students), and social context (e.g., perceived discrimination). Multiple regression analysis reveals that academic satisfaction is most strongly related to contact with U.S. students, language skills, and perceived discrimination. Social satisfaction is linked with marital status, language skills, perceived discrimination, and contact with U.S. students. Students' gender, grades, aspirations, and financial situation had no relation to satisfaction.
Peterson, C. F.   (2002).   Preparing engaged citizens: Three models of experiential education for social justice.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 165-206.
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Abstract:  So, is personal transformation an inevitable outcome of living abroad? Can we count on incidental extramural experiences to work their magic on students, while we concentrate on what happens in the classroom?
Petras, J.   (2000).   Overseas education: Dispelling official myths in Latin America.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, 73-82.
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Pickert, S.   (2001, Mar.).   Changing views about international activities in American teacher education programs.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington, DC.
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Abstract:  This paper provides a historical overview of international education trends in U.S.colleges, including teacher education programs, comparing current research with data from the 1970s. The survey in 2000 examined institutional demographics and the presence or absence of several international activities over the past five years. Overall, most international activities increased with time, but not at the same rates and in the same places. The most frequent type of faculty involvement was travel abroad. Foreign students enrollment increased significantly since the 1970s. Study abroad programs were widely available at most institutions as compared to the 1970s.
Pickert, S. M.   (1992).   Preparing for a global economy. Achieving an international perspective in higher education.   (ASHE-ERIC higher education report No. 2, 1992). Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Abstract:  This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Steps that faculty and administrators can take to improve international education are explored, including widening the curriculum to expose students to other cultures, widening opportunities for international contact, and evaluating organizational structures that help or hinder international activities.
Pickert, S., & Turlington, B.   (1992).   Internationalizing the undergraduate curriculum: a handbook for campus leaders.   Washington D.C.: American Council on Education.
Pires, M., Marajh, O., & Metzler, J.   (2000).   Study abroad in Africa: A survey.   African Issues, 28(1/2), 4-12.
Pirog, R., Laubscher, M., & Martin, P. C.   (1997).   Program evaluation.   In W. Hoffa, & Pearson, J. (Eds.), NAFSA's Guide to Education Abroad for Advisers and Administrators (2nd ed., pp. 333-349). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Place, N. T., Evans, D. E., Andrews, M. P., & Crago, N. E.   (2000).   Implications and impact among American extension professionals and near-associates resulting from the Polish-American extension project.   Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 7(1), 5-16.
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Abstract:  A descriptive case study was conducted to determine professional, personal, and cultural/social implications and impact among American Extension professionals and near-associates resulting from the Polish-American Extension Project (PAEP). The study documented positive impact for American participants as well as secondary spin-off effects and impact among colleagues, coworkers, clientele and the general public. Unanimity existed among most PAEP participants and interviewees regarding the important role the United States exercises with international cooperative assistance. This study revealed that the PAEP served to create camaraderie and meaningful relationships with U.S. citizens and another country. Participants were significantly changed in a positive manner through this professional international experience. They gained an increased global awareness, knowledge, and understanding as well as skill development, reinvigoration, and higher self-esteem. Through extensive integration of this experience into subsequent extension programming, many other people were able to gain international awareness, knowledge, discernment, and involvement from the initial PAEP participant. The study uncovered factors that can lead to improvement of similar types of international Extension programs.
Plagwitz, E.   (2003).   Taming the tiger of data collection: Post-program student evaluations.   International Educator, 12(1), 49-51.
Plaza, O.   (1998).   Overseas studies and technology education.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Technology Education Association, Fort Worth, TX.
Abstract:  This paper addresses the general benefits and issues of study abroad, particularly as they pertain to students in technology. The author addresses some of the known advantages of study abroad, and also responds to some of the more common concerns, such as academic quality and relevance of coursework. He discusses the trends in study abroad and how the participant profile has changed over the years. This article primarily examines how study abroad can be integrated into technology education. Typical study abroad programs may not be a very viable option for technology education students, since many of them are non-traditional students with limited time, financial resources, and possibly also curriculum offerings. The author describes the importance of cultural awareness for technology students, and outlines steps for how students and programs can overcome some of the obstacles that exist.
Poehling, A.   (2001).   Hitting the ground running: The impact of a pre-departure class on study abroad participants..   In M. Tillman (Ed.), Study abroad: A 21st century perspective, volume II, the changing landscape (pp. 20-21). Stamford, CT: American Institute for Foreign Study Foundation.
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Porterfield, T. A.   (2002).   Making meaning of student sojourner spirituality post study abroad.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado). Available from Dissertation Abstracts International. (No. 63, 2162A).
Abstract:  There has been relatively little research conducted on the spiritual development of college students, and particularly, in relationship to study abroad experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the essence of spirituality after the student sojourn abroad experience. The study utilizes the phenomenological and constructivist paradigms to capture the essence of the lived experiences of students after their return from a sojourn abroad. The study allowed the meaning of the experiences to be constructed and understood as the study emerged. Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five participants who felt that they were impacted spiritually through the study abroad experience. The researcher served as the instrument for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain an understanding of the phenomenon being explored. Additionally, an artifact analysis of photographs and scrapbooks was utilized to aid in highlighting students' experiences. Measures were taken to insure trustworthiness of the data was maintained. In alignment with the phenomenological method, data analysis included epoche, horizontalization, clusters of meanings, imaginative variation, and textual and structural descriptions. The textural themes that emerged from the study are: influence and history of family, spiritual practices, mentor relationships, impact of country visited, spiritual experiences abroad, relationships with others abroad, personal significance of religion/spirituality, greater sense of self, struggle upon returning to the United States, increased desire for travel and adventure, and influence of education. The structural themes that highlight the essence of the phenomenon of spirituality include: foundation of religion or spirituality, student sojourner reflection on the experience of study abroad, cognitive dissonance upon returning to the United States, and experiences adversity while abroad. The study concludes with implications for future research and recommendations for practice.
Posey, Jr., J. T.   (2003).   Study abroad: Educational and employment outcomes of participants versus non participants.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Florida State University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3137474).
Abstract:  Using archival Florida state system databases, this study investigated educational and employment outcome differences between study abroad participants and non participants. The study found common characteristics among gender, race, and high school academic achievement for study abroad participants. Although claims of causality cannot be made between study abroad and various outcomes, several significant associations were found particularly for educational outcomes. For example, 93.2% of study abroad participants received some type of degree compared to only 64% of the non study abroad group. The study abroad group also had a higher mean college GPA of 3.19 compared to the 2.74 for the non study abroad group. The non study abroad group was found employed in Florida at higher rates; however, the data was limited to those found employed only within Florida and did not account for those who might have found employment in other locations. The non study abroad group also had a higher mean wage than the study abroad group. However, when controlled by degree program and study abroad location, this wage difference dissipated suggesting degree program is the stronger indicator of wage outcomes.
Potter, E.   (n.d.).   Canada and the new public diplomacy.   Netherlands Institute of International Relations "Clingendael".
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Abstract:  This paper argues that successful public diplomacy is becoming an increasingly important asset in a globlized world. It analyses the various different concepts associated with public diplomacy and their relation to the changes that are taking place in the practice of foreign policy. Canada's approach to public diplomacy is utilised as a case study and it is argued that the relatively low priority which has been given to funding initiatives in this field may jeopardise the country's long-term interests. The increasing significance of what has been termed "soft power" in relations between states and the success of previous Canadian initiatives in this field indicates that investment in public diplomacy can have long-term advantages. Current technologicaland economic changes suggest that there is a pressing need for active and effective public diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy.
Praetzel, G. D.   (n.d.).   Pedagogical recommendations for internationalizing the undergraduate business curriculum.   International Advances in Economic Research, 5(1), 137-146.
Abstract:  In higher education, it is taken for granted that internationalization of the curriculum is necessary, but there is little evidence that this objective has been realized. The purpose of this paper is to apply a strategic planning approach to achieve internationalization of the undergraduate business curriculum. Besides achieving curricular objectives, this approach develops new student recrldtment possibilities and other revenue-creating opportunities—a vital concern as colleges increasingly face resource constraints. The end result is that the institution emerges with an enhanced image and achieves a leadership position through its unique development of international understanding.
