Research on U.S.
Students Study Abroad:
An Update, 2004 – 2011
A Bibliography with Abstracts
Initial Document Collection by:
David Comp, Ph.D.
Review and Editing by:
UCLA Center for International and Development Education (CIDE)
and
UCLA Center for Global Education (CGE)
Senior Editor:
Albert Biscarra, M.A., Doctoral Student
with support from:
Professor Val D. Rust

CIDE/CGE Students:
Katie Calvert, Michelle Gaston, Shanyun He, Stephanie Kim, Emily Le, Jee Young Lee, Ola Siedzik, Jing Xu
Programming: James Vales, M.Sc.
Final Editing, Online Publication, and Introduction by
The Center for Global Education
Gary Rhodes, Director
Abetti, G.   (2007).   Intellectual intercourse between allied and friendly countries.   Science, 49(1268), 369-371.
Access Economics   (2009).   The Australian education sector and the economic contribution of international students.   Canberra, Australia: Access Economics.
Abstract:  This report outlines the economic contribution of trade in education services to the Australian economy. It features three main components: (1) the economic contribution of students and the associated flow-on effects; (2) an analysis of the domestic education sector; and, (3) an overview of Australia's standing in the international education market.
ACE Center for International Initiatives   (2006).   Students on the move: The future of international students in the United States.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Abstract:  This paper examines the current situation and recent trends in international student enrollment in the United States, compares these trends with those in other countries, and looks at the efforts of other countries and regional groups to attract international students.
Adelma, C.   (2004).   "Global preparedness" of pre-9/11 college graduates: What the US longitudinal studies say.   Tertiary Education and Management, 10(3), 243-260.
Abstract:  The paper develops an index of "global preparedness" for pre-9/11 US bachelors degree recipients based on secondary school and college transcript records, and student responses to survey questions in a longitudinal study that covers the period 1988-2000. Only 10% met the most generous of threshold criteria for inclusion. By occupation at the age of 26/27, the highest proportions meeting those threshold criteria were found among (1) editors, writers and reporters, and (2) engineers and architects. By industry, the highest proportions of globally prepared college graduates were found in (1) communications and (2) finance. These indicators are system accountability measures. For all nations, such indicators help policy makers decide where to target incentives to expand the pool of students who can work across borders.
Adelman, C.   (2009).   The Bologna process for U.S. eyes: Re-learning higher education in the age of convergence.   Washington DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Retrieved from: http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/EYESFINAL.pdf
Abstract:  These highlights help clarify, for North American readers, what Bologna is and what it is not. Some of them are extraordinarily relevant to challenges that face U.S. higher education, and are particularly applicable to accountability and access issues—in ways we simply have not considered. This document urges us to learn something from beyond our own borders that just might help us rethink our higher education enterprise.
Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy   (2005).   Cultural diplomacy: The linchpin of public diplomacy.   Washigton, DC: U.S. Department of State.
AIEC International Education Marketing Services   (2009, Oct.).   International student perceptions today.   Paper presented at the Australian International Education Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Retrieved from: http://www.idp.com/pdf/AIEC_research_09.pdf
Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Transatlantic Science and Humanities Advisory Board   (2005).   What factors impact the internationalization of scholarship in the humanities and social sciences?.   Bonn, Germany: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Abstract:  The workshop "What Factors impact the Internationalization of Scholarship in the Humanities and Social Sciences" took place November 2, 2004, at the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation's headquarters in Bonn - Bad Godesberg. The participants set out to identify the present day obstacles in respect to mobility for young scholars in their specific working and research environments. In her key-note lecture "Transatlantic Mobility and Collaborations: Experiences in the Humanities and Social Sciences", Dr. Heike Jöns offered her expertise on the question of researcher's mobility, the underlying motivations, and long-term consequences. In two panels the participants followed two specific aspects of the problem: the first examined the question of university training. How do young scholars find their way into international scholarly activities? What programs and mechanisms are in place to assist them in building (or developing) an international network? The second set of questions clustered around the problems that arise when working together internationally. The lively discussions revealed a great number of answers and pointed to new questions.
Allen, H. W.   (2010).   Language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad: An activity theory perspective.   Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 27-49.
Abstract:  From the 1960s through the mid-1990s, research on study abroad largely supported the notion that it is an ideal means of learning a foreign language (FL). Moreover, FL professionals often impart this view to students, typically based on their own successful if not life-transforming experiences (Kinginger, 2008). As Davidson (2007) explained, "[I]t has long been understood that language acquisition at the highest levels of proficiency is generally not possible without a substantial immersion experience" (p. 277). However, current trends in American students' study abroad choices as well as insights from recent research revealing unsupported myths about study abroad may put some of the FL profession's assumptions about it in question.
Altbach, P. G.   (2004).   The decline of American internationalization.   International Higher Education, 35, 5.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Altbach, P. G.   (2006).   International higher education: Reflections on policy and practice.   Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for International Higher Education, Boston College.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/research_sites/cihe/pubs/Altbach_2006_Intl_HigherEd.pdf
Altbach, P. G.   (2007).   Globalization and the university: Realities in an unequal world.   In Forest, J. J. F., & Altbach, P. G. (Eds.), International Handbook of Higher Education (pp. 121-139). Netherlands: Springer.
Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J.   (2007).   The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 290-305.
Abstract:  Globalization and internationalization are related but not the same thing. Globalization is the context of economic and academic trends that are part of the reality of the 21st century. Internationalization includes the policies and practices undertaken by academic systems and institutions—and even individuals—to cope with the global academic environment. The motivations for internationalization include commercial advantage, knowledge and language acquisition, enhancing the curriculum with international content, and many others. Specific initiatives such as branch campuses, cross-border collaborative arrangements, programs for international students, establishing English-medium programs and degrees, and others have been put into place as part of internationalization. Efforts to monitor international initiatives and ensure quality are integral to the international higher education environment.
Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L. & Rumbley, L.   (2009).   Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution.   Paris, France: UNESCO.
Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001831/183168e.pdf
Abstract:  An academic revolution has taken place in higher education in the past half century marked by transformations unprecedented in scope and diversity. Comprehending this ongoing and dynamic process while being in the midst of it is not an easy task. Arguably, the developments of the recent past are at least as dramatic as those in the 19th century when the research university evolved, first in Germany and then elsewhere, and fundamentally redesigned the nature of the university worldwide. The academic changes of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are more extensive due to their global nature and the number of institutions and people they affect.
Alzugaray, C.   (2006).   Academic exchanges and transnational relations: Cuba and the United States.   Latin American Perspectives, 33(5), 43-57.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Center for Science Diplomacy   (2009).   2008-2009 Inaugural year in review.   Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science Diplomacy.
Retrieved from: http://diplomacy.aaas.org/files/CFD_YIR_Web.pdf
American Association of State Colleges and Universities   (2005).   United States and Mexico: university partnerships for prosperity.   Washington, DC: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.
Retrieved from: http://www.hedprogram.org/portals/0/pdfs/mexico05eng.pdf
American Council on Education   (2005).   Measuring internationalization at community colleges.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education   (2005).   Measuring internationalization at comprehensive universities.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education   (2005).   Measuring internationalization at liberal arts colleges.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education   (2005).   Measuring internationalization at research universities.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education   (2009).   ACE issue brief: US branch campuses abroad.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Abstract:  Branch campuses have received considerable media attention. There has been little research, however, on how U.S. institutions actually go about the business of establishing and operating branch campuses, how these operations differ by region, or the identities of the students and faculty. In an effort to fill this knowledge gap, ACE began collecting information on U.S. branch campuses abroad in 2006. Drawing on an initial assessment of the range of U.S. branches abroad, ACE assembled 11 leaders from U.S. branch campuses for a roundtable in January 2008. The roundtable discussion provided depth to ACE's knowledge into the theoretical and practical challenges associated with establishing a branch overseas. As a beginning step toward a wider breadth of understanding the universe of U.S. branch campuses abroad, in 2009 ACE fielded a targeted survey to collect more detailed information on the structure of these branches.
American Council on Education   (2009).   Sizing up the competition: The future of international postsecondary student enrollment in the United States.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
American Council on Education, Art & Science Group LLC, and the College Board   (2008).   College-bound students' interests in study abroad and other international learning activities.   Baltimore: Art & Science Group.
Retrieved from: http://www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentFileID=3997
Abstract:  This report indicates that the interest of college-bound students in international learning experiences is extraordinarily high. The nature of the international experiences they seek is expansive, including not only study abroad, but also internships, cultural immersion, and fluency in a foreign language.
Anderson, B. D.   (2007).   Students in a global village: The nexus of choice, expectation, and experience in study abroad.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Texas). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3274739).
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate student decision-making, expectation of and experience in study abroad. Factors that influence decision-making as well as expectations and on-site experiences were examined.
Anderson, P. H., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R. J., & Hubbard, A. C.   (2006).   Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Abstract:  Longitudinal studies that measure the impact of study abroad programs are essential to improving our understanding of the effectiveness of international education. The focus of the current research is on the development of cross-cultural sensitivity. Hammer and Bennett's [(2002). The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) manual. Portland, OR: Intercultural Communication Institute)] Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is used to assess of the extent to which a short-term, faculty-led study abroad program can affect the cross-cultural sensitivity of student learners. The IDI was administered before the students traveled abroad and then again 4 weeks later when they returned to the United States. Preliminary results suggest that short-term programs can have a positive impact on the overall development of cross-cultural sensitivity. Individual differences are noted and the paper provides some discussion of the impact of the study abroad program on specific subscales within the IDI instrument. The study concludes by highlighting areas of needed research.
Anderson, S.   (2008).   Creating staying power for U.S.-educated internationals.   International Educator, Nov./Dec..
Abstract:  The skill level of the U.S. workforce relative to the rest of the developed world is stagnating at the same time that United States immigration policies seem designed to dissuade, rather than encourage, talented individuals to come here, study, and immigrate. Research shows that a policy that welcomes international students and makes it easier for them to remain in the United States after graduation can be an important part of addressing the nation's skill problems. However, for that to happen Congress will need to change the law.
Anderson, S.   (2010).   Debunking myths about international students and highly skilled immigrants.   International Education, 19(5), 4.
Abstract:  The arguments of this paper center on three questions: Do international students crowd out U.S. students who want to attend college? Do foreign-born professionals on H-1B temporary work visas discourage U.S. students from entering science, math, and technology-related fields? And should the United States compel international students to go home so as to prevent a "brain drain" from poorer countries? These questions are at the core of the debate between those who support policies to welcome international students and highly skilled immigrants and those who don't. Answering them with this mindset may assist international educators in framing their arguments to help deter opponents and foster greater support for international students and highly skilled immigrants to share their talents with the United States.
Anderson-Paxson, J.   (2007).   Quiet reflection.   (Master's Thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 1444567).
Abstract:  During a study abroad trip to Italy, I had the opportunity to explore its cities and culture, resulting in a body of work that depicts my personal interpretations of the country. I want to viewer to look at my images and sense a feeling of place, culture, and mood of reflection and contemplation, as my photographs reveal the fragments and recollections of my memories.
Andom, M.   (2007, Oct. 9).   Study-abroad survey challenges the notion of widespread wrongdoing.   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/article/Study-Abroad-Survey-Will-Lead/59
Angelone, W.   (2005).   Universities without borders: Lessons learned from response to the December 2004 tsunami crisis.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_universities_without_borders.asp
Arden-Ogle, E. A.   (2009).   Study abroad and global competence : Exemplary community college programs which foster elements of achievement.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Oregon State University). Available from Scholars Archive at Oregon State University.
Retrieved from: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/13782
Abstract:  The research's purpose was to examine how exemplary community college study abroad programs assisted student participants in acquiring global competence. Three research questions were explored: 1.What issues need to be anticipated when planning a study abroad program for community college students in order to effectively incorporate opportunities for students to begin achieving global competence? 2. What characteristics of study abroad programs in community colleges strengthen opportunities for students to achieve global competence? 3. What mechanisms might be embedded in study abroad programs to enable assessment of program effectiveness in achieving global competence?