Praetzel, G., Curcio, J., & Dilorenzo, J.   (1996).   Making study abroad a reality for all students.   International Advances in Economic Research, 2(2), 174-183.
Abstract:  This article describes the benefits of departmental study abroad programs, which can effectively infuse an international dimension into the curriculum and can also offer an opportunity for faculty development. The authors note how faculty skepticism of study abroad is often the result of their lack of involvement, which departmental programs can address. Students studying abroad often take courses, which fulfill only general education requirements, since study abroad advisors may lack the knowledge to steer them toward major requirements. Departmental programs can also address this issue. This article describes a program developed at Niagara University in New York with Schiller International University. The authors describe the program and its benefits. Schiller International University was selected because it has several European locations, is teaching-oriented, and follows the American curricular structure and grading methods.
Priestly, H. I., & Chapman, C. E.   (1920).   United States exchange professorships with Hispanic countries.   Hispania, 3(1), 1-4.
Pritchett, H. S., Sachs, J., Thomas, C., & Croswell, J. G.   (1908).   A plan for an exchange of teachers between Prussia and the United States.   Science, New Series, 27 (697), 733-737.
Puckhaber, A.   (2002).   German student exchange programs in the United States, 1946-1952.   German Historical Institute Bulletin, 30(Spring), 123-141.
Qiang, Z.   (2003).   Internationalization of higher education: Towards a conceptual framework.   Policy Futures in Education, 1(2), 248-270.
Abstract:  Higher education has not become a real part of the globalization process: the cross-border matching of supply and demand. This article provides a conceptual and organizational framework of internationalization of higher education, which includes a discussion on the meaning and definition of the term, a description of the various rationales for and approaches to internationalization, and an analysis of strategies of integrating international dimensions in a higher education institution.
Quade, P.   (2002).   "It changed my life": Strategies for assessing student learning.   In Spencer, S. E., & Tuma, K. (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 149-170). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Rabura, H. M.   (1969).   Spring quarter in Germany: A new concept in foreign language teacher training.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 2(2), 134-139.
Raby, R. L., & Tarrow, N.   (1996).   Dimensions of the community college: International, intercultural, and multicultural perspectives.   New York: Garland.
Rahilly, L. J.   (1992).   A case for overseas study and internships.   Paper presented at the Annual Eastern Michigan University Conference on Languages and Communication for World Business and the Professions, Ypsilanti, MI.
Abstract:  This position paper discusses the need for U. S. college students to increase their language and literature skills as well as their global awareness. The author concedes that study abroad can assist with this, but that programs need to be greatly enhanced. In his opinion, overseas study should be required by schools and supported in greater part by both the government and the business community. He discusses the ideal overseas program, to include adequate preparatory work, housing, a work experience, program monitoring, and sufficient follow-up after a student's return to the U. S. The author also proposes that students have three successful years of college-level study before engaging in study abroad or engage in it as a capstone experience following four undergraduate years.
Randall, R.   (1990, May).   Global education: Educating for our common future.   Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Forum for Global Education, St. Paul, MN.
Abstract:  Minnesota plays an integral role in the worldwide increase in the exchange of goods, services, and ideas. It is imperative that the state's citizens be able to relate to an increasingly interrelated world and to gain the skills, attitudes, and knowledge needed to participate intelligently in such exchanges. Educating to these ends is essential. International/global education is the carefully designed elementary and secondary program that helps students develop in such a way as to contribute effectively to an interdependent world. Students must learn a sense of responsibility for the needs of all people and a commitment to the just and peaceful resolution of global issues. Minnesota's global education efforts seek to enable citizens to participate more actively at local, state, national, and international levels. The task of global education becomes more difficult each year, as technological developments yield an ever expanding profusion of data and problems. The survival of "Spaceship Earth" and the quality of life of its inhabitants will depend on the extent to which young people develop the ability to think, feel, and act from a global perspective. Teachers can instill in students an appreciation of the global nature of issues that affect their lives and the interrelationships that bind them to other regions and peoples. Educators must prepare the young to meet the responsibilities and demands of an interdependent and complex world.
Randolph, J. A.   (2001, Oct.).   The road ahead for international education at U.S. universities.   Address given at the Internationalizing the Curriculum: Content and Language conference at State University of New York: Binghamton.
Ransbury, M. K., & Harris, S. A.   (1994).   Study abroad: The reality of building dynamic group learning.   Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 5(2), 97-107.
Abstract:  This article describes a collaborative effort to enhance the effectiveness of a study abroad course. A professor of human development, with expertise in group process, and a professor of general education, with expertise in Greek myth and culture, use a case study format to apply theoretical models of group process to the travel and learning experience. They discuss using day-to-day process observation notes to examine the interactive group learning experience. The general education professor reflects on what she gained from this approach to improving the design of her course. Both explore implications of applying group development theory to other study abroad experiences.
Rarick, C. A., & Erfani, G. R.   (2002).   Reflections on foreign field-based experiential learning: Taking the classroom to the culture.   Academy of Leadership Journal, 6(2).
Abstract:  This paper discusses the authors' experience with a field-based course, which required students to travel to a foreign country as part of their coursework. The paper explores the difficulties and benefits of such an instructional methodology and provides a model, which highlights important elements of a successful field experience. Recommendations based on the authors' many years of experience are also provided.
Regan, V.   (1998).   Sociolinguistics and language learning in a study abroad context.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 4(3), 61-90.
Abstract:  This article will focus on the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence by second language learners during a period of study abroad. Various aspects of sociolinguistic competence will be discussed and some of the principal factors which affect it will be described. Factors which affect sociolinguistic competence emerging from research in the area of study abroad include some which are central to the acquisition of second languages in general: context of acquisition, level of proficiency, degree of contact with native speakers, role of input, individual differences and the issue of native speaker norms. The research described will outline what we know about the sociolinguistic and sociocultural aspects of study abroad. The literature which exists to date on this aspect of second language acquisition (SLA) will be reviewed, including both quantitative and qualitative studies. Finally, we will address the question of the benefits (if any) of studying abroad for the acquisition of sociolinguistic and sociocultural competence. Where possible, an attempt will be made to see how this experience compares with that of learners who have not been abroad. Some of the studies to be discussed in this article were carried out with the explicit intention of focusing on the sociolinguistic area (Marriott 1995; Regan 1995; and Siegal 1995). There are also other year abroad studies which, although not focusing specifically on the sociolinguistic aspects of the process, nevertheless reveal further information about what happens during a study abroad period, for example, Lafford (1995) and Lapkin, Hart and Swain (1995). Various aspects of the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence are addressed in these articles.
Reichert, E.   (1998).   The role of study abroad course in undergraduate social work education.   The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 4(1), 61-72.
Abstract:  Developing an instructive and useful study abroad course for undergraduate social work students presents an unusual challenge. In this paper, the author addresses issues involving the study abroad course and concludes that such a course can occupy an important place in social work education. The author also provides a model for assisting educators in designing their own study abroad course. Cross cultural and educational exchanges fostered by a study abroad course can promote an ongoing involvement by students and faculty in the international arena of social work.
Reichman, R.   (2000).   The foreign invasion of Israeli higher education.   International Higher Education, 21, 16.
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Reiff, J. C.    (2000, Apr.).   Strategies for promoting international education: One department's journey.   Paper presented at the Phi Beta Delta International Conference, Kansas City, MO.
Abstract:  This paper described the process and identified strategies for promoting international education while internationalizing the curriculum as experienced in the Department of Elementary Education at the University of Georgia.
Reimer, T. E.   (1992).   A case study of leadership and international education programs in community college.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).
Abstract:  International education programs in community colleges include any one or a combination of several activities: foreign language instruction, active recruitment of international students, branch campuses abroad, infusion of global issues into existing curriculum, study abroad programs, student and faculty exchanges, international trade and business education, and the establishment of mutual agreements with colleges in other countries. A key ingredient in successful programs is the positive leadership of administrators. This investigation is a qualitative case study of international education programs at three Pacific Northwest community colleges. The study assesses the status of each program, and the role chief executive officers (CEOs) and other administrators play in their success. Governing board members, upper level administrators, faculty, and staff were interviewed to determine their impressions of what is an effective international education program and how their institutional program achieved its current status.
Relich, J. D., & Kindler, M.   (1996).   Canadian students down under: An intercultural perspective for teacher training in Australia.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 2(Fall).
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Resnick, D.   (1998).   A case study of a recruitment program for "minority" students: Israel interns for Jewish education.   Journal of Career Development, 24(3), 227-234.
Abstract:  U.S. college juniors studying at Hebrew University of Jerusalem conduct Jewish education internship projects. As seniors back home, they are placed in part-time religious education jobs. Of 24 interns, 58% worked full time in Jewish education after graduation; 7 were doing graduate work in education or Jewish studies or were studying in Israel.
Rhodes, F. H. T.   (1997).   Science education in different cultures: Unity and Diversity.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 3(Fall).
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Rhodes, G.   (2002).   Study abroad - Now more than ever: Making the case for study abroad without research confirming study-abroad outcomes.   IIENetworker, Fall, 40-42.
Richard, M. J.   (2001).   Novices in the Field: Filling in the Meaning Continuum.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 7(4), 95-119.
Richardson, J.   (1980, Nov.).   Research on exchanges and U.S. foreign policy.   Paper presented at the U.S.- German Conference on Research on Exchanges, Bonn, West Germany.
Abstract:  The author laments that, historically, U.S. government sponsorship of exchange programs has not been accompanied by serious effort to conceptualize a policy framework, define objectives, specify criteria, and evaluate results. His impressionistic sketch of possible elements of the U.S. policy framework suggests further, broad areas for exploration in developing a research design. It must be useful, he points out, to attempt at least some reasonable hypothesis or hypotheses as to particular processes of communication, learning, elite recruitment, etc. which can be expected to contribute to the kinds of cultural, political, or economic change considered desirable and attainable in particular bilateral or multilateral relationships or other international or transnational contexts.
Richardson, M., et al (Eds.)   (1991, Dec.).   Shaping the new world order: International cultural opportunities and the private sector. Edited proceedings of an international cultural forum.   New York: Institute for Interntational Education.
Abstract:  This publication presents the proceedings of a forum on the influence of international cultural opportunities in the new world order taking shape since the demise of Communism.
Richmond, Y.   (2000).   Cultural exchange and the Cold War: Raising the iron curtain.   University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Ricks, T., Krebs, K., & Monahan, M.   (2000).   Area studies and study abroad in the 21st century.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 6, xi-xix.
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Riddle, W. C.   (1992).   National Security Education Act of 1991: Summary and Analysis. CRS Report for Congress.   Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Abstract:  This report analyzes and summarizes the National Security Education Act of 1991 (NSEA) which authorizes a new program of aid for foreign language and area studies. The report discusses the legislation's aim to increase future national security through enhanced foreign language abilities and knowledge of other countries, the NSEA's authorized activities (scholarships, grants to institutions, and fellowships to graduate students), the program structure and administration including Department of Defense responsibility, program funding, service requirements (recipients of graduate fellowships or undergraduate scholarships must serve at least one year as a federal employee or as a teacher), eligibility, and application information. The report also discusses two issues that arose regarding NSEA during its congressional consideration and initial implementation: the relationship of this program to previously established international and exchange programs and questions of its relationship to federal intelligence agencies. The analysis found that this program fills an existing need in the international undergraduate educational exchange, that there may be some overlap with other federal programs for graduate fellowships, and that there are several solutions to problems of this program's relationship to intelligence agencies. Seven references are included.
Riedel, K. G.   (1989).   New goals for teaching language: An experience in undergraduate programs in Spain.   Hispania, 72(3), 774-779.
Abstract:  An exploration of the effectivenes of college overseas study programs on improvement of foreign language skills addresses student motivation, academic expectations, curricular changes, language pledge requirements, communication with native speakers, and the purpose and image of study abroad programs. Suggestions are made for improving international programs.
Rinehart, N.   (1997).   Is there life after government funding?.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(3)(Summer), 18-19.
Abstract:  International education faces a paradoxical situation. Rhetoric about the need to prepare students for a "global future abounds, and many university mission statements list" internationalization as a priority. At the same time, federal funding for educational exchange has been cut while, at the institutional level, "restructuring" and "downsizing" have left many campus international and study abroad offices with fewer resources to carry out their mandate.
Ritchie, M. A.   (2003).   Risk management in study abroad: Lessons from the wilderness.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9(1).
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Rivers, W. P.   (1998).   Is being there enough? The effects of homestay placements on language gain during study abroad.   Foreign Language Annals, 31(4), 492-500.
Abstract:  The Second Language Acquisition community has long held the homestay environment as the sine qua non of language study abroad. Implicit in this view of the homestay environment is that a continuous immersion environment provides far greater authentic Target Language input than dormitory placements with non-native speakers of the Target Language. In turn, this increased quality and quantity of input should lead to greater language gains during study abroad than those achieved by students in dormitory placements. An evaluation of these hypotheses is now possible: the 1976-1996 American Council of Teachers of Russian Student Records Data Base, which contains proficiency and background data on over 2500 studyabroad participants, in both dormitory and homestay placements. Standard statistical techniques were used to compare gains made in Speaking, Listening, and Reading by dormitory and homestay participants.
Roberts, A.   (2003).   Proposing a broadened view of citizenship: North American teachers' service in rural Costa Rican schools.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 7, 253-276.
Abstract:  This article proposes that the balance of experiential learning and serious interaction in an international arena is an ideal condition for teachers to develop perspective consciousness about the world. It documents the interpretations of teachers in a university service project in rural Costa Rican schools. Findings suggest that the service provided valuable opportunities to teach and learn with children in rural classrooms that led to diverse experiences for participants to assume responsibilities as researchers, teachers, and learners. The contrasting beliefs in the systems of Costa Rica and the United States provided a situation to develop innovation in teaching in reaction to a contrasting educational setting. Whether participants embraced the new system was secondary to their strengthened ability to think reflectively, discover insights, and develop perspective consciousness. This came about because participants struggled with new ways to frame problems and experimented with alternative strategies for their work as teachers.
Roberts, J. M.   (1997).   Making the world accessible: Studying abroad and the ADA.   World Education News & Reviews, 10(4)(Fall), 18-20.
Abstract:  As international education becomes a growing reality for universities across the US, the need to ensure the accessibility of these programs to all qualified students has become increasingly important for university administrators and faculty.
Robinson, B. S.   (1990).   Facilitating faculty exchange: Developing international programs.   New Directions for Community Colleges, 70, 37-45.
Robinson, G.   (2000).   A guide to internationalizing the urban non-residential campus.   The Phi Beta Delta International Review, 10, 49-63.
Abstract:  Non-residential students, for the most part enrolled in professional programs, are the fastest growing population in American higher education. It is vital - for both career survival and the quality of life associated with life-long learning - to assure that this group is getting a broad-based international education, usually reserved for those who can afford a privileged education at the traditional universities. This essay brings together a variety of strategies to help internationalize the urban non-residential campus, all of which connect career training with an international education based on liberal arts values. It offers a guide to initiatives that require little or no funding, but which work towards establishing an institutionalized international office coordinating all international activities on the campus. Finally, the essay offers guidelines for assessment. This article address study abroad as a component of the overall internationalization of the urban non-residential campus.
Rochester, M. K.   (1988).   Preparing librarians for the 21st Century: Study abroad.   IFLA Journal, 14, 29-39.
Abstract:  This paper addresses one aspect of the problem of providing the skilled library and information professionals necessary for the establishment and operation of quality library and information services in the 21st century. That aspect is the educational preparation of professionals in overseas library and information science schools and training programmes.
Rodríguez, K.   (2001, Sept.).   Enlarging and emancipating the study abroad experience: A view from Venezuela.   Paper presented at the Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, DC.
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Abstract:  Study abroad purports to bring the world closer together by creating opportunities for students to interact with cultural Others, but could easily be seen as a neocolonial project in Third World countries. This paper draws on work directing a study abroad program in Venezuela to complicate the study abroad setting in Latin America, to question its taken-for-granted nature and to suggest ways to raise critical considerations about its practice, curriculum, and the encounters it facilitates. The paper concludes that such issues must be voiced, not to disable our practice, but rather, to enable study abroad in Latin America to meet its potential as a transformative educational experience.