Ashwill, M. A.   (2004).   Developing intercultural competence for the masses.   International Educator, 13(2), 16-25.
Asia Society   (2005).   States prepare for the global age.   New York: Asia Society.
Association of American Universities   (2006).   National defense education and innovation initiative: Meeting America's economic and security challenges in the 21st Century.   Washington, DC: Association of American Universities.
Association of Departments of Foreign Languages   (2008).   Best practices in study abroad: A primer for chairs of departments of foreign languages.   ADFL Bulletin, 40(2-3), 72-76.
Retrieved from: http://www.adfl.org/resources/Best_Practices_ADFL.pdf
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada   (2007).   Canadian universities and international student mobility.   Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.
Retrieved from: http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/publications/student_mobility_2007_e.pdf
Abstract:  International student mobility is one of the cornerstones of the growing internationalization of Canadian universities. It encompasses both international students attending Canadian institutions and Canadian students going abroad for academic credit while registered at a Canadian institution. Both streams have a great impact on the universities and, ultimately, on society as a whole. Likewise, both present complex challenges to university officials and policy-makers who share the goal of raising the levels of international student mobility.
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada   (2007).   Canadian university engagement in international development cooperation.   Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.
Retrieved from: http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/publications/international_development_2007_e.pdf
Abstract:  Training human resources and strengthening university institutions in the Third World (as it was known after World War II) represented the very heart of early Canadian university initiatives. These initiatives did much to lay solid institutional underpinnings for internationalization by bringing foreign students to Canada in increasing numbers and engaging universities in the management of contracts awarded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Little by little, nearly all university institutions became involved in development assistance and found themselves adopting a vision that became an essential feature of the Canadian higher education system.
Athvaley, A.   (2008, Jan. 22).   More students head overseas in freshman year.   The Wall Street Journal, D1.
Abstract:  Freshman year has typically been considered a time for students to settle in and try living on their own for the first time, plan their course schedules and decide on a major. Now, a growing number of schools are expanding their study-abroad options for first-year students.
Atkins, S., Finkhouse, J., & Zukroff, S.   (2006).   By example: Resources for education abroad offices and advisers.   NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/knowledge_community_network.sec/education_abroad_1/education_abroad_2/document_library_7/advising_students_2/by_example_2/
Atkinson, C.   (2010).   Does soft power matter? A comparative analysis of student exchange programs 1980-2006.   Foreign Policy Analysis, 6(1), 1-22.
Abstract:  Democratic governance depends not only on the building of democratic institutions but also on citizens' knowledge about how these institutions should function in their everyday lives. I argue that US-hosted educational exchange programs are one mechanism whereby citizens of nondemocratic states might experience life firsthand in a democratic country. Their experiences may impact the political institutions and influence political behavior in their home countries. In order for this process to take place, I argue that at least three contextual conditions are important: (i) the depth and extent of social interactions that occur while abroad, (ii) the sharing of a sense of community or common identity between participants and their hosts, and (iii) the attainment of a politically influential position by the exchange participant when they return home. In this article, I test these hypotheses and find support for what advocates of soft power often contend: US-hosted exchange programs can play an important role in the diffusion of liberal values and practices across the borders of authoritarian states.
Bachner, D. & Zeutschel, U.   (2009).   Long-term effects of international educational youth Exchange.   New York: Routledge.
Abstract:  This paper reports on a research study of the long-term effects of a high school home-stay experience for German and American students who participated in the Youth For Understanding program in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. With emphasis on the German sample, this paper (1) briefly describes the study's methodology, (2) provides an overview of major findings, and (3) poses the question: what next? (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Baird, J., (Ed.)   (2006).   Quality audit and assurance for transnational higher education.   Melbourne: Australian Universities Quality Agency.
Abstract:  This publication aims to contribute to the international dialogue on quality assurance of transnational higher education, with an emphasis on quality audit. Although it reflects Australian experience and lessons learned, it includes consideration of the wider comparative context in which Australian practices and approaches should be viewed. Findings from quality audits and the advice from experienced auditors will be of particular interest to those in higher education institutions who coordinate, deliver and approve transnational programs.
Bangura, A. K.   (2004, Nov.).   Differing standards of education and their impact on international exchanges: A comparison of the United States and South Africa.   Paper presented at the Conference on Celebrating and Promoting International Education and Exchange by the US Department of State's International Education Week, Raleigh, NC.
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in outcomes of study abroad length and participation on general self-efficacy, and attitudes reflecting globalmindedness of students at three private Christian universities. This study sought to examine the differences between students who had participated for a semester with students who had participated in a short-term program consisting of 8 weeks or less as well as students who intended to attend study abroad prior to their actual participation. Findings and recommendations reflect the context of the current climate of increasing pressures on university budgets and calls to more accurately measure curricular and curricular outcomes.
Banks, M., & Olsen, A.   (2008).   Defining and measuring global student mobility: An Australian perspective.   Paper presented at the NAFSA Annual Conference, Special Research Seminar, Washington, DC.
Abstract:  This analysis examines how education has been used as a tool of American power. Four major moments of transformation in the international system are surveyed to illustrate a link between strategic educational capacity, defined as the application of attained knowledge and skills, and national power. The study then assesses how education is used as a power asset in the contemporary security environment. Today, an important educational capacity is emerging in the new Minerva program in the Department of Defense and other transformational educational concepts with security applications. Education is gaining an increasing interest among American decisionmakers as a strategic component of American power and an essential asset for successful military operations in the new global security environment.
Banks, M., Olsen, A., Pearce, D.   (2007).   Global student mobility: An Australian perspective five years on.   Melbourne: IDP.
Abstract:  This study Global Student Mobility: An Australian Perspective Five Years On is the third study by IDP Education Pty Ltd to forecast demand for international higher education places in Australia by source market. The framework presented here builds on the 1995 study International Education: Australia's Potential Demand and Supply and the 2002 study Global Student Mobility 2025, updating the analysis to take advantage of the latest information sets, and ultimately combining both demand and supply side drivers.
Barbour, J.   (2006, Oct. 6).   The moral ambiguity of study abroad.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(7), B24.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i07/07b02401.htm
Abstract:  It is hard to avoid moral guilt when you travel outside the United States today. Simply by crossing an ocean, you have spent more money than most people in the world will earn in a year — more than some will earn in a lifetime. Being a tourist can mean not only pleasure, freedom, and extravagance, but also ethical dilemmas.
Beck, D.   (2004).   The life cycle of student-generated education abroad program evaluation information in higher education: An exploratory study.   (Capstone paper, School for International Training).
Retrieved from: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/capstones/102/
Abstract:  At several institutions of higher education in the United States, there are offices that are responsible for assisting students in researching, selecting, and participating in education abroad activities. These offices rationalize spending time, money and manpower on collecting program evaluation information. In general there is a consensus that this is a worthwhile endeavor, but what becomes of the information collected? The basis of this paper is data collected through research into how the information is solicited, collected, processed, managed, used, and retired.
Beerkens, E.   (2004, Sept.).   Global opportunities and institutional embeddedness: Higher education consortia in Europe and Southeast Asia.   Paper presented at the CHER Conference, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
Abstract:  As a response to processes of globalisation and regional integration, internationalisation activities in universities have changed. Flows have become more massive, the range of activities has broadened, and internationalisation has shifted from a marginal activity to a central institutional issue with strategic importance. These shifts can also be observed in international cooperation among universities. One of the manifestations of this shift is the increase and change of interorganisational arrangements in higher education. One type of such arrangements - higher education consortia - (a term that will be further defined in the paper) are analysed in detail in the study. This analysis takes inter-organisational diversity as a starting point (Parkhe, 1991). The basic thesis is that partners need to be similar, yet different, or in other words, there needs to be sufficient complementarity as well as sufficient compatibility among the participating universities. This thesis is based on two different perspectives on universities. The Resource Based View (Wernerfelt, 1984; Barney, 1991) argues that organisations cooperate in order to gain access to complementary resources, which they need to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Embeddedness theories (e.g. Zukin and DiMaggio, 1990) and institutional theories (e.g. Uzzi, 1997; Scott, 1995) argue that organisations are embedded in and shaped by their (national) institutional context. From this viewpoint, cooperation between partners will be hindered if such institutional backgrounds are incompatible with each other. It is argued that consortia which show a high level of both complementarity and compatibility, will be most successful. Also the paper explores the ways in which the management of consortia can improve the levels of complementarity and compatibility.
Ben-Tsur, D.   (2009).   The impact of conflict on international student mobility: A case study of international students studying in Israel.   International Studies in Sociology of Education, 19(2)(June), 135-149.
Abstract:  This paper explores the impact of conflict on international student mobility. Through an examination of undergraduate, international students studying in Israel, this case study questions how and if a situation of ongoing violent conflict affects international student travel decisions to study in a host country. Contrary to assumptions of marketisation of higher education in which international students make market choices based on the pursuit of rational self-interest to acquire competitive academic credentials, this study uncovers alternative motivating factors for international student mobility. Findings from this study reveal that ideological and religious affiliation to a host country may motivate international student mobility towards conflict zones. This study suggests that under these circumstances, international student mobility towards a conflict zone may persevere.
Bennett, J. M.   (2004).   Turning frogs into interculturalists: A student-centered developmental approach to teaching intercultural competence.   In Goodman, R. A., Phillips, M. E., & Boyacigiller, N. (Eds.), Crossing cultures: Insights from master teachers (pp. 312-342). London: Routledge.
Bennett, J. M., & Bennett, M. J.   (2004).   Developing intercultural competence: A reader.   Portland, OR: Intercultural Communication Institute.
Bennett, J. M., & Bennett, M. J.   (2004).   Developing intercultural sensitivity: An integrative approach to global and domestic diversity.   In Landis, D., Bennett, J. M., & Bennett, M. J. (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed., pp. 147-165). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bennett, M. J.   (2004).   Becoming interculturally competent.   In Wurzel, J. (Ed.), Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 62-77). Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation.
Bennett, M. J.   (2009).   State of the art research on intercultural learning in study abroad and best practice for intercultural learning in international educational exchange.   Hillsboro, Oregon: Intercultural Development Research Institute.
Retrieved from: http://www.idrinstitute.org/allegati/IDRI_t_Pubblicazioni/25/FILE_Documento.pdf
Bhalla, V.   (2005).   International students at Indian universities.   International Higher Education, 41, 6.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2005.html
Bhandari, R., & Koh, H. K.   (2007, Mar.).   University linkages with institutions in non-traditional destinations.   Paper presented at the 2nd Annual IIE Best Practices Conference.
Bhandari. R., & Koh, H. K.   (2007).   International students in the United States.   International Higher Education, 43, 10.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2007.html
Black, T. H., & Duhon, D .L.   (2006).   Assessing the impact of business study abroad programs on cultural awareness and personal development.   Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 140-144.
Abstract:  In this article, the authors assessed results from a cultural awareness instrument administered to business student participants at the beginning of a summer study abroad program in London, England, and then again at the program's conclusion. The data indicated that the program enhanced cultural awareness and personal development. Moreover, additional information from a student survey reinforeced the results of the cultural-awareness instrument.
Blumenthal, P., & Grothus, U.   (2008).   Developing global competence in engineering students: U.S. and German approaches.   Online Journal for Global Engineering Education, 3(2), 1-12.
Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/ojgee/vol3/iss2/1/
Abstract:  This article presents a U.S. and a German perspective on the challenges and strategies of each country in developing globally competent engineering professionals. It reviews U.S., German, and wider EU interests and strategies for attracting international students, as well as national and campus-based programs through which American and German engineering students can study abroad and gain international experience relevant to their future careers. The authors discuss the shared challenges faced by universities in both countries, and the need for further investments by government, industry, and academia.
Blumenthal, P., & Laughlin, S., (Eds.)   (2009, Mar.).   Promoting study abroad in science and technology fields.   IIE study abroad white paper series, Issue 5: Meeting America's global education challenge.