Rogers, H. K.   (2002).   A new paradigm for student exchange and globalization.   Proceedings of the 2002 ASEE/SEFI/TUB Colloquium, American Society for Engineering Education.
Rogers, J., & Larsen, D.   (2002).   Implementing data collection and research on health issues in international educational exchange.   In O'Hara, M. (Ed.), Optimizing health care in international educational exchange (pp. 119-123). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
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Roig, K.   (1985).   Introduction to German culture: an interdisciplinary approach.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 18(1), 123-129.
Romano, R. M.   (2002).   Internationalizing the community college.   Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.
Roochnik, D.   (2001, May 18).   What direction for study abroad? First, look homeward.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, B9-B10.
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Roose, D.   (2001).   White teachers' learning about diversity and "otherness": The effects of undergraduate international education internships on subsequent teaching practices.   Equity & Excellence in Education, 34(1), 43-49.
Rotstein, G.   (1999, Sept. 6).   Bringing diversity to overseas study: Ross donor helps local minority students travel abroad to broaden their education.
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Rubin, A.   (1997).   Some study-abroad programs start to consider needs of gay students.   NAFSA Rainbow SIG SIGnals Newsletter.
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Rubin, A. M.   (1995, Nov. 24).   Educators call for research on study-abroad programs.   Chronicle of Higher Education, 42(13), A34.
Rubin, A. M.   (1996, Sept. 27).   Students with disabilities press colleges to help them take part in foreign study.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, A47-48.
Abstract:  This article discusses the role of the institution in providing equal educational opportunities, specifically that of international education, for disabled students. The key question to be addressed is "How far should colleges go to encourage disabled students to study abroad, and make it possible for them to do so?"
Rubin, D. L., & Sutton, R.   (2001).   Assessing student learning outcomes from study abroad.   International Educator, 10(2), 30-31.
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Rubin, E.   (1966).   A statistical overview of Americans abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 368, 1-10.
Rubin, K.   (2002).   Global engagement: U.S. educational exchanges one year after.   International Educator, 11(4), 18-23.
Abstract:  Campus-based international educators in the United States asses the impact of September 11, 2001, on study abroad and the flow of international students and scholars. [Author]
Ruiz-Fornells, E.   (1983).   Study in Spain and the problem of credit transfer.   Hispania, 66(1), 69-74.
Rupp, J. C.   (1999).   The Fulbright program, or the surplus value of officially organized academic exchange.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 3, 57-81.
Abstract:  This paper will argue that the Fulbright Program can only add something substantial to what academic exchange normally does when it explicitly goes political. The surplus or added value of official American Studies depends on the way it is organized and programmed, as a command economy or as a negotiation economy and political rather than cultural.
Rupp, T. H.   (1966).   Evaluating the foreign-study program.   The French Review, 40(3), 400-410.
Russell, J. R.   (1962).   Why we send students to Germany - Experimental comments.   The German Quarterly, 35(1), 5-7.
Russon, C. (Ed.)   (2000).   The Program Evaluation Standards in International Settings.   International Organisation for Cooperation in Evaluation.
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Rust, V. D.   (2002).   Research regarding outcomes of effects of foreign study on participating students.   Los Angeles: UCLA Center for International Development Education.
Abstract:  This project is intended to survey the research regarding outcomes of effects of foreign study on participating students. The project has a number of components: survey of major study abroad centers about ongoing research projects on the effects of study abroad; review of all existing English language research documents on study abroad; establish a depository of research documents; establish of a website to publicize and coordinate the dissemination of materials; make available all research documents; and create a series of review studies of research on issues related to foreign study. This project represents the first in a series of efforts to understand foreign study. Subsequent efforts include the incorporation of research on foreign study in the European Union, East Asian countries, and the developing world.
Ruther, N. L.   (2003, Jan.).   The international and foreign language human capital challenge of the U.S. federal government.   Paper presented at the Global Challenges & U.S. Higher Education conference, Duke University, Durham, NC.
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Abstract:  There are few crashes at the intersection of foreign affairs and human resources policy largely because there is so little traffic. Yet this paper centers on just that site. For historic, managerial and geo-strategic reasons, these two arenas combine to challenge the federal government to reconfigure and renew our civil service, which embodies many of our core principles of democratic governance, at the same time we re-define national security, which now embodies an awesome new combination of domestic and foreign affairs.
Ryan, J. M., & Lafford, B. A.   (1992).   Acquisition of lexical meaning in a study abroad environment: Ser and estar and the Granada experience.   Hispania, 75(3), 714-722.
Ryan, M., & Twibell, R.   (2000).   Concerns, values, stress, coping, health and educational outcomes of college students who studied abroad.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(4), 409-435.
Sabine C. Klahr, S. C. & Ratti, U.   (2000).   Increasing enginering student participation in study abroad: A study of U.S. and European programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 4(1), 79-102.
Abstract:  It is generally assumed that undergraduate students in any major benefit significantly from study abroad, with respect to personal, academic, and pre-professional development. For students in all professional programs, and for engineering students in particular, it has become increasingly important to acquire global competency. As nations become more economically interdependent, the engineering profession increasingly involves international bids and projects, demands interaction with international colleagues because of rapid advances in technological developments, and requires engineers to gain an awareness of world events and the global economy as well as acquire intercultural under-standing. However, engineering graduates generally do not have the necessary skills to work in an international environment, as few engineering students gain international experience by either studying or interning abroad as part of their education. Engineering students encounter a number of barriers preventing them from taking advantage of international study. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of and compare the types of initiatives in the United States and Europe designed to increase the numbers of engineering students participating in international study, and to present recommendations to remove the barers to study abroad encountered by engineering students. The authors are aware that international experience as part of an engineering undergraduate education is a matter of great concern, and that a number of actions are being implemented to facilitate increased mobility. This paper contributes to these current and future initiatives.
Sachsenmeier, P.   (1976).   International education research institutions.   International Review of Education, 22(3), 377-395.
Sander, V.   (1965).   Study abroad: An alternate solution.   The German Quarterly, 38(4), 692-695.
Sanders, C. E.   (2000).   Voicing concern about discrimination abroad: The history and experience of voices of change in working with US students in Spain.   SAFETI On-Line Newsletter, 1(2).
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Abstract:  This article describes the experience of two US citizens in Spain who have committed themselves to supporting US college and university students who may become victims of discrimination in Spain. It is important to realize that in the US and all countries in the world, discrimination takes place. The articles intent is to focus on the challenge of responding to discrimination for students taking part in study abroad and to highlight the efforts of Voices of Change in this area.
Sanders, K. A., & Morgan, M.   (2001).   Study abroad programs: A mirror for adult learning and perspective transformation.   Paper presented at the Adult Education Research Conference (AERC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
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Abstract:  This pilot study qualitatively sought to examine how study abroad programs in Third-World countries provide a means of fostering perspective transformation in adult learners. A diverse group of students and faculty from four cooperating universities participated in a six-week study abroad program in Africa. It examined the concepts of perspective transformation, transformative learning, and critical reflection. [Authors]
Sanders, K. A., & Morgan, M.   (2001).   Study abroad programs: A mirror for adult learning and perspective transmission.  
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Abstract:  Today, a person can find a variety of travel and study programs as diverse as that person's imagination and pocketbook. This paper considers today's study abroad programs in developing countries, particularly study abroad in Africa. The paper discusses the educational value of study abroad in Africa. It focuses on perspective transformation, that is described as "the emancipatory process of becoming critically aware of how and why the structure of psycho-cultural assumptions has come to constrain the way we see ourselves and our relationships." The paper highlights a study that examined the perspective transformation of students participating in the 1999 Gambia and Senegal study abroad program. It states that pre- and post-interviews were given to a sample of the undergraduate group before and after visiting and experiencing two historical West African slave ports. Of the 19 students (both black and white, ages 21 to 58), 11 were asked to participate in the semi-structured interviews. The report on the study results note that, at the end, all of the respondents believed that each person was accountable for their actions toward others and the world around them, and until each person accepted that responsibility, racism and prejudice would continue. Appended are respondents' demographic information and interview data.
Sanders, K. A., Morgan, M.   (2002, Feb.).   Developing an interfaith trialogue: Creating multi-cultural study abroad experiences that enhance a community's understanding and awareness of the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faith traditions through the narrative dimensions of transformative learning.   In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the National Association of African American Studies, the National Association of Hispanic and Latino Studies, the National Association of Native American Studies, and the International Association of Asian Studies,.
Sandgren, D., Elig, N., Hovde, P., Krejci, M., & Rice, M.   (1999).   How interantional education affects teaching: Understanding the impact of faculty study abroad.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 3, 33-56.
Abstract:  This paper explicates the causal linkages between short-term study abroad experiences of college faculty and the global content of their classroom teaching. Information for the study comes from self-reports and extensive interviews with faculty who traveld to locations in Central America, South America, Southern Africa and India. Earlier research by the authors shows that these study abroad experiences have a positive impact on "globalizing" the participants' teaching. However, the process leading to this effect needs clarification. After describing the context for the present research and the methods used for the qualitative analysis, connections evident in the experiences of the travel seminar participants are used to construct a causal process theory. This theory explicates the linkage between travel and teaching by stating that experience abroad enhances social and self awareness of participants which in turn leads to changes in their teaching (i.e., increased global content). Key examples found in the statements of the participants are used to elucidate this theory. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results and their implications for people who design and participate in faculty study abroad programs.
Sandor, J.   (1996).   Meeting campus challenges armed with data.   In Davis, T. M. (Ed.), Open Doors 1995/96: Report on international educational exchange. New York: Institute of International Education.
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Sarathy, R.   (1990).   Internationalizing MBA education: The role of short overseas programs.   Journal of Teaching in International Business, 1(3-4), 101-118.
Abstract:  This article looks at different approaches to internationalizing business curricula and includes a description and evaluation of a business program at Northeastern University that uses short overseas programs to facilitate this internationalization. The author contends that it is necessary to internationalize the curriculum because the U. S. is no longer as dominant in the world economy, and because there is a greater flow between different regions of the world. Additionally, more of the nation's welfare is directly tied to the results of international trade, there is increased growth of multinational companies, and students need to be educated on the importance of developing the third world. Internationalizing the curriculum might include more globally focused courses, such as International Marketing and International Finance. Students should also be encouraged to acquire fluency in a foreign language, spend a term overseas studying business and other subjects, partake in overseas internships, and prepare a graduation paper or thesis analyzing global economic issues. The article describes a short-term overseas program (2-4 weeks) offered during the summer term. The courses focus on business and economics with an international perspective and are taught by Northeastern and overseas faculty. Both U. S. and European students can enroll in the courses, and a variety of teaching styles are used. The article concludes with an evaluation of the program, and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages.
Savage, C., & Kane, M.   (2002).   The national report on international students in Canada, 2002.   Ottawa: The Canadian Bureau for International Education.
Abstract:  In 2001-02, Canada welcomed 104,662 international students from 203 countries into the following sectors: elementary/secondary (38,086), college/trade (14,341) and university (52,235). Every sector experienced an increase each year over the three-year period from 1999-00 to 2001-02. Overall, total international student enrolments increased by 27.5% from 1999-00 to 2001-02.
Sawinski, C., & Whipple, S.   (2003, Mar.).   Research in the field of international education.   Paper presented at the NAFSA: Association of International Educators Wisconsin State Conference, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI.
Abstract:  Understanding the developmental process for acquiring intercultural competence is integral to providing effective orientation and counseling to both international and study abroad students. Especially highlighted will be Milton Bennett's developmental model of intercultural sensitivity and its implications for our work.
Scarfo, R. D.   (1998).   The history of Title VI and Fulbright-Hays.   Washington, DC: US Department of Education.
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Abstract:  This meeting has been convened to discuss issues which are important to all of you as well as us in the Department of Education as we look toward the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. As we develop plans and strategies for reauthorization, it is appropriate to look at the past and examine the origins and purposes of Title VI and how it has developed over these almost forty years.
Schechter, M. G.   (1990).   A challenge to undergraduate educators: The wingspread conference on international education.   PS: Political Science and Politics, 23(3), 461-463.
Scheib, M.   (n.d.).   Counting the 'invisible' minority: Disability data set to be added to Open Doors.   New York: Institute for International Education.
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Scheib, M.   (n.d.).   Preparing for an international career: Pathways for people with disabilities.   Eugene, Oregon: Mobility International USA.
Abstract:  This booklet intends to direct young adults with international interests in the right direction from the start. Many pathways exist for fulfilling international career aspirations, and this publication will help in exploring some of the possibilities. It highlights different types of international occupations, tips to prepare for an international career, insights from role models and emerging leaders with disabilities in these fields, and the international exchange and fellowship programs they participated in to get them where they are today.
Scheiber, L. A.   (2000).   A student's perspective - the challenges of returning home after study abroad.   In International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professors-Bulletin XI.
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Scheid, M.   (2000).   The impact of diversity.   In Fantini, A. E. (Ed.), SIT occasional papers series: Addressing intercultural education, training & service: About our institution (pp. 17-18). Brattleboro, VT: School for International Training.
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Scherer, R., Beaton, S., Ainina, M., & Meyer, J.   (2000).   A field guide to internationalizing business education.   Austin, Texas: Center for International Business Education and Research.
Schmidt, L.   (1961).   Study abroad: A bibliography.   Comparative Education Review, 5(2), 142-155.
School for International Training   (2002).   SIT occasional papers series: Study abroad - Student essays and research.   Brattleboro, Vermont: School for International Training.
Schoorman, D.   (2000).   How is internationalization implemented? A framework for organizational practice..   Educational Resources Information Center/ Higher Education Clearinghouse. (ED444426).
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Abstract:  The trend to internationalize has impacted upon most higher education institutions in the United States. This paper offers an organizational framework for understanding and implementing internationalization as an institution-wide process. The first section of the paper discusses and identifies the core characteristics required for all internationalization efforts, including institutional commitment to internationalization; organizational leadership; and having the necessary resources. The next section discusses and offers micro examples of internationalization of three types of on-campus activities: (1) university services (e.g., student services, information technology/management); (2) curriculum development (individual course development, language courses, infusion, area studies, cross-cultural and international courses, and global studies); and (3) social events (cultural activities, cross-cultural discussions, residence hall activities, and student involvement). A final section of the paper looks at the macro perspective of internationalization, exploring four types of relationships: recruitment of international students; increasing study abroad educational opportunities for both students and faculty; having student and faculty exchange programs; and encouraging international collaborative research programs.
Schroth, M. L., & McCormack, W. A.   (2000).   Sensation seeking and need for achievement among study-abroad students.   The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(4), 533-535.
Schultz, R. E.   (1977).   Two-year colleges move toward global orientation.   Community College Review, 5(2), 15-28.
Scurfield, R. M., Root, L.P., Wiest, A., Coiro, F. N., Sartin, H .J., Jones, C.L., & Fanugao, M. B.   (2003).   History lived and learned: Students and Vietnam veterans in an integrative study abroad course.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9(Fall), 111-138.
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Abstract:  In May 2000, the College of International and Continuing Education and the History Department at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) sponsored an innovative study-abroad course on the history of the Vietnam War. As part of the course, three Vietnam combat veterans accompanied eight undergraduate and eight graduate history students to Vietnam. The course's staff included three members of the history faculty, a social-work faculty member, a psychologist, and a cameraman. This precedent-setting study abroad course integrated the teaching of Vietnam culture and military history with an exploration of the mental health aspects of combat and post-war recovery of Vietnam veterans. This article discusses lessons learned in designing and implementing the course, and implications regarding the integration of history education and therapeutic mental health objectives.
Seabury, P., Pye, A. K., Blitz, M., & Billington, J. H.   (1987).   A symposium: what future directions for academic exchange?.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 491, 154-163.
Sellew, K.   (2001).   Exchanges with Syria.   International Educator, 10(3), 22-26.
Sepmeier, K. A.   (1939).   Language learning here and abroad.   The Journal of Higher Education, 10(9), 487-490+512.
Shank, D. J.   (1961).   The American goes abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 335, 99-111.
Shannon, W.   (1971).   International dimensions of the community college.   Peabody Journal of Education, 48(4), 300-303.