Abstract:  This fifth paper in the series examines opportunities to expand student mobility in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which are consistently underrepresented in study abroad. We first examine the most recent Open Doors student mobility trends in STEM disciplines, and then feature two essays focusing on models for increasing study abroad in the field of engineering. Finally, we look at evaluation methods for these programs with an essay on STEM program evaluation methods, and a sample evaluation case study. Looking separately at trends, program models, and evaluation in STEM study abroad, the paper offers an overall view of the dynamics of study abroad in these specific fields of study.
Bond, S., & Areepattamannil, S.   (2007).   Northern lights: International graduates of Canadian institutions and the national workforce.   Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for Internation Education.
Boris, A. C.   (2009).   Fulbright scholar program: Building international connections for U.S. universities.   Council for International Exchange of Scholars.
Retrieved from: http://www.cies.org/college_admin/download/InsImpact_InternationalConnections.pdf
Boronico, C., & Boronico, J.   (2010).   Study abroad perspectives on institutional operations.   Paper presented at the 2010 IABR & ITLC Conference, Orlando, FL.
Abstract:  The twenty-first century has brought about an increased emphasis on the contributions in higher education by way of study abroad programs. This paper introduces components of these contributions as they apply within the context of the University of New Haven (UNH). As a private institution of higher education, UNH faces challenges not unlike its peer institutions concerning innovative and value-adding curricular and co-curricular initiatives that impact on issues related to revenue generation and cash-flow, capacity planning and resident hall availability, and overall academic high quality. These issues are discussed within the framework of study abroad programs and their benefits.
Bound, J., Turner, S., & Walsh, P.   (2009).   Internationalization of U.S. doctorate education.   Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (Working Paper No. 14792).
Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14792
Abstract:  The representation of a large number of students born outside the United States among the ranks of doctorate recipients from U.S. universities is one of the most significant transformations in U.S. graduate education and the international market for highly-trained workers in science and engineering in the last quarter century. Students from outside the U.S. accounted for 51% of PhD recipients in science and engineering fields in 2003, up from 27% in 1973. In the physical sciences, engineering and economics the representation of foreign students among PhD recipients is yet more striking; among doctorate recipients in 2003, those from outside the U.S. accounted for 50% of degrees in the physical sciences, 67% in engineering and 68% in economics. Our analysis highlights the important role of changes in demand among foreign born in explaining the growth and distribution of doctorates awarded in science and engineering. Expansion in undergraduate degree receipt in many countries has a direct effect on the demand for advanced training in the U.S. Changes in the supply side of the U.S. graduate education market may also differentially affect the representation of foreign students in U.S. universities. Supply shocks such as increases in federal support for the sciences will have relatively large effects on the representation in the U.S. of doctorate students from countries where demand is relatively elastic. Understanding the determinants -- and consequences -- of changes over time in the representation of foreign born students among doctorate recipients from U.S. universities informs the design of policies affecting the science and engineering workforce.
Bowman, K. S., & Jennings, A.   (2005, Jan.).   Pura vida: Using study abroad to engage undergraduate students in comparative politics research.   PS Online.
Bradshaw Durrant, M., Brown, B. B., Cluff, J., & Bevell, J.   (2006).   Mentored service learning and rigorous academics: Keys to successful international study abroad programs.   Journal for Civic Commitment.
Retrieved from: http://www.servicelearning.org/library/resource/6849
Abstract:  Using broad analyses of data for international study programs at Brigham Young University as well as a specific case study, we illustrate how the core concepts of service learning--experiences and involvement; mentoring and reflection; and linking service experiences with academic concepts--are key to successful international academic experiences for students. By using data from over 1,200 student post-program evaluations, 16 faculty director interviews, and a specific case study on a service learning course in Southeast Asia, we illustrate the importance of closely mentored service-learning opportunities and rigorous academic expectations as keys to students' self-assessed academic growth and over all satisfaction with their international experience. We conclude that well-developed international service learning programs create unique opportunities for students to become better world citizens.
Brandeis University Office of Global Affairs   (2008, Aug.).   The global: Implications for research and the curriculum, symposium report.   Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Office of Global Affairs.
Abstract:  On April 8 and 9, 2008, the OGA hosted a symposium designed to stimulate discussion among the Brandeis community about implications of "the global" -- the forces sometimes called "globalization" -- on all aspects of university life. The two-day series of events covered a range of topics on these implications, from collaborative research to new curricular methods, from community engagement to the very mission and purpose of the U.S. research university.
Brandenburg, U., & Federkeil, G.   (2007).   How to measure internationality and internationalisation of higher education institutions: Indicators and key figures.   Berlin: Center for Higher Education Development.
Retrieved from: http://www.che.de/downloads/How_to_measure_internationality_AP_92.pdf
Braskamp, L. A.   (2008).   Developing global citizens.   Journal of College & Character, 10(1)(Sept.), 1-4.
Retrieved from: http://journals.naspa.org/jcc/vol10/iss1/8/
Abstract:  Developing global citizens is the goal of colleges today but does this phase have any meaning? College students who view themselves as global citizens also express a complex view of knowing, are committed to the common good, and desire to relate to others unlike them. Education aboard is one effective pathway to develop students with a global perspective, but we should not limit our perspective to cultural differences that are only associated with nations and countries. We instead need to understand and respect justice, equity, fairness, and equal opportunities as virtues and values that are important goals and ends of education.
Braskamp, L. A., Braskamp, D. C., & Merrill, K. C.   (2009).   Assessing progress in global learning and development of students with education abroad experiences.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18(Fall), 101-118.
Retrieved from: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/documents/FrontiersXVIII-Fall09BRaskampBRaskampMerrill.pdf
Braun, H., & Gemmeke, J.   (2005).   Beyond duty: Standards of insurance management in study abroad programmes.   New York: NAFSA Institute of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/InternationalEducator/EAMarApr05SITE.pdf
Bremer, D.   (2006).   Wanted: global workers.   International Educator, May/June, 40-45.
Abstract:  Globalization has impacted the majority of the world's modern workforce, making competencies once considered essential for productive professionals within a regional or national economy no longer sufficient in a marketplace with crumbling borders. To prepare global-ready graduates for a workforce that requires inter- and multi-cultural competencies that ensure success in dealing with the serious social, political, and environmental threats that have come about from the advance of globalization, institutions of higher education must change their priorities and objectives and include pivotal international educational experiences in their curricula.
Brewer, E.   (2004, Oct.).   From student mobility to internationalization at home.   Paper presented at the New Directions in International Education Conference, Beloit College, Beloit, WI.
Brewer, E., & Cleverdon, S.   (2009, Jan.).   Connecting the dots: Cooperating with external affairs to advance internationalization, Beloit College.   Paper presented at the ACE Internationalization Collaborative Meeting.
British Council   (2008).   What does the future hold? China country report: the outlook for international student mobility.   Economist Intelligence Unit for the British Council.
Retrieved from: https://siem.britishcouncil.org/
Abstract:  The nature of the UK's relationship with China has to change with a greater emphasis on collaborative partnership.
Brooks, S. E., Frick, M. J., & Bruening, T. H.   (2006).   An examination of international studies at 1862 land grant institutions.   Paper presented at the 22nd annual conference of the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Clearwater Beach, FL.
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine the status of international agricultural education at 1862 land grant institutions, by answering the question, what are our 1862 land grant institutions doing to integrate international studies into their undergraduate agricultural curricula? Two investigations were conducted, (1) a website content analysis and (2) an international director survey. A website based content analysis was conducted to determine the contents of 57 land grant institution's college of agriculture' websites identified current trends in agriculture regarding international themes. The programs identified were: (1) student study abroad; (2) faculty research and/or programs; (3) graduate research and/or programs; (4) training and/or visitors; (5) international students on campus; (6) foreign agreements and/or contracts; and (7) majors, minors, certificates, curriculum, and course content. All questions were based on information for the 2003-2004 academic year. Of the 57 institutions surveyed, a total of 31 surveys were submitted for a response rate of 54%. The results of the content analysis and the survey indicated that the nature of international agriculture programs is predictable, yet approaches, support and implementation vary widely between institutions. Despite the high level of international training for faculty and the strong belief in study abroad programs, very few agriculture students participate in study abroad programs at 1862 land grant institutions.
Brown, J. K.   (2005).   The effect of a study abroad on acquiring pragmatics.   (Master's thesis, Brigham Young University). Available from BYU Digital Collections..
Retrieved from: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ETD&CISOPTR=395&CISOBOX=1&REC=9
Abstract:  Pragmatics in Arabic needs to be studied for two main reasons: first, the large cultural difference between American and Middle Eastern society; and second, the recent surge in demand for Arabic speakers in the US. Especially in regard to refusals, what is acceptable in America is rarely acceptable in Arabic speaking countries. There are very few occasions when refusal of an offering of food or other hospitalities is acceptable. Arab culture requires one to provide family members with anything they need, including money. If that is not possible it is required to find the means for what they need. American culture permits one to deny help in certain circumstances, but Arab culture does not.
Brown, W. C.   (2006).   Reading German in a study abroad context.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3223550).
Abstract:  This study used quantitative means to address qualitative questions about reading German while studying abroad. Subjects were 63 U.S. students with a variety of German skills. They completed three surveys of their English and German reading habits and three reading tests during a semester abroad. Multiple measures included a recall protocol, a multiple choice test of sentence-level rhetorical markers, and a contextualized translation task.
Brubaker, C. J.   (2006).   Student perceptions of self-identified cultural encounters during a short-term study abroad programs.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3236287).
Abstract:  This study investigates how 18 undergraduate U.S. American students made sense of their daily cultural encounters as they participated in a 6-week language and culture study abroad programs in Mayen, Germany.
Brunn, J. E.   (2006).   Bridging the gap: Exploring indigenous and western students' experiences in an indigenous perspectives cultural immersion program.   (Doctoral dissertation, Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3221143).
Abstract:  This grounded theory study explored how and in what ways the cultural immersion emphasis of study abroad programs increased intercultural awareness and encouraged a global perspective. Research participants were five Western and five Indigenous students and three Western and Indigenous faculty members in the International Honor Program's Indigenous Perspectives Program. This study presented a comparative discussion of Western systems thinking and naturally systemic Indigenous approaches, showing that different belief systems lead to different worldviews and cultural practices. Cultural immersion programs are presented as a catalyst for worldview change through their experiential nature and effects on intercultural development, personal identity and global perspective. Data sources included one-time student and faculty interviews conducted via email, student field reports, student-written articles, and an education conference proposal written by a group of students allowing for triangulated data analysis. The analysis, conducted on three sets of data---Western students, Indigenous students, and all students-resulted in three very distinct theories. All students were able to identify differences between Indigenous and Western worldviews. Western students were generally open to change and receptive to different lifestyles and belief systems; Indigenous students did not appear to change their beliefs, but strengthened existing ones. Indigenous students manifested changes through desires to become community advocates and network with other Indigenous communities. Most Western students expressed increased respect towards nature and a new perspective of the earth as a living entity. The overriding theory that emerged was that if goals of participating students are not in alignment, cultural viewpoints and communication difficulties will become insurmountable stumbling blocks to cross-cultural sharing and understanding. This study determined that although most research views study abroad as a very positive influence, there is an enormous, and often overlooked, complexity to reaching goals of intercultural development and global citizenry. Intercultural conflicts, misaligned goals, worldviews and belief systems have significant effects on program and personal outcomes. Systems thinking is a valuable approach for working through these complexities and finding a common vision.
Brustein, W. I.   (2007).   The global campus: Challenges and opportunities for higher education in North America.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 382-391.
Abstract:  Confronted with a world that is strikingly different from what it was just a decade ago, the United States faces rapidly shifting economic, political, and national security realities and challenges. To respond to these changes it is essential that our institutions of higher education graduate globally competent students. This article addresses several major challenges confronting international educators within the United States including redesigning the curriculum, achieving faculty buy-in, financing study abroad, integrating our international students in the efforts to internationalize our campus, and rethinking how we teach foreign languages on our campuses.