Sharma, M. P., & Jung, L .B.   (1984).   The influence of institutional involvement in international education on United States students.   International Review of Education, 30(4), 457-467.
Abstract:  This study is focused on the impact of international education upon United States students. The research question tested was: does the involvement of a US university in international education programs affect the international outlook of United States students? Seven concept areas were developed and tested on a randomly selected group of 663 United States senior students enrolled at six universities: Indiana University, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Ohio State University, the University of Illinois at Urbana, and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. The analysis of variance tests used indicated that for the most part the involvement of a university in international education programs does make a difference in the international outlook of United States students.
Sharma, M. P., & Mulka, J. S.   (1993, Mar.).   The impact of international education upon United States students in comparative education.   Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Kingston, Jamaica.
Abstract:  This study evaluated international attitudes of American students from six U.S. universities as related to number of semesters on campus, campus density of international students, and university involvement in international education programs, especially study abroad programs. An instrument was developed which evaluated students attitudes in seven areas including cultural pluralism, worldmindedness, international career aspirations, and political liberalism.
Shelton, S.   (2001).   Education abroad: Racism in Eastern Europe.   Transitions Abroad, Nov./Dec..
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Shinn, C.   (2000).   The new rules of engagement.   Change, Monograph 2000, 5-21.
Abstract:  Globalisation and internatioanlisation are two terms that suffer equally from an identity crisis and plasticity of meaning. This paper differentiates these two concepts and then explores their related trends and impacts in terms of Australian higher education. American approaches to maintaining and increasing support for internationalization provide an instructive example for Australian institutions.
Shive, G.   (1989).   China makes new rules for self-sponsored students to the West.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(1)(Winter), 23.
Sideli, K.   (2001).   When it comes to U.S. education abroad: Everybody counts.   IIENetworker, Fall, 43.
Sideli, K.   (2002).   Security issues and data collection in education abroad.   International Educator, Winter, 41-42.
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Sideli, K., Dollinger, M., & Doyle, S.   (2003).   Successful recruitment of business students for study abroad through program development, curricular integration and marketing.   Study abroad: Perspectives and experiences from business schools advances in international marketing, 13, 37-57.
Simpson, K. J., et al   (1992, Feb.).   Providing opportunities for multicultural experiences in teacher education.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, San Antonio, TX.
Abstract:  This paper, consisting of four distinct presentations and brief critique, describes means of enhancing multicultural education at different points along the teacher preparation continuum. The four programs described are designed to attract greater numbers of minorities to teacher education and to provide multicultural experiences for teacher education students.
Singh, S.   (1995).   Indian universities: On the upswing.   World Education News & Reviews, 8(2)(Spring), 1, 21-24.
Singleton, T., Breslin, M., & Lewis, C.   (2002).   Gender and disability- A survey of InterAction member agencies.   Eugene, Oregon: Mobility International USA.
Slessarev, H.   (1968).   Cooperative programs in foreign language studies abroad: Work-study in Hamburg.   Die Unterrichtspraxis / Teaching German, 1(1), 101-106.
Slind, M., & Spencer, S. E.   (2002).   Safeguards for short-term programsIn S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 239-277).   In S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 239-277). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Smart. G., & Ang, G.   (1996).   The internationalization of Australian higher education.   International Higher Education, 6, 17.
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Smiles, R.   (2001, Aug.2).   A world-class education: Rewards abound for those who dare to teach or study abroad.   Black Issues in Higher Education.
Abstract:  This journal cover story contains perspectives of Black faculty and administrators, a number of whom are from HBCUs, and also has an interesting article by a returned student of color who studied abroad.
Sokuvitz, S. & Fielding, M.   (2003).   Two assignments that integrate cross cultural and social issues.   Business Communication Quarterly, 66(4), 107-117.
Solaun, J.   (1989).   Study abroad Q's & A's.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(1)(Winter), 18-19.
Solaun, J.   (1989).   Views from study abroad.   World Education News & Reviews, 2(4)(Fall), 18-19.
Solaun, J.   (1990).   Study abroad in Latin America.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(4)(Fall), 20-21.
Abstract:  Study abroad programmers must be aware of the geographical, linguistic, political, historical, cultural and socioeconomic differences from one country to another.
Solaun, J.   (1990).   Study abroad in Scandinavia: The happy compromise for the English-only student.   World Education News & Reviews, 4(1)(Winter), 20-21.
Abstract:  American students will find out what generations of tourists have discovered: In the major cities of Scandinavia, just about everyone speaks English. This includes the entire student population in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Scandinavian societies have much to offer our students. It's time we took a second look at this underutilized opportunity. One way to do so is to think of Scandinavia as a happy place study abroad compromise for the English-only students; a foreign language culture with few of the disadvantages.
Solaun, J.   (1990).   Study abroad: Possibilities in Eastern Europe and the USSR.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(2)(Spring), 20-21.
Solaun, J.   (1991).   Comparing notes: How we weathered the Gulf crisis.   World Education News & Reviews, 4(2)(Spring), 19-20.
Abstract:  Study abroad advisors, coordinators, faculty and university administrations were suddenly brought face to face with the worst possible scenario for practitioners in our field: the outbreak of war and the serious potential threat to the safety and welfare of students abroad. Very few programs were actually cancelled or suspended. The study abroad community, through effective "networking," was able to minimize overreaction and panic while exercising care and prudence.
Solaun, J.   (1991).   Getting on with your task: Enhancing your image where it counts- Within your academic institution.   World Education News & Reviews, 4(4)(Fall), 20-21.
Abstract:  If your institution has just named you as study abroad director, or if you have been in the position for a while and sense that you have only made a dent in the potential on your campus, you will have realized that your own approach to your job is an essential ingredient to successfully promoting study abroad within your academic institution.
Solaun, J.   (1991).   Study abroad: Setting goals for the 1990s and beyond.   World Education News & Reviews, 4(3)(Summer), 1, 21.
Abstract:  The many variables at play on each campus make the blueprints for internationalization different at each institution. The bottom line is that only two percent of our undergraduates study abroad. If progress is to be made to bring our campuses up to speed, dramatic measures are called for.
Solaun, J.   (1992).   Study abroad.   World Education News & Reviews, 5(4)(Fall), 22-23.
Solaun, J.   (1993).   Study abroad for engineering students: When bad news is good news.   World Education News & Reviews, 6(4)(Fall), 20-21.
Solaun, J., & DeRomana, I.   (1992).   Study abroad: The internship dilemna.   World Education News & Reviews, 5(2)(Spring), 22-23.
Solaun, J., & Gliozzo, C.   (1993).   Study abroad for business students.   World Education News & Reviews, 6(3)(Summer), 19-20.
Abstract:  The number of business students studying abroad is still reported to be no more than 10 percent of the overall total. Students were not encouraged to study business-related coursework away from their home schools. For most students, this was a resounding vote of no confidence for foreign study; a semester without any business courses meant graduating late.
Solaun, J., & Sideli, K.   (1992).   Study abroad program development: Expanding opportunities through consortia.   World Education News & Reviews, 6(1)(Winter), 19-20.
Abstract:  When there is a desire to closely monitor the quality of the academic experience of students abroad without all of the headaches and responsibilities of running it alone, enter the consortia program-an arrangement with a limited number of other universities or colleges which allows for direct involvement in the management of the program but spreads the administrative responsibilities among members of the group.
Solaun, J., & Spear, S.   (1990).   Study abroad in Australia or how to handle a student stampede.   World Education News & Reviews, 3(3)(Summer), 20-21.
Abstract:  In the past five years, study abroad advisors have gone from being frustrated to confused to excited about the opportunities for their students at Australian universities. This is because the demand for Australia has been entirely student-driven. How did this happen and what is the current state of affairs for U.S. students in Australia?
Solaun, J., & Steinberg, M. S.   (1991).   Study abroad in Asia.   World Education News & Reviews, 5(1)(Winter), 19-21.
Abstract:  Data currently being collected by the Institute of International Education indicates that in 1989-90 only five percent of students from the U.S. who studied abroad opted for a study program in Asia. There is a general perception that a mastery of Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Thai requires a commitment of time and effort that many students are simply unwilling to make. This is borne out by tracking student interest in these languages. The cost to students and institutions of running programs in many parts of Asia is no bargain either. Even in lower cost countries, most U.S. universities do not want to run programs without a Resident Director, which obviously adds to the cost.