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs   (2007).   Secondary school student exchanges. ECA Report on Secondary School Exchanges Discussion Paper.   Washington, DC: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
Abstract:  This paper provides an overview of the Secondary School Student Exchange Visitor Program and presents data describing the 2006-2007 academic year.1 It offers observations of the current state of these programs and their participants. It also identifies pitfalls that may lead to unsuccessful programs and seeks feedback on how best to avoid them. The Department intends that this paper be a first step in an industry-wide dialogue that will encourage best practices and the successful programs we all want.
Burian, C.   (2010).   U.S. study abroad in Thailand: Host country perspectives and guidelines for partners.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Abstract:  This white paper emerges from a workshop, "Expanding U.S. Study Abroad in Thailand: Assessment Guidelines for Partners," that was conducted February 24-26, 2010, in Bangkok, Thailand.
Burrelli, J.   (2010).   Foreign science and engineering students in the United States.   Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
Retrieved from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf10324/
Butcher, A.   (2009, Dec.).   International students and international relations: bridging the gap between education and foreign policies.   Paper presented at the ISANA International Education Association Conference, Canberra, Australia.
Retrieved from: http://proceedings.com.au/isana2009/PDF/paper_Butcher.pdf
Byram, M., & Dervin, F. (Eds.)   (2008).   Students, staff and academic mobility in higher education.   Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Campbell, D.   (2005).   International education and the impact of the "war on terrorism".   Irish Studies in International Affairs, 16(1), 127-154.
Canadian Centre for German and European Studies   (2005).   The bridge project: Inventory of mobility opportunities in and about Germany for Canadian post-secondary students.   Toronto: Canadian Centre for German and European Studies.
Caprara, D., Bridgeland, J., & Wofford, H.   (2007).   Global service fellowships: Building bridges through American volunteers.   The Brookings Institution. (Policy Brief Series No. 160).
Retrieved from: http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/03globalgovernance_caprara.aspx
Abstract:  As policy-makers search for ways to share the best of America with the world, they should start with our international volunteers, who embody this country's spirit of generosity, resourcefulness and hope. With the support of Congress and the Bush Administration, volunteers can become the first face of America to communities in many nations, while advancing concrete initiatives that lift up the lives of the poor throughout the world. To maximize the potential of international volunteering, we propose that Congress establish a program of Global Service Fellowships to support American volunteers- nominated by congressional members — serving abroad with qualifying nongovernmental organizations, faith-based groups, and universities that are committed to advancing peace and development. Initial funding of $50 million would support approximately 10,000 fellowships annually averaging $5,000 each to pay for volunteers' travel, program costs, and minimal living expense. In addition, Congress and the White House should work together to double the Peace Corps, authorize and provide support to Volunteers for Prosperity, and increase support of other efforts inside and outside government to enable global service and assess its impact. These efforts will empower a growing coalition of international volunteering organizations to help reach the goal of 100,000 Americans serving in developing countries each year.
Carey, K. J.   (2007).   The shifting character of social and ethnic identity among African-American sojourners.   (Doctoral dissertation, Howard University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3283227).
Abstract:  This dissertation is an exploratory, qualitative study that examines how the varying experiences among African-American sojourners play a role in how a African American on the micro or individual level, personally defines her/his blackness. It is hypothesized that African Americans who live and work outside of the United States will have a definition of identity that is reflective of that experience. Two African Americans who were have lived overseas for a minimum time period of one (1) year because of a work assignment or study abroad recruited to participate in this study. The findings reveal that there is a continuum of blackness where African-American life and culture and mainstream American life and culture are positioned on opposite ends and the African American slides on this continuum depending on her/his life experiences. The respondents for the grounded theory study uncovered the identity biography, which illustrates an individual's movement along this continuum in her/his lifetime. The study discusses the notion of identity and its applicability to the Black experience. It argues for the need to utilize the Afrocentric metatheory as a means of tailoring concepts constructs and ideas to fit the historical and cultural perspective of Blacks of the African Diaspora. The research findings postulate the identity biography as a tool for illustrating the evolution of identity. The introduction of the identity biography challenges the notion of collective identity. The interactive nature of the identity biography addresses that Blacks in America may have a social, interpersonal, intracultural connection to one another; however there can be no pre-determined set of factors or characteristics that will define them collectively.
Carlson, S.   (2007, June 1).   A global approach to engineering: Universities push their future engineers to study abroad, with limited success.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(39), A33.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i39/39a03301.htm
Carter, K. A.   (2006).   Did we make a difference? Contributors to Intercultural sensitivity development in undergraduate students.   (Doctoral dissertation, Loyola University Chicago). Available at ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3243400).
Casteen, L. D.   (2006).   Immersion and reentry: The undergraduate experience of foreign study.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Virginia). Avaialble from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3218423).
Abstract:  International education, an arguably marginalized educational priority since the initial fervor of the post-Cold War era, is once again in the spotlight. Colleges and universities are focusing on the value of international education to prepare global citizens. Politicians have also begun to look to colleges to assist with issues of national security and international diplomacy through international education. Cultural competence and proficiency in multiple languages are now near-universally viewed as critical components of the development of young American students. Study abroad is one of the major vehicles in this process. However, the total percentage of American college students participating in study abroad is extremely low (often said to be below 1%). Experts argue that in order for students to maximize the educational, cultural and language-learning benefits of a foreign study experience, immersion in the host culture is critical. Students are encouraged to sustain long-term immersion for optimal gain. Less often discussed in relation to foreign study is the common phenomenon of reverse culture shock in which students experience a range of transitional difficulties upon reentry, ranging from mild to severe. This study addresses the ways in which immersion and reentry relate to one another, and what additional factors, such as age, sex, communication with home contacts and others, relate to students' levels of immersion and experiences of reverse culture shock, and includes a discussion of effective efforts to mitigate challenges.
Center for Arts and Culture   (2004).   Cultural diplomacy: Recommendations and research.   Center for Arts and Culture.
Retrieved from: www.culturalpolicy.org
Chieffo, L. P., & Griffiths, L.   (2004).   Short-term study abroad: It makes a difference!.   IIENetworker, Spring, 28-32.
Retrieved from: http://international.udel.edu/studyabroad/assessment/Short-Term-IIE-Networker.pdf
Abstract:  One institution compares hundreds of students who have participated in short-term programs abroad with their peers who remained on campus. Results of te study confirm long-held beliefs and reveal much about what students think they learn in a mont.
Childress, L. K.   (2009).   Planning for internationalization by investing in faculty.   Journal of International and Global Studies, 1(1), 30-49.
Retrieved from: http://www.lindenwood.edu/jigs/docs/volume1Issue1/essays/30-49.pdf
Abstract:  Over the last half century, major world events have prompted higher education institutions to develop internationalization plans. In order engage faculty in internationalization, higher education scholars and practitioners have recommended that internationalization plans include allocated resources, such as budgets for academic exchanges, faculty development workshops, and international curricular development and research grants (Olson, Green, & Hill, 2006; Paige, 2005; Siaya & Hayward, 2003). Yet, a frequently cited obstacle to faculty engagement in internationalization plans is lack of funding (Backman, 1984; Bond, 2003; Ellingboe, 1998; Green & Olson, 2003; Steers & Ungsen, 1992; Woolston, 1983). A cross-case analysis reveals that differential investment leads to faculty engagement in internationalization plans. This article discusses how two institutions developed funds from a variety of sources and institutional levels to engage faculty in an institutional planning process. This study offers implications for institutional planning, resource dependency theory, and internationalization.
Chin, H. K.   (2006).   The new landscape of international student mobility.   International Higher Education, 43, 9-10.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Chow, P., & Chambers, J.   (2010).   International enrollments in the United States.   International Higher Education, 59, 17.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2010.html
Chow, P., & Marcus, R.   (2009).   International students in the United States.   International Higher Education, 55, 12.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2009.html
Christophi, V., & Thompson, C. L.   (2007).   You cannot go home again: A phenomenological investigation of returning to the sojourn country after studying abroad.   Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(Winter), 53-63.
Abstract:  The goal of the present study was to describe the structure of the experience of individuals who returned home after studying abroad, became disillusioned with their home country, and returned to their sojourn country. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants. The emerging bipolar themes of conflict/peace, reality/idealization, freedom/restriction, changing/static, and comfort/discomfort were grounded in the theme of cultural comparison. Implications for counseling those who study abroad are included.
Clark, J. B.   (2006, Feb.).   Smart ways to study abroad.   Kiplingers, 91-92.
Abstract:  Our crash course in paying for a student's stay overseas, from tuition to cell phone.
Clarke, V.   (2004).   Students' global awareness and attitudes to internationalism in a world of cultural convergence.   Journal of Research in International Education, 3(1), 57-70.
Abstract:  This study is an investigation of the degree to which students possess the attitudes and beliefs for living in a world where national cultures are converging and civilization is becoming more international. It surveyed a sample of 701 college students to ascertain their global awareness and attitudes to internationalism. The research found that students had average levels of global awareness, and mixed beliefs about the United States' involvement with other countries. The study postulated that international education will be the norm in the future.
Coalition for International Education   (2006).   Statement for the national academy of sciences on the higher education act, title VI, and the mutual educational and cultural exchange act, section 102(b)(6), international education and foreign language studies.   Coalition for International Education.
Coffman, J., & Brennan, K.   (2006).   African studies abroad: Meaning and impact of America's burgeoning export industry.   Frontiers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 9, 139-147.
Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L.   (2007).   Acquisition of requests and apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of study abroad and strategy-building intervention.   The Modern Language Journal, 91(2), 189-212.
Abstract:  The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture strategies, which included strategies for learning speech acts, and electronic journaling by the students. The study used an experimental design in which the participants, all university students (N = 86) who spent 1 semester abroad in a Spanish- or a French-speaking country, were randomly assigned to an experimental (E) group (N= 42) or to a control (C) group (N= 44). The findings indicated that the students as a whole improved their request and apology performance over the course of 1 semester, as rated by the Spanish and French native speakers. In addition, whereas there were no statistically significant differences between the E and C groups in their rated speech act performance overall, a qualitative analysis of speech act development among learners of Spanish (N= 67) helped to identify areas in which their performance on requests and apologies either resembled that of native speakers or diverged from it. Although fewer students than native speakers used the "query preparatory with verbal downgrading," there appeared to be some increase in the use of this strategy by study-abroad students from pre- to posttest, especially among the E group students, perhaps suggesting that for some of these students awareness about mitigating requests was enhanced by the treatment. In making apologies, not as many study-abroad students intensified their apologies in instances where native speakers tended to do so. Likewise, the percentage of study-abroad students who acknowledged responsibility for certain infractions tended to be lower than that of the native speakers, suggesting that these nonnative speakers were unaware of sociopragmatic norms for what might be expected in such situations.
Coimbra Group Executive Board   (2009).   Position paper: The Coimbra Group and European higher education after Bologna 2010.   Brussels: The Coimbra Group.
Abstract:  The Coimbra Group Universities have enthusiastically embraced the Bologna Process, as they appreciated the added value of increased transnational transparency. With the present position paper they point towards a number of critical issues that need follow-up in the years to come. They recommend a shift in attention from structures to contents, and encourage the Ministers of Education to take concrete measures to ensure that the degrees within the Bologna structure are based on internationally comparable learning outcomes. Alternative learning paths have to lead to certificates with titles that differ from those of the standard Bologna degrees. Moreover they recommend that more transparency is introduced in institutional diversity, genuine support to mobility and permanent attention to the societal role of universities. They are confident that internationally attractive and competitive universities will emerge from the present process, ready to face the challenges of a globalising world.
Comission of the European Communities   (2008).   Progress towards the Lisbon objectives in education and training: Indicators and benchmarks, 2008.   Brussels: Comission of the European Communities.
Abstract:  The purpose of this report is to provide strategic guidance for the Education and Training 2010 Work Programme on the basis of indicators, benchmarks and research results. The report sets out progress towards the objectives agreed by the Council. The Progress Reports for 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 were able to give more and more detailed analysis of performance and progress as data and research material became available.
Comission of the European Communities   (2009).   Green paper: Promoting the learning ability of young people.   Brussels: Comission of the European Communities.
Abstract:  The Green Paper is structured in three sections. Section 1 deals with issues regarding the preparation of a mobility period, i.e. information, motivation, linguistic preparation etc. Section 2 deals with the actual period spent abroad (including housing and mentoring issues) and examines the follow-up to a mobility period, such as validation and recognition of the experience. Section 3 presents proposals for a new partnership on youth mobility.
Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program   (2005).   Global competence & national needs: One million Americans studying abroad.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Commonwealth of Australia   (2010).   Stronger, simpler, smarter ESOS: supporting international students - Review of the Education Services for Overseas Students (ESOS) Act 2000.   Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Abstract:  This review examined what changes need to be made to ESOS, the legal framework for the delivery of education to overseas students in Australia, to ensure Australia continues to offer world-class quality, international education.
Comp, D.   (2008).   U.S. heritage-seeking students discover minority communities in Western Europe.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(1), 29-37.
Abstract:  This research article examines quantitative data relevant to an increasingly multiethnic Western Europe and investigates European opportunities for U.S. minority heritage-seeking students. In addition to analyzing the demographic data of Western Europe, a review of U.S. higher education enrollment demographics derived from current national education statistics as well as a look at the racial and ethnic makeup of U.S. students studying abroad is conducted.
Comp, D.   (2010, Mar.).   U.S. students studying abroad and U.S. public diplomacy efforts: A historical review.   Paper presented at the Comparative & International Education Society 2010 Annual Conference, Chicago, IL.
Abstract:  My thesis is that the United States Government is acutely aware of the impact that international students have on the United States while studying here and is optimistic that these students will apply democratic principles and systems upon return to their home countries. Additionally, the United States government has been very supportive of sending a growing number of United States students to study abroad each year. This research examines the international education policy of the United States since the 1930's and the efforts taken to send more United States students abroad. The objective is to determine the effectiveness of funding/sending students abroad towards the public diplomacy goals and efforts of the United States.
Connell, C.   (2004).   Internationalizing the campus 2004: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Connell, C.   (2005).   Internationalizing the campus 2005: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Connell, C.   (2006).   Internationalizing the campus 2006: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Connell, C.   (2006).   Passport to Education.   International Educator, 15(1), 44-51.
Abstract:  Lengthy article about education abroad at Colgate University.
Connell, C.   (2007).   Internationalizing the campus 2007: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Connell, C.   (2008).   Internationalizing the campus 2008: Profiles of success at colleges and universities.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Conway, C.   (2004).   An economic development perspective on education abroad.   International Educator, 13(2), 34-35.
Cooper, A. F.   (2007).   Celebrity diplomacy and the G8: Bono and Bob as legitimate international actors.   The Center for International Governance Innovation.
Retrieved from: http://www.cigionline.org/publications/2007/9/celebrity-diplomacy-and-g8-bono-and-bob-legitimate-international-actors
Abstract:  The last decade has seen an increased accumulation of media snapshots of celebrity activism on the international stage, to a point where world leaders scramble to get access to figures like Bono and Bob Geldof. This paper argues that the global capabilities of celebrity diplomats should not be undervalued or dismissed. Where traditional sites of statecraft, such as the Group of Eight (G8), face a myriad of challenges of legitimacy and efficiency, a new type of transnational advocate has surfaced-one in which movie stars, musicians, and CEOs have eased into quite dramatically. Their ability to gain extended face-time with prominent national leaders, while their message is heard at both the mass and elite level means that they are engaging in the kind of widespread communication that underpins successful diplomacy. This paper demonstrates that above all others, Bono and Bob Geldof have become significant, ascendant diplomatic actors in a global system that is open to their inclusion in ways that very few would have anticipated.
Cossolotto, M.   (2009, Sept.).   An urgent call to action for study abroad alumni to help reduce our global awareness deficit.   Presentation at the Wisconsin Study Abroad Reentry Conference, Milwaukee, WI.
Retrieved from: http://www.thepodiumpro.com/uploads/GlobalizeYourLocality_Keynote-Cossolotto-VitalSpeeches.pdf
Council for International Exchange of Scholars   (2009).   The Fulbright scholars program: Building international connections for U.S. universities.   Washington, DC: Council for International Exchange of Scholars.
Abstract:  This executive summary is adapted from a report prepared by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, January 2009.
Council of Chief State School Officers   (2006).   Global education policy statement.   Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.
Council of Graduate Schools   (2009).   Findings from the 2009 international graduate admissions survey: Phase II: Final applications and initial offers of admission.   Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools: Research Report.
Retrieved from: http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/R_IntlAdm09_II.pdf
Council of Graduate Schools   (2010).   Findings from the 2010 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey: Phase I: Applications.   Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools: Research Report.
Retrieved from: http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/R_IntlApps10_I.pdf
Abstract:  This is the first of a three phase survey of CGS member institutions giving an initial snapshot of applications to US graduate schools from prospective international students.
Crossman, J., & Bordia, S.   (2008).   Emerging issues in international education in business contexts.   Journal of International Education in Business, 1(1), 2-14.
Retrieved from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1896625&show=html
Abstract:  This paper identifies and explores some of the emerging research topics that assist in conceptualising and mapping the field of international education in business. The identified issues include the commercialisation of international education, the role of institutional promises in creating student expectations, student satisfaction, developing international and cultural leadership, cultural identity and adaptation in the new socio-educational context as well as teaching with spirit and about spiritual issues. These diverse agendas illustrate the broad and inter-disciplinary nature of the subject matter particularly where issues surrounding international education in business are approached holistically.
Crossman, J.E., & Clarke, M.   (2009).   International experience and graduate employability: stakeholder perceptions on the connection.   Higher Education, 59(5), 599-613.
Abstract:  This paper reports the findings of an Australian qualitative study (N = 45) concerned with the way that employers, academics and students perceived connections between international experience and graduate employability. Drawing on the literature, the authors argue that increasing globalisation and internationalisation has heightened the need for graduates with the ability to operate in culturally diverse contexts. Universities have focussed upon exchange as part of internationalisation to prepare students for work but there is still limited literature on the nature of the relationship between international experience, more broadly and graduate employability. The findings suggest that all stakeholders identify clear connections between international experience and employability given outcomes associated with the forging of networks, opportunities for experiential learning, language acquisition and the development of soft skills related to cultural understandings, personal characteristics and ways of thinking.
Cummings, W., & Bain, O.   (2006).   Where are international students going?.   International Higher Education, 43, 11.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Curran, S. J.   (2007).   The career value of education abroad.   International Educator, Nov./Dec., 48-52.
Abstract:  Many study abroad offices actively promote the career benefits of an international education. Unfortunately, these benefits do not happen simply by getting on a plane and landing in a different country. Students have to work for them. Putting study abroad on a resume will usually attract an employer's attention. But only an interview will determine whether the employer sees the student's experience as a career boost or a career bust.
Daddi, K. M., & Zhu, H.   (2009).   Towards a sustainable counterbalanced development: Educational cooperation between China and African countries.   Changchun, China: Northeast Normal University.
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED505350&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED505350
Abstract:  In the last half a century an extensive cooperation between China and African countries have been launched, of which exchange and cooperation in education is one of the most important forms. In this aspect, China has played an important role in student exchange and education programs for African educational officials. However, African countries were limited in providing logistics in this cooperation of boosting human resource development. African-Chinese educational cooperation was mainly presented as Africans coming to China. In order to construct a sustainable mechanism of cooperation in both sides, it is imperative to complement the economic disparity and counterbalance the exchange by sending Chinese to Africa. Besides these the paper has also investigated the drives behind Chinese will to host these programs.
Daniel, D., & Kent, J.   (2009).   The graduate international collaborations project: A North American perspective on joint and dual degree programs.   Communicator, 42(8)(October).
Abstract:  The internationalization of higher education is a fast growing phenomenon. Evidence of this growth abounds: over the past decade, the number of students studying outside their home countries has been growing dramatically, as has global competition for those students; across Europe, massive reforms such as the Bologna Process have promoted greater comparability among European higher educational systems and greater mobility of talent; and universities from around the world are now moving quickly to develop new international collaborative degree programs and exchanges at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Such rapid changes bring opportunities as well as challenges for university leaders and researchers in the US who strive to make strategic choices for current and prospective students.
Darcy, S.   (2006).   Setting a research agenda for accessible tourism.   Australia: CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Davidson, D. E.   (2007).   Study abroad and outcome measurements: The case of Russian.   The Modern Language Journal, 91, 276-280.
Abstract:  The present article examines the impact of Russian study abroad on second language learning outcomes by comparing the input and output data expressed in terms of the widely used American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) proficiency scale for listening, reading, and speaking.
Davidson, D.E.   (2004).   Capabilities & outputs of the U.S. education system: Proficiency outputs.   American Councils on International Education (ACTR).
Abstract:  The present report is part of the Predictors series and presents the results of the most recent analysis of the ACTR (American Council of Teachers of Russian) student records database on university-level students studying advanced Russian for a summer, semester, or academic year at one of three university centers in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Vladimir. This information may serve as baseline data for the comparison and assessment of language gain outcomes from study abroad for programs of varying duration and for students of varying initial levels of functional proficiency.
De Wit, H.   (2007).   Ten years of editorial policy of the Journal of Studies in International Education: Overview, challenges, and opportunities.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 251-259.
De Wit, H.   (2010).   Trends and issues in student mobility.   International Higher Education, 59, 13-14.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2010.html
Deal, B.   (2005).   Study abroad: Take the plunge.   Foreign Service Journal, December.
Abstract:  In some ways, a semester abroad is like an extended vacation. But for some students, it's an experience that encompasses much more.
Deardorff, D. K.   (2004).   The identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States.   International Educator, May/June, 26-31.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/InternationalEducator/LogicMayJune05.pdf
Deardorff, D. K.   (2005).   A matter of logic: Using a programs logic model, institutions of higher education can determine outcomes of internationalization efforts in a meaningful way.   International Educator, May/June, 26-31.
Deardorff, D. K.   (2006).   Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome ofiInternationalization.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266.
Abstract:  This study seeks to determine a definition and appropriate assessment methods of inter-cultural competence as agreed on by a panel of internationally known intercultural scholars. This information is validated by a sample of higher education administrators and can be used by administrators in identifying and assessing intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization efforts. Conclusions made from this study include identified elements of intercultural competence and assessment methods on which both the intercultural scholars and administrators agreed, resulting in the first study to document consensus on intercultural competence. Both groups agree that it is possible to assess degrees of intercultural competence and in so doing, that it is best to use a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess intercultural competence, including interviews, observation, and judgment by self and others. Two models of inter-cultural competence are presented based on the findings of the study.
Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute   (2005, Feb.).   A call to action for national foreign langauge capabilities.   Conference proceedings from The National Language Conference.
Retrieved from: http://www.deomi.org/CulturalReadiness/documents/White_Paper_National_Foreign_Language_Capabilities.pdf
DeRomana, I., & Stevens, T. C.   (2005).   Crime and incident reporting: Best practices.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_last_call_for_us_students.asphttp://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_crime_and_incident_reporting.asp
Dessoff, A.   (2006).   Quality and cost in education abroad : Balancing act.   International Educator, Jul/Aug.
Dessoff, A.   (2006).   Who's not going abroad?.   International Educator, Mar.-Apr..
Abstract:  For a wide variety of physical, social economic, cultural, and academic reasons, certain populations in U.S. higher education tend to be underrepresented in education abroad programs. But, many educators in the field are working diligently to open up these important educational opportunities to more students.
Dessoff, A.   (2010).   The rise of senior international officers.   International Education, Jan./Feb., 45-49.
Abstract:  The emergence of the role of senior international officer (SIO) at colleges and universities across the United States underscores the growing emphasis that institutions, both public and private, are placing on internationalization. Although titles for the position vary from one campus to another, the basic concept is the same: an individual at a high level of institutional leadership who heads an office dedicated to internationalizing the broad scope of the institution's programs and activities.
Dewey, P., & Duff, S.   (2009).   Reason before passion: Faculty views on internationalization in higher education.   Higher Education, 58, 491-504.