Sommer, J. G.   (2002).   Education abroad: An overview.   SIT Occasional Papers Series- Study Abroad: Student Essays and Research, 3(Winter), 5-14.
Soneson, H. M.   (2000).   Study abroad for students with disabilities: Guidelines for advisors.   Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Learning Abroad Center.
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Abstract:  This guide provides U.S. and overseas advisors with information on study abroad for students with disabilities. In the last several years students with disabilities are increasingly participating in study abroad, and institutions and programs have been challenged to provide advising and support services for this new and growing study abroad population. This guide includes information on the implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act for study abroad, a description of different disability types and their typical accessibility needs, suggested advising procedures, and resources to have available for staff and students.
Song, H.   (1997).   From brain drain to reverse brain drain: Three decades of Korean experience.   Science Technology Society, 2, 317-345.
Abstract:  This paper examines three decades of the Korean experience of brain drain, that can be termed 'from brain-drain to reverse brain-drain', and governn.ent policies to deal with this phenomenon. The results confirm the major role of economic factors in return-or-stay decisions of Korean scientists and engineers (KSEs) who earned PhDs in the US. And yet, when the difference in economic conditions between alternatives is narrowed, psychological and emotional factors are identified to be important. In particular, this study suggests that some Confucian values work as an underlying element in KSEs' decisions. Consequently, this study indicates the importance of including a cultural analysis in the study of brain drain issues.
Sowa, P. A.   (2002).   How valuable are student exchange programs?.   New Directions for Higher Education, 2(117), 63-70.
Spaulding, S., & Colucci, J.   (1982).   International education: A United States perspective.   European Journal of Education, 17(2), 205-216.
Spaulding, S., Singleton, J., & Watson, P.   (1968).   The context of international development education.   Review of Educational Research, 38(3), 201-212.
Spencer, S. E.   (2002).   Student selection and enrollment.   In S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 141-148). Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Spencer, S. E., & Tuma, K. (Eds.)   (2002).   The guide to successful short-term programs abroad.   Washington, DC. NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Spitzberg, Jr., I. J.   (1984).   Movers and doers: International exchange, the international knowledge system, and public policy.   Washington, DC: American Association of University Professors.
Abstract:  The relationship between international knowledge exchange and the international exchange of persons, particularly through and to higher education systems, is examined. Higher education policy is discussed as one case of international knowledge exchange.
Spofford, W. K.   (1990).   The effective development of nontraditional study-abroad programs.   New Directions for Community Colleges, 18(2), 27-35.
Sporn, B.   (2003).   Convergence or divergence in international higher education policy: Lessons from Europe.   Forum for the Future of Higher Education.
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Abstract:  European higher education has been undergoing major restructuring since the early 1990s. Many of these - such as strengthening institutional leadership, establishing governing boards, enhancing quality and accountability and applying performance based budgeting - resemble practices in the United States. But unlike the United States where the catalyst has been the external environment, EU changes have occurred more at the Institutional level due to state ministries policies or EU agreements. Barbara Sporn analyzes these reforms and the major drivers behind them.
Stachowski, L. L., & Visconti, V. A.   (1998).   Service learning in overseas nations: U.S. student teachers give, grow, and gain outside the classroom.   Journal of Teaching Education, 49(3), 212-219.
Stanitski, D., & Fuellhart, K.   (2003).   Tools for developing short-term study abroad classes for geography studies.   Journal of Geography, 102(5), 202-215.
Abstract:  Short-term international field study is an attractive alternative for many students to traditional, longer-term study abroad programs. We present a discussion of critical planning, administrative, and curricular elements related to the development and implementation of such courses. In doing so, we share a number of checklists and planning tools that other instructors may find helpful in the context of developing their own international field studies courses. In addition, we provide representative examples and experiences from two short-term international courses taught by the authors in the Geography Department at Shippensburg University.
Stansfield, C. W.   (1975, Apr.).   Study abroad and the first-year student.   Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
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Abstract:  A study was conducted in Jalapa, Mexico, to test the hypothesis that a student of average and below average language aptitude may have greater difficulty with the accelerated pace of learning in an intensive program. The Modern Language Association Cooperative Spanish Test was administered to the eight beginning students enrolled in the Jalapa program in Fall 1974. Sections administered were listening, reading, and writing. Results indicated this group learned three semesters of Spanish in three and a half months abroad, with production skills ranging highest, although it was not possible to test speaking skills. It is concluded that reservations about the interaction of language aptitude and accelerated pace, as stated by J.B. Carroll, seem unfounded when applied to study abroad.
Steinberg, M.   (2002).   Involve me and I will understand: Academic quality in experiential programs abroad.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8(Winter), 207-229.
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Abstract:  In this essay, my aim is to demonstrate that experiential education is a laudable and creditworthy endeavor in study abroad, and to discuss some approaches designed to reinforce the academic side of experiential study. To set a framework, the first section is devoted to a description of the place of experiential programming at the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES), where I am Director of Academic Programs. IES is "traditional" in the sense that the core of our instruction is classroom-based in university courses and courses taught by IES faculty. We are not "traditional" in our commitment to a holistic model of international education and our willingness to experiment with different academic approaches to achieve our mission of student intercultural competence. After a discussion of some of the theoretical background of experiential education in the second section, the third and fourth sections will review some of IES's recent research on credit acceptance and on student learning in experiential programming. The final section of this paper discusses assessment and the nature of academic programming for students in field placements, internships and service-learning.
Stephenson, Skye   (1999).   Study abroad as a transformational experience and its effect upon study abroad students and host nationals in Santiago, Chile.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 5(2), 1-38.
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Abstract:  Provides insights into the views of the "other" in study abroad and how students affect a local culture and are in turn affected by it. Explores the effect that the study abroad experience of students in Santiago, Chile had upon three distinct groups' cultural perceptions and personal values.
Sternberg, A., & Bird, S. A.   (1995).   Securing financial aid for study abroad.   World Education News & Reviews, 9(1)(Winter), 18-19.
Sterns, M. A.   (1987).   Educational exchange in Latin America.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 491(1), 104-117.
Stewart, M., & Talburt, S.   (1999).   What's the subject of study abroad? Race, gender and living culture.   Modern Language Journal, 82(2), 163-175.
Abstract:  This ethnographic study centers on a five-week study abroad program in Spain. Approximately 35 undergraduate students were audio taped during their coursework, and 6 students were interviewed multiple times. Focus groups were used with the remaining students, and one of the instructors was also interviewed at length. Students were asked to describe their experiences in Spain and reflect on their meanings. Data were coded in order to identify themes. The article includes excerpts from the interviews, and it portrays the experiences of the one African-American participant at length.
Stimpfl, J. R., & Engberg, D.   (1997).   Comparing Apples to Apples: An integrated approach to study abroad program assessment.   International Education Forum, 17(2), 97-109.
Abstract:  This essay addresses the topic of study abroad research. The authors begin with a review of some of the literature and research on study abroad that addresses impact or change. They then discuss some of the problems associated with much of the research done in the field of study abroad, and make suggestions for future research possibilities. Problems they note include the small sample sizes used in most studies and often low response rates that make the validity of the data obtained questionable. They also note the problems in comparing different programs, since these often have significant differences. One of the issues that is often not taken into consideration is the previous experience and attitudes of program participants. Another problem is that the change students undergo could occur at any time during or after the experience, as each individual develops differently. The authors conclude with a recommendation that some commonalities be defined to make research and program comparisons more legitimate. These include defining the level of cultural immersion, the level of synthesis within the program, and the level of difference between the home culture and the host culture.
Stimpfl, J. R., & Engberg, D.   (1997).   What to know before you go: Creating a comparison for research on study abroad programs.   International Education Forum, 17(1), 7-21.
Abstract:  This article presents a model which administrators or participants can use to effectively compare different study abroad programs. The authors briefly discuss some of the problems with research studies that prompted them to develop this model, and then present their own research study. The authors state the goals of the "comparison matrix" to be two-fold. The first goal is to allow administrators to better understand how appropriate a particular program is for its intended audience, and the second goal is to help determine whether or not a particular student is well suited for a certain program. In order to develop this comparison matrix, the researchers interviewed 37 students who had studied abroad over an 18 month period. The sample was designed to include a wide variety of students with a vast range of experiences. As a result of this study, the authors developed four categories, which can be used to evaluate programs. These include the level of immersion, the level of synthesis built into the program, the level of difference between the host culture and the culture of the participant, and the level of personal development (where the student is at in their developmental process). These four levels or categories are broken down into greater detail in the article.
Stoop, G. H.   (1998).   Minority student participation in study abroad.   Journal of the Association of International Education, 8(1), 1-6.
Storti, C.   (2001).   The art of coming home (2nd Ed.).   Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publications.
Abstract:  You may be in for a shock if you expect things to be the same as when you left home! Indeed, you'll quickly discover both you and home have changed. Examines reentry issues for four specific groups: high school exchange students, international volunteers, military personnel and their families, and missionaries and their children. Integrates the process of returning home into the overseas experience. Offers solid advice everyone needs to reduce the stress of making the transition home. [Publisher]
Storti, C.   (2001).   The art of crossing cultures (2nd Ed.).   Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publications.
Abstract:  Adjusting to a new culture and getting along with the local people are two common challenges for nearly everyone who lives and works abroad. This book shows what it takes to encounter a new culture and succeed. Filled with examples of cross-cultural misunderstandings and tools for turning cultural confrontation into cultural adaptation.
Stow Bolea, P., & McFall, J. A.   (2000).   International field education: A study of student reflection and program innovation.   Paper presented at the joint International Federation of Social Workers and the International Association of Schools of Social Workers, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
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Abstract:  This qualitative study is based upon the survey responses of ten participants. Reported are the participant and placement demographics. These demographic variables are pertinent to understanding the results, implications and recommendations of this study. The second part of the survey aimed to explore student reflections on the educational experiences. These variables were included: integrated learning, critical thinking, and professional development.
Straffon, D. A.   (2003).   Assessing the intercultural sensitivity of high school students attending an international school.   In Paige, R. M. (Ed.), International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 487-501.
Strawn, D. L.   (2000, July).   International study opportunity for students.   Paper presented at the Johannesburg 2000 Conference on International Education, Johannesburg, South Africa.
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Stryker, R.E., et al.   (2002).   Rotating faculty or permanent resident directors? Alternate models for resident directorships abroad.   International Educator, 26(Winter).
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Abstract:  International educators face conflicting objectives in determining on-site systems for administering their academic-year and semester programs abroad. Those of us who have experienced different types of resident directorships, whether as providers or consumers, probably have strong preferences between the polar models of permanent resident directors and rotating faculty directors, though both involve significant tradeoffs. This article describes these alternative models and some of their inherent compromises. Based on our experience in this field, we propose a series of ideas to maximize the potentials in each arrangement, and suggest some modifications in each to improve the balance of advantages.
Sumka, S.   (2001).   Host family experience: What is the impact? What does it mean?.   Transitions Abroad, 25(2), 75-76.
Sunnygard, J.   (2002).   If you cross over the sea: Program leadership for intercultural development.   In S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 191-201). Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Surridge, S. W.   (2000).   Factors deterring adult undergraduate students at Penn State Capital College from participation in study abroad.   (Doctoral dissertation, Penn State University).
Abstract:  This study identifies and explores reasons that deter adult undergraduate students at Penn State Capital College from participation in study abroad programs. The theoretical basis of the study comes from study abroad, adult education, and multicultural education literature. To identify and measure deterrents the researcher developed the 34 item Likert-type Deterrents to Adult Student Participation in Study Abroad Scale (DAPSAS). The DAPSAS was distributed as the major section of a self-administered mail questionnaire. The study population was 1,144 Penn State Capital College undergraduate students 25 years of age or older who were enrolled in undergraduate classes in the fall of 1999. Using standard survey research procedures resulted in a 55. 6 percent (636 students) response rate to the survey.
Sussman, N. M.   (2002).   Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: sojourners return home.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(4), 391-408.
Abstract:  A new theoretical model, which explores the relationship between cultural identity and repatriation experience, was tested among 113 American teachers who sojourned to Japan. Results indicated, unexpectedly, that overseas adaptation and repatriation experiences are not directly associated. Rather, home culture identity strength inversely predicted repatriation distress with repatriates experiencing high distress reporting weak cultural identity. Preliminary findings also indicated that repatriation experience is related to shifts in cultural identity. As predicted by the Cultural Identity Model, ratings of increased estrangement from American culture (subtractive) or feeling "more" Japanese (additive) following a sojourn are correlated with the high repatriation distress. Further, the more the global identity shift, the higher the life satisfaction. An innovative methodology was utilized in this study through the use of internet for participant recruitment and data collection.
Sutter, R. L. (Ed.)   (1992).   Internationalizing the California State University: Case studies.   Long Beach: California State University, Long Beach Office of the Chancellor.
Abstract:  The 18 case studies in this volume represent a sample of the internationalization activities of the California State University system.
Sygall, S.   (1995).   Facilitating exchange: Including persons with disabilities in international programs.   Transitions Abroad, 18(5), 87-89.
Sylvester, R.   (2002).   Mapping international education: A historical survey 1893-1944.   Journal of Research in International Education, 1(1), 90-125.
Abstract:  The term 'international education' has been in continuous use since the 1860s. This article seeks to provide an examination of the extensive descriptions and definitions of international education through the period 1893 to 1944. It includes the Columbian Exposition of 1893, the works of Kemény, Tagore, Kandel and Harley, and the work of the League of Nations, the World Federation of Education Associations and the International Bureau of Education, as well as the many international schools established during this period.
Sylvester, R.   (2003).   Further mapping of the territory of international education in the 20th Century (1944-1969).   Journal of Research in International Education, 2(2), 185-204.
Szekely, B. B.   (1998).   Seeking heritage in study abroad.   In T.M. Davis (Ed.), Open Doors 1997/1998: Report on International Educational Exchange (pp. 107-109). New York: Institute of International Education.
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Tabi, M. M, and Mukherjee, S.   (2003).   Nursing in a global community: A study abroad program.   Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(2), 134-138.
Abstract:  Nursing in a global community is a study abroad program at Georgia Southern University School of Nursing. The program hosted at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana, West Africa, provides opportunity for undergraduate and graduate health profession students to experience nursing, health care service and delivery in a developing country. Description of the program and benefits of study abroad programs are discussed as well as a student perspective on the transcutural experience in Ghana.
Talbott, I. D.   (1990).   Obstacles to host country adjustment in an international travel/study program.   International Education, 20(1), 32-38.
Abstract:  This article reports on a study conducted to assess the obstacles to host country adjustment for participants of an international travel/study program. The programs were 11-14 days in length and conducted by Glenville State College in West Virginia. The programs were located in a number of different European countries and were operated from 1986-1989. The focus was on either international business or history and culture. Data were collected from 55 participants, ranging in age and educational background. Findings indicate that of the various factors students were asked to evaluate, only five seemed to present difficulties for more than half the participants. These included personal conveniences such as toilets and showers, communications, shopping, measurements, and restaurants. A more detailed breakdown is provided in the article.
Talburt, S., & Stewart, M. A.   (1999).   What's the subject of study abroad?: Race, gender, and "living culture".   The Modern Language Journal, 83(ii), 163-175.
Abstract:  Based on an ethnographic study that focused on the relations of students' in- and out-of-class cultural learning during a 5-week study abroad program in Spain, this article analyzes processes of teaching and learning in a Spanish culture and civilization class, the experiences of the only African-American student on the program, and students' responses to a class meeting in which race was overtly problematized.
Taylor, A.   (1991).   Languages home and away.   London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
Abstract:  This guide offers ideas and techniques for projects designed to enhance the social and linguistic experiences of students participating in international exchanges. Sources of further reading and useful addresses are also listed.
Taylor, J.   (2002).   Administrative processes.   In S.E. Spencer & K. Tuma (Eds.), The guide to successful short-term programs abroad (pp. 25-49). Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Taylor, N.   (1991).   The travel journal: An assessment tool for overseas study.   New York: Council on International Education Exchange.