Abstract:  In this era of globalization, internationalization—both as an idea and an agenda—is receiving widespread attention at academic institutions across North America. Although faculty are necessarily key participants in initiatives to internationalize academia, surprisingly little work has been published that addresses the roles, responsibilities, and problems faced by the faculty on an operational level. This article has been written to provide administrators with some insight into faculty perspectives on the goals, strategies, and processes of internationalization. The authors present a case study of internationalization processes currently underway in the School of Architecture and Allied Arts at the University of Oregon. They discuss a faculty-driven approach that focused on mapping internationalization, addressing barriers to internationalization, and improving structures and systems to enhance internationalization. An in-depth critical analysis of the case leads to recommendations and a framework for navigating diverse tensions and responsibilities implicit in an internationalization imperative.
Díaz-Campos, M.   (2006).   The effect of style in second language phonology: An analysis of segmental acquisition in study abroad and regular-classroom students.   Paper presented at the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, Somerville, MA.
Retrieved from: http://www.lingref.com/cpp/casp/7/abstract1272.html
DiBiasio, D., & Jiusto, S.   (2005).   Nontraditional learning environments: Do they prepare our students for life-long learning?.   Paper presented at the ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Portland, OR.
Dings, A.   (2007).   Developing interactional competence in a second language: A case study of a Spanish language learner.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3271373).
Abstract:  This study analyzes the development of Interactional Competence by a learner of Spanish in the study abroad context. The data are derived from six conversations between the learner and a native speaker of Spanish filmed over the course of the learner's academic year abroad. The analysis of the data consist of two main foci: analysis of the learner's displayed skills in speaker selection, alignment activity, and topic management, and how those skills evolved over the course of the year abroad; and analysis of the roles that the learner and the native speaker play in co-construction, again examining how those roles evolved over time. The learner's level of development at the beginning of the year abroad in the three categories of interactional resources analyzed showed already relatively strong skills in speaker selection and nascent or undeveloped skills in alignment activity and topic management. By the end of her stay abroad, she showed stronger skills in both speaker selection and alignment activity, and improved though still limited skill in topic management. The learner's development in these interactional resources is viewed as evidence of improvement in Interactional Competence. Examination of the roles the interactants assumed revealed orientation to the novice/expert paradigm, as evidenced by their discussion of language learning and by the prevalence of repair. In their discussions, the interactants propose an engagement in which the learner can participate in concert with an expert but with limited responsibility and available support. Over the course of the year, both of the interactants initiated repair less frequently, especially in terms of form-focused versus meaning-based repair. Orientation to the novice/expert dynamic and movement away from this dynamic over time was viewed as evidence of the learner's trajectory from peripheral towards full participation in interaction. In addition, the learner's movement towards fuller participation in the interaction was displayed in her greater activity in co-construction while the native speaker held the floor, especially in terms of alignment activity. This research helps characterize and develop the notion of interactional competence and provides insights into facets of the development of the learner's interactional competence in the study abroad setting.
Dirkx, J. M., Jessup Anger, J. E., Brender, J. R., Gwekwerere, B., & Smith, R. O.   (2006).   Beyond culture shock: The meaning of affect and emotions in international educational experience.   In Isaac, E. P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 midwest research to practice conference in adult, continuing, extension and community education (pp. 43- 48). St. Louis: University of Missouri - St. Louis..
Abstract:  Short-term study abroad has become an increasing feature of graduate programs in adult and higher education. Their educative value, however in professional preparation remains unclear. Explores the meaning of emotional experiences in study abroad and their contribution to self-formative processes in professional preparation.
Dolby, N.   (2004).   Encountering an American self: Study abroad and national identity.   Comparative Education Review, 48(2), 150.
Abstract:  American undergraduates are often enticed to study abroad by the promise that they will have the experience of a lifetime and the experience of the world. For example, one American university attracts participants by claiming that "studying abroad promotes cross-cultural understanding," broadens your worldview, and prepares you for your future. Another university promises that "overseas study is the most effective and dramatic experience you can have to broaden your international and intercultural awareness." Encountering another world, immersing oneself in the daily practices of other people, sometimes living and speaking in another language, and learning how others view the world are all touted as the benefits of studying abroad. However, it is also evident, as Brown University's Office of International Program's suggests, that study abroad provides the opportunity to reflect on "the awareness of the values and way of life of your own country, your own place in that country, and its place in the world." Thus, study abroad provides not only the possibility of encountering the world, but of encountering oneself--particularly one's national identity--in a context that may stimulate new questions and new formulations of that self. This article examines the study abroad experiences of a group of American undergraduates enrolled at a large research university in the Midwest. It discusses the ways that these students negotiate an "American" identity within the context of their study abroad experiences in Australia in 2001. It also argues that this "encounter with an American self" is the most significant component of these students' experiences in Australia.
Dolby, N.   (2005).   Globalisation, identity, and nation: Australian and American undergraduates abroad.   Australian Educational Researcher, 32(1), 101-118.
Abstract:  This essay explores how two groups of undergraduates, Americans and Australians, participate in the reformulation of the "global imagination" through their experiences of studying abroad. It questions the assumption that the global imagination constitutes one shared, common experience that is the same across nations. In contrast, it demonstrates that though American and Australian students are certainly among the elite in global terms, their shared economic position does not necessarily correspond to a common global imagination. Instead, they have markedly different notions of both national and global identities. American students' strong national identity often prevents them from exploring the possibilities of global affiliation. Australian students' relatively weak national identity allows for a robust global sense of place, but is sometimes constrained by a limited tolerance for racial and ethnic diversity. In conclusion, it argues that the global imagination has not one, but numerous manifestations, which have the potential to both enable and constrain the enhancement of justice and democracy in a global context.
Dolby, N.   (2007).   Reflections on nation: American undergraduates and education abroad.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 141-156.
Abstract:  Study abroad is increasingly a key component of U.S. universities' efforts to both create and solidify their commitments to international education. This article specifically examines how American undergraduates negotiate their national identity in the context of studying abroad. Although universities often promote study abroad through paradigms that emphasize global awareness, national sentiments and identity are still fundamental elements of how Americans see and position themselves in the world, particularly in the post-September 11 context. Drawing on Craig Calhoun's scholarship on national identity, the author argues that students negotiate a middle path between what he terms a "thin" (cosmopolitan) and a "thick" (ethnocentric) sense of national identity. In conclusion, the author suggests that although global awareness is a broad and often nebulous pedagogical goal of study abroad, critical reflection on national identity is both obtainable and an important step toward global citizenship.
Domville-Roach, E.   (2007).   A comparative study of international and American study abroad students' expectations and experiences with host countries.   (Doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3256787).
Abstract:  This was a comparative study of international and American study abroad students' experiences and expectations with the host countries. The rationale for this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of different experiences of students who study abroad and to understand whether their expectations of the host country have an impact on their experiences. An opportunity sample of American study abroad and international students was selected from the United States student population and their expectations and experiences of the host country compared. The study addressed 6 research questions, using a mixed-method approach. The principal instrument for the investigation was the Cross-Cultural Participant Questionnaire conducted online.
Douglass, J. A., & Edelstein, R.   (2009, Oct.).   The global competition for talent: The rapidly changing market for international students and the need for a strategic approach in the US.   University of California, Berkeley Center for Studies in Higher Education Research & Occasional Paper Series, 8(09).
Abstract:  There is growing evidence that students throughout the world no longer see the US as the primary place to study; that in some form this correlates with a rise in perceived quality and prestige in the EU and elsewhere; and further, that this may mean a continued decline in the US's market share of international students. There clearly are a complex set of variables that will influence international education and global labor markets, including the current global economic recession. Ultimately, however, we think these factors will not alter the fundamental dynamics of the new global market, which include these facts: the international flow of talent, scientific or otherwise, is being fundamentally altered as nations invest more in educational attainment and human capital; the US will continue to lose some of its market share over time — the only question is how quickly and by how much; and without a proactive strategy, nations such as the US that are highly dependent on global in-migration of talented students and professionals are most vulnerable to downward access to global talent, with a potentially significant impact on future economic growth. This study provides data on past and recent global trends in international enrollment, and offers a set of policy recommendations for the US at the federal, state, and institutional level. This includes our recommendation of a national goal to double the number of international students in the US over the next decade to match numbers in a group of competitor nations, and requires recognition that the US will need to strategically expand its enrollment capacity and graduation rates to accommodate needed increases in the educational attainment rate of US citizens, and to welcome more international students. Attracting talent in a global market and increasing degree attainment rates of the domestic population are not mutually exclusive goals. Indeed, they will be the hallmarks of the most competitive economies.
Douglass, J. A., & Edelstein, R.   (2010).   The global market for international students: An American perspective.   International Higher Education, 59, 15-16.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2010.html
Downey, N.   (2004).   Culture and civilization courses in education abroad.   International Educator, 13(1), 42-43.
Drake Gobbo, L., Forward, M. L., & Lorenz, R.   (2005).   Opportunity, not threat: Dealing with anti-Americanism abroad.   International Educator, 14(1), 18-25.
Drexler, D. S.   (2006).   Student perceptions on self-development variables in selected community college study abroad programs: A quantitative study using Chickering's theory of student development.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3248967).
Abstract:  This research study explored how American undergraduate students perceive their own self-development changes before and after participation in their community college, or community college affiliated study abroad program. In order to achieve this purpose, the focus of this study was on Chickering's Theory of Student Development and the environmental variables that undoubtedly influence student development abroad. The statistical analysis component addressed three research questions to substantiate the research hypothesis.
Du, Fang   (2007).   Self-authorship as a learning outcome of study abroad: Towards a new approach for examining learning and learning conditions.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3273127).
Abstract:  This study examines the learning outcomes of study abroad and the conditions that foster those outcomes. It uses self-authorship, a theory that encompasses the interpersonal, intrapersonal and epistemological developmental domains, and its affiliated learning partnership model, as the theoretical framework.
Durbin, R. J.   (2006).   The Lincoln Commission and the future of study abroad.   International Educator, 15(1), 4-6.
Durden, W. G.   (2005, Oct.).   Dickinson College as a model for study abroad in American higher education: a comprehensive presentation.   Keynote Paper presented of the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program.
Durrant, M. B., & Dorius, C. R.   (2007).   Study abroad survey instruments: A comparison of survey types and experiences.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 33-53.
Abstract:  This study examines different survey instruments used to assess the experiences of U.S. study abroad participants. The intended audience is international and area study practitioners interested in assessing study abroad programs through postprogram interviews. An interview with the top 20 universities for number of students sent on study abroad reveals a broad picture of the type of survey instruments used across the United States to assess student experiences. Within this context and based on 19 years of data collection from study abroad participants with four data collection modes (a standard questionnaire with multiple choice and open-ended questions, a multiple choice bubble sheet response format, a scanned form, and a Web-based survey), one university's experience is analyzed in depth to expand on the benefits and drawbacks of specific survey types. Lessons learned about when each type might be appropriate for different institutional goals and situations are presented.
Dwyer, M. M.   (2004).   Charting the impact of studying abroad.   International Educator, 13(1), 14-20.
Dwyer, M. M., & Peters, C. K.   (2004).   The benefits of study abroad.   Chicago: IES Abroad.
Retrieved from: https://www.iesabroad.org/IES/About_IES/IES_News/Articles/newsArticle0010.html
Abstract:  The first large-scale survey to explore the long-term impact of study abroad on a student's personal, professional, and academic life shows that study abroad positively and unequivocally influences the career path, world-view, and self-confidence of students.
Eastwood, B. M.   (2007).   A note on the new face of citizen diplomacy: education city and American universities in the Middle East.   American Foreign Policy Interests, 29(6), 443-449 (doi: 10.1080/10803920701777010).
Retrieved from: http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/421960_918974314_788492858.pdf
Eaton, J. S.   (2005).   Quality and an international higher education space.   International Educator, 14(5), 57-59.
Edelson, D.   (2006).   Public universities praise study abroad bill.   Washington, DC: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.
Abstract:  Goal to increase participation to 1 million students studying abroad per year
Edwards, J.   (2007).   Challenges and opportunities for the internationalization of higher education in the coming decade: Planned and opportunistic initiatives in American institutions.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 373-381.
Abstract:  In recent years, education systems around the world have shown a tendency for convergence on the American educational model. This, together with an increase in the use of English globally, places American educational institutions in a position of great importance as actors in international exchange. For potential partner institutions in other countries the process of internationalization followed by a U.S. institution has important implications. This article explores the contrasting opportunistic and planned approaches followed by Harvard University and Yale University and discusses some of the implications of these two planning models for the nature of campus internationalization and for negotiation with institutions in other countries.
Edwards, J. D., et al   (2008).   National language policies: Pragmatism, process, and products.   The NECTFL Review, 63(Fall/Winter).
Abstract:  The following article with its accompanying overview and bibliography provide a comprehensive examination of major national language policies in the United States since 1979. The article discusses the policy process at the federal level and provides information about significant policies created since the 1979 President's Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies (PCFLIS). The overview briefly discusses specific important policies, programs, legislation, studies, and conferences/meetings of note regarding foreign languages since World War II. The bibliography inventories articles, books, hearings, legislative report language, studies, and proceedings dealing primarily with language policies and policy studies rather than academic or scholarly materials. The article, overview, and bibliography are attempts to provide background and understanding for those who would address and change current policies or attempt to develop new policies. It is hoped that these materials will help to set the stage and provide valuable information and insight for the discussion, planning, development, and implementation of future policies for our nation, our citizens, and our students.
Egan, S.   (2007, Dec. 5).   Junior fear abroad.   The New York Times.
Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/05/opinion/05egan.html
Egginton, E.   (2007, Sept. 24).   It's time to open the door more widely.   Las Cruces Sun News.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/press_releases.sec/press_releases.pg/egginoped0907/
Abstract:  At one time, our great nation welcomed the world's "poor, tired and huddled masses." At one time, we accepted boatloads, planeloads and carloads of refugees from Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere, promising them new lives. Much of this has changed since the events of Sept. 11, 2001. While overall immigration policies can be discussed in another article, I want to focus on the huge mistake we are making with our policies that, in effect, tell some foreign students we don't want them.
Ejiofo, L.   (2010).   The experiences of international students in a predominantly white American university.   (Master's thesis, University of Nebraska). Available from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Digital Commons.
Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cehsedaddiss/22/
Abstract:  This qualitative study was conducted with eight international students from different countries in a predominantly white university in the Midwestern part of the United States. The participants were interviewed from a semistructured questionnaire. From this interview three major themes were formed namely: (a) Here is different; here is not home, (b) There are differences in culture; and (c) The strong effect of cultural differences. The experiences of the international students in a predominantly white university is an honest effort to expose the challenges of international students in the wake of 9/11 while giving suggestions on how international students can be helped to integrate better into white universities in order to insure greater persistence and success of students in the United States universities. The suggestions given in this work will help American higher educational institutions in the wake of global educational market to serve international students better.
Engle, J.   (2006).   Culture's unacknowledged iron grip.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(22), B16.
Ericksen, N., & Larsen, D.   (2007).   NAFSA Career Development Resources (CDR) Taskforce final report.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  The following report includes background on the taskforce efforts, a summary of findings and recommendations, and preliminary comments on a summer 2007 web-based survey completed by 37 Career Development and Education Abroad leaders. The report reviews the initial charge of the NAFSA Career Development Resources (CDR) Taskforce, issues considered and addressed by the taskforce, and results presented in the form of findings, policy recommendations, and potential outcomes of the taskforce efforts. A summary of the survey results comprises Appendix 1. The results indicate wide information and communication gaps between Education Abroad, Career Offices, International Education organizations, and global workforce organizations, and numerous opportunities to reduce these gaps.
Ermer, S. M.   (2006).   Development, implementation, and evaluation of an overseas program on environmental education for teachers.   (Master's thesis , University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point).
Retrieved from: http://epapers.uwsp.edu/thesis/2006/ermer.pdf
Abstract:  In 2002, a survey was given to 200 teachers who were enrolled in or who had completed the Extended Master of Science in Natural Resources/Environmental Education for Elementary and Secondary Teachers Program at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (UW-SP). In the survey, it was found that teachers were interested in an optional overseas component to this graduate degree program. As a result, a cooperative agreement between the Global Environmental Management (GEM) Program and Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education (WCEE) at UW-SP was formed and an overseas program in Puerto Rico was designed. This study documents the development, implementation, and evaluation for an overseas study program on environmental education for teachers. Research indicates that "when study abroad programs employ experiences that are carefully matched with participants' needs, goals, and expectations, the results can be life-changing" (Citron & Kline, 2001). Using experience overseas and the power of the internet, a hybrid course model was designed for the delivery of a three-credit graduate course in environmental education for teachers. This involved 11 participants who completed a one-month online course prior to a travel component in Puerto Rico. Eight teachers from Puerto Rico joined the Wisconsin teachers for the two-week study tour on island ecology and environmental education. A ten-month comprehensive evaluation using qualitative and quantitative research methods reveals the changes Wisconsin participants underwent during the experience. This study researches and outlines the appropriate steps for designing a successful travel program for educators. Not only does it have implications to other environmental or international educators but it will be used as a foundation for future travel courses developed through GEM and the WCEE.
Esptein, J.   (2005).   Last call for U.S. students studying abroad? Continuing concerns about alcohol use and abuse during study abroad.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_last_call_for_us_students.asp
Eurostudent   (2008).   Social and economic conditions of student life in Europe: Eurostudent III 2005-2008.   Hannover: Eurostudent.
Fairchild, S. R., Pillai, V. K., & Noble, C.   (2006).   The impact of a social work study abroad program in Australia on multicultural learning.   International Social Work, 49(3), 390-401.
Abstract:  The purpose of this article is to review the model of community action and social advocacy in social work education in Australia, as well as to assess empirically the impact on multicultural knowledge and awareness among American social work graduate students who participated in a short-termstudy abroad program. In addition, we explore the reaction of social work students to the social activist approach in the Australian social work curriculum.
Farrell, E. F.   (2007, Sep. 19).   Tufts says there's no such thing as a free trip for foreign-study-program officials anymore.   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/article/Tufts-Says-Theres-No-Such/122081/
Abstract:  Traditionally, it has been fairly common for independent companies to pay partial or total travel costs for university employees who visit overseas-study sites. That practice, however, was called into question last month when the New York State attorney general's office issued subpoenas to a handful of colleges and independent study-abroad companies.
Farrell, E. F.   (2007, Sep. 7).   Study abroad blossoms into big business.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(2), A49.
Abstract:  As overseas programs grow in popularity, colleges struggle with cost, quality, and oversight.
Farrell, E. F.   (2007, Sep. 7).   Study-abroad investigation raises alarms.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(2), A1.
Abstract:  Colleges defend practices but rush to make sure arrangements are legal.
Faunce, L.   (2004).   Early study abroad trend indicators.   IIENetworker, Spring, 48-50.
Fernandez, E.   (2006).   Developing a global perspective during a study-term abroad.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan). Available at Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3208455).
Fielden, J.   (2008).   Global horizons for UK universities.   London: The Council for Industry and Higher Education.
Fikes, Jr., R.   (2006).   The black professor abroad: Long-term teaching experiences in foreign lands.  
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED491519&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED491519
Abstract:  The experiences of African American professors reach back nearly 150 years beginning with their pioneering efforts to educate Africans in Liberia. With the gradual racial integration of the American professoriate in the post-World War II era and the redoubled effort of the federal government and private agencies, along with the support of colleges and universities, African Americans too would have opportunities to travel, teach, and study abroad that previously they had rarely enjoyed. Institutional funding, it was thought, would establish ties between Americans and foreigners that could lead to a more peaceful, tolerant, and enlightened world. Not relying on institutional backing, increasingly black professors seeking to expand their horizons with international experiences have through their own initiative found the means to bring their longer term goals to fruition. An impressionistic survey of the variety of their experiences is presented in this paper.
Fincher, R., Carter, P., Tombesi, P., Shaw, K., & Martel, A.   (2009).   Transnational and temporary: Students, community and place-making in central Melbourne.   Melbourne, Austrialia: University of Melbourne Faculty of Architecture, Building & Planning.
Abstract:  The project is motivated by the question of how place-making — the practice of fostering community in place — can be brought about when many people in that community are transnational and/or temporary. The research is innovative in its guiding contention: that public-private interactions, both in built spaces and in social relations, define the experience of place for those who are new to a locality and community, or temporary members of it, more than they do for long-term residents who are settled in their networks of belonging.
Findlay, A. M., & King, R.   (2010).   Motivations and experiences of UK students studying abroad (BIS Research Paper No.8).   Dundee: University of Dundee.
Abstract:  International student mobility, especially diploma mobility (students taking their entire degree outside the UK), has received little attention from researchers. This report summarises the findings of research funded by the UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills aimed at improving understanding of the motivations behind the international diploma mobility of UK students. It also seeks to evaluate the scale and significance of UK international diploma mobility.
Finn, M. G.   (2010).   Stay rates of foreign doctorate recipients from U.S. universities, 2007.   Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education.
Abstract:  This report provides estimates of stay rates for foreign students who received doctorates in science or engineering (S/E) from U.S. universities. For this paper, the stay rate represents the proportion of foreign doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation for any reason and is always specific to a particular year. Each line in the tables that follow describes a different group of these degree recipients.
Fischer, K.   (2008, Jan. 14).   News analysis: What ever happened to the study-abroad investigation?.   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/daily/2008/01/1211n.htm
Abstract:  On the heels of his high-profile investigation into the student-loan business, New York's attorney general, Andrew M. Cuomo, turned his scrutiny last August to the study-abroad industry. He issued subpoenas to five private providers of overseas programs that sought information about their business practices and their financial arrangements with colleges (The Chronicle, August 27, 2007). After a top official in Mr. Cuomo's office told The Chronicle that the inquiry would spread to colleges themselves, many waited for the next shoe to drop.
Fisher, M. J.   (2005, Mar. 28).   Calif. College Ends Study-Abroad Program, Sparks Criticism.   Community College Week.
FitzSimons, K. C.   (2005).   Personal safety workshops: Good opportunity for study abroad students.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_personal_safety_workshops.asp
Forum on Education Abroad   (2004).   Standards of good practice for education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  In 2002, as one of its first acts, The Forum on Education Abroad conducted a membership survey of study abroad professionals to determine the pro­fession's views on establishing standards of good practice. The result, pub­lished and posted on The Forum's web-site for the last two years, showed a strong consensus that education abroad, as a profession, needs clear and comprehensive standards and that The Forum should take the lead in es­tablishing them. This publication of The Forum presents the culmination of our first stage in preparing these comprehensive standards. They have consumed the efforts of volunteer professionals, staff and external consultants for almost two years, and yet we present them still as a "work in progress." We do so because we intend for the "standards" to be seen and used across a wide variety of institutions and program structures internationally.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2005).   A baseline survey of curriculum intergration in education abroad: Analysis of data from The Forum Education Abroad 2003-2004 survey of curricular intergration.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Retrieved from: http://www.forumea.org/documents/SurveyFinal.pdf
Forum on Education Abroad   (2005).   Standards of good practice for education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  This revised set of "Standards" for educa­tion abroad is the product of many minds and hands. It replaces our June 2004 docu­ment of the same name. More than 100 participants at The Forum's annual confer­ence in November 2004 contributed to the thinking and the revising. The Advisory Council's Goals Committee on Standards of Best Practice communicated regularly with their colleagues, in the U.S. and elsewhere, and we received a great deal of comment and advice through our electronic communications. In addition, several organiza­tions have made early use of the document and communi­cated their suggestions for changes to the committee. The process has been consistent with our commitments and with The Forum's status as the Standards Development Organization (SDO) for U.S. education abroad.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2006).   State of the field survey: 2006.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  In 2006, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted a State of the Field Survey of its membership. This survey is meant to be the first of an annual assessment of what is on the minds of Forum members and, by extension, the field of education abroad in general. The 2006 survey was developed and designed by the Forum Data Committee with input from the Forum Council and it was implemented by the Forum Data Committee. A survey invitation was sent by email on Sept 20, 2006 to each voting member of the Forum. We decided to send the survey invitation to voting members only because we wanted each institution to have one voice in the survey, rather than giving large organizations with many members multiple voices. We did make some adjustments to this policy as seemed appropriate. For example, if an institution had both a home campus operation and a provider branch that catered to outside students, then we allowed both parts of the institution to answer separately. Their issues and answers would clearly represent a different perspective to some degree. We also sent the survey invitation to members at individual campuses of large institutional systems even if the system had only one voting member. Members who received the email invitation were directed to the survey which was conducted online. The original deadline was Oct 6, but we extended the deadline to Oct 18 in order to try to get a better response rate. In the end 199 members received the invitation to participate and 93 members completed the survey - giving us a 47% response rate.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2007).   Results of the survey on program management in education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  In an effort to assess the latest practices in the field of education abroad and provide information to its members, the field of education abroad, and the media, the Forum on Education Abroad's Data Committee, under the leadership of its chair, Kim Kreutzer, designed a survey on study abroad program management. The Data Committee was assisted in this effort by the Forum's Standards Committee and the Forum Council.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2008).   Code of ethics for education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Retrieved from: http://www.forumea.org/documents/ForumonEducationAbroadCodeofEthics.pdf
Abstract:  This paper presents code of ethics for education abroad, including ethical principles for education abroad, ethical guidelines, four questions to guide ethical decision making in education abroad.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2008).   Standards of good practice for education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Retrieved from: http://www.forumea.org/documents/ForumonEducationAbroadStandardsofGoodPractice3rdedition2007_001.pdf
Abstract:  This third edition of the Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad incorporates the important feedback from institutions and organizations that have used the Standards to improve their programs since the Second Edition appeared two years ago. These collegial responses provide an indispensible, ongoing assessment of the relevance and value of the Standards, and help the Forum to fulfill its role as the recognized Standards Development Organization (SDO) for education abroad.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2008).   State of the field survey data tables.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2008).   State of the field survey: 2008.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  These results from the Forum on Education Abroad's 2008 State of the Field Survey come at an opportune time. During this unprecedented global economic and financial crisis, it is more essential than ever before to reflect on the value that education abroad has for institutions and organizations and their students. The Survey provides information on the funding, cost and value of education abroad that will be useful to incorporate into strategic planning. While the Survey shows that there is concern about the rising costs of and relative lack of funding for education abroad, institutions and organizations report plans to expand programs and student enrollments. 75% of respondents report that their institutions are actively trying to send a greater number of students abroad. Additionally, the Survey shows that since 2003/04, study abroad participation has increased 11% or more at 52% of institutions, and increased at least 1% or more at 87% of institutions.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2008).   The Forum pathways to the profession survey 2008 report and results.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  The current Pathways survey conducted by the Forum on Education Abroad took up where the first survey left off, asking questions on workload, salary, titles and related issues. To gather this information, two online survey instruments were developed to address the complexities of data gathering. Part One of the survey included questions on Organizational Background and was made available to organizations and institutions that work in education abroad. This part of the survey addressed issues related to organizational/institutional structure, such as growth and workload. The second instrument, Part Two: Individual Responses was developed for professionals to address their work in education abroad, including title, job function or responsibilities and salary range. In addition, Dr. David Shallenberger conducted 15 in-depth interviews with volunteers who indicated their interest in following up on the quantitative survey.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2009).   Standards of practice for short-term education abroad programs.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  Student participation in short-term* programs abroad (both credit and noncredit) has grown exponentially in recent years and now represents the primary international experience for a signifi cant percentage of U.S. college and university students. Recognizing this, the Forum Standards Committee saw a need for a more specific set of standards that apply to short-term programs. The Standards for Short-Term Education Abroad Programs were formed by keeping the framework of the nine Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad and extracting those elements from them that apply most directly to short-term education abroad programs. Th ese elements were then reworked and enhanced to address the specifi c qualities and characteristics of short-term programs. Th e Standards for Short-Term Programs are not a substitute for the more general standards; they are intended to be utilized together as companions to provide the most comprehensive guidance for short-term program management. Users of the Standards for Short-Term Programs should regularly refer back to the general standards, which provide the broader context for this new set of standards.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2009).   Survey on the impact of the global economic crisis on education abroad.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  In order to provide information to its members, the field and the general public, the Forum conducted a survey of its members to assess the impact of the global economic crisis on education abroad. 165 Forum member institutions responded to a survey that was conducted between August 24 - September 4, 2009. The results provide the most comprehensive and upto- date data on how the economic crisis is impacting U.S. education abroad activity. The survey asked about the impact of the economic crisis on enrollment in education abroad programs, budgeting for education abroad, and impact on students' choice of education abroad programs.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2010).   State of the field survey: 2009.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  In October/November 2009, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its third State of the Field Survey. This survey provides an annual or biannual assessment of key education abroad issues and topics of interest to Forum members and the field of education abroad at large. Previous State of the Field surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2008, and the results may be viewed at http://www.forumea.org/research-data.cfm. The 2009 survey was developed and designed by the Forum Data Committee with input from the Forum Council, and was then managed by the Forum Data Committee in conjunction with Forum staff . A survey invitation was sent by email on October 15, 2009 to each Forum institutional representative. As in previous years, a survey invitation was sent only to institutional representatives so that each institution could submit only one complete survey. Members who received the email invitation were directed to a url link to the online survey. The survey was open through November 23, 2009. 345 members received the invitation to participate and 137 members completed the survey, for a 40% response rate.
Forum on Education Abroad   (2010).   The Forum on Education Abroad incident database pilot project preliminary report.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  As it set out to design the pilot, the project committee outlined several goals. First, the committee wanted to collect a significant set of data that would allow it to make some quantitative statements about safety events in education abroad based on numbers of student programming days, i.e., it wanted to find out something about what actually happens. Secondly, the committee wanted to learn about incident databases. Was the process effective at capturing the data? Was the process user friendly, easily understandable and conducive to guideline compliance? What are the right questions? How do we weight different potential contributing factors? How can we minimize the subjectivity of the terminology? How do we build a process that will yield meaningful data without making the process overly cumbersome? And, once we have the data, what does it tell us? Lastly, the committee wanted to reveal all the obstacles and challenges that it had not as yet foreseen but had assumed that we might encounter, and then put everything together to determine the next steps for creating the incident database that will best serve the education abroad field.
Forum on Education Abroad Advocacy Committee   (2010).   Strategies for education abroad advocacy on campuses.   Carlisle, PA: Forum on Education Abroad.
Abstract:  This Advocacy Manual provides campus-based education abroad professionals with strategies and resources for raising the profile of education abroad on their campus and, to a more limited extent, with their local state legislature. The manual identifies critical constituents, offers key strategies for working with these colleagues, and provides suggested tools and fur3ther resources to consult in this effort. It also identifies Forum on Education Abroad publications and resources on the Forum web site that can be useful to education abroad professionals in their effort to create successful and mutually beneficial relationships with their campus colleagues. While the information in this manual is designed to be useful to the broad Forum membership, the authors recognize that each institution of higher education is unique, and education abroad professionals will need to reflect on and adapt the suggestions in this manual to their particular institutional context.
Freed, B.   (2008).   Second language learning in a study abroad context.   Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 4(13).
Freed, B. F., Segalowitz, N., & Dewey, D. P.   (2004).   Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs.   SSLA, 26, 275-301.
Abstract:  We compared the acquisition of various dimensions of fluency by 28 students of French studying in three different learning contexts: formal language classrooms in an at home (AH) institution, an intensive summer immersion (IM) program, and a study abroad (SA) setting.
Freedman, E.   (2004, Jul. 5).   Calif. Court - Injured Student Can Sue Study-Abroad Group.   Community College Week.
Freeman, S. A.   (2010).   International study at home and abroad.   Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 356(November), 133-141.
Abstract:  The creation of an international community of scholarship is a worthy but difficult task. It is obstructed by our ignorance of the universities abroad, our inability to communicate effectively with other peoples, and many misconceptions as to the nature of international education. It is frequently confused with exchange of persons and travel abroad. Study abroad may have differing objectives, and the programs will vary accordingly, but it should be genuine intellectual activity, carefully prepared, and integrated into the student's entire academic career. Similarly, an area program should not be an isolated unit in the university. There should be close communication and co-ordination between the area specialists and the teachers of the disciplines, to their mutual advantage in their research, field experience, and teaching. We shall recruit graduate students better by breaking down the barriers between the university, the college, the high school, and government service. For undergraduates, non-Western material must form an essential part of their basic liberal education. The need for competence in the area language depends on the level of study, but it is indispensable for real communication with a culture. International scholarship should be global in scope, representing well-integrated intellectual effort, and effective two-way communication.
Frey, C., & Whitehead, D. M.   (2009).   International education policies and the boundaries of global citizenship in the US.   Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(2), 269-290.
Frey, J. S.   (2007).   The Bologna process.   Milwaukee, WI: Educational Credential Evaluators.
Retrieved from: http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/mtg_am07FreyOne.pdf
Fry, G. W., Paige, R. M., Jon, J.-E., Dillow, J., & Nam, K.-A.   (2009).   Study abroad and its transformative power.   Portland, ME: Council for International Educational Exchange.
Abstract:  Incorporating both quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed method research design (Creswell, 2009), the study looks at students across a ten-year timespan; students from the six participating U.S. universities were sampled who had studied abroad in 1997, 2002, and 2007. This timespan enabled us to see how the influence of study abroad is perceived by students in near, mid, and long-term perspectives.
Fuller, T. L.   (2007).   Study abroad experiences and intercultural sensitivity among graduate theological students: A preliminary and exploratory investigation.   Christian Higher Education, 6(4), 321 - 332.
Abstract:  The study reported in this paper investigated the impact of study abroad experiences on graduate theological student intercultural sensitivity and the role that pedagogical approaches play in the development of intercultural sensitivity. It is widely held that study abroad contributes to student development of intercultural sensitivity (Jenkins & Skelly, 2004), but to what extent? Does a student who studies abroad have a distinct developmental advantage over one who does not? Are there specific factors, such as pedagogy, that serve to aid or hinder that development? Finding answers to these questions holds promise for determining more accurately how useful study abroad is for certain learning outcomes, as well as for making meaningful improvements to international study programs.
Fuller,U., Amillo, J., Laxer, C., McCracken, W. M., & Mertz, J.   (2005).   Facilitating student learning through study abroad and international projects.   ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 37(4), 139 - 151.
Abstract:  Computer science is inherently international but its effective application depends on an understanding of the local culture in which it is being used. Students and faculty need to be prepared to operate in this global environment. This ITiCSE working group report discusses why an international dimension is an important component of a computer science, student's education. It describes ways to add an international dimension to student learning and provides several case studies as examples. Barriers to international study are identified, and recommendations for how to do more to expand the international opportunities of computer science students are discussed.
Fullman, A. R.   (2009).   The art of engagement: Trends in U.S. cultural exchange and international programming.   New York: Robert Sterling Clark Foundation.
Abstract:  This survey, as the first of its kind, sought to address some of the information gaps by soliciting information about on-the-ground execution of cultural exchange-related programming as well as impediments to engagement by artists and arts and cultural organizations.
Fullman, A. R.   (2010).   The art of engagement: U.S. public and cultural diplomacy timeline October 1999-2009.   New York: Robert Sterling Clark Foundation.
Gallup-Black, A.   (2004).   International student mobility: Project atlas.   International Higher Education, 37, 10.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Garcia Laborda, J.   (2007).   Language travel or language tourism: have educational trips changed so much?.   Tourism Today, 7, 29-42.
George, C., & Shams, A.   (2007).   The challenge of including customer satisfaction into the assessment criteria of overseas service-learning projects.   International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering, 2(2), 64-75.
Abstract:  There has been a dramatic increase of student groups participating in international service learning projects. For engineering students it is not difficult to identify meaningful educational objectives. The students improve their analytical and problem solving skills. They design and build something that fulfils a list of engineering specifications; they execute a solution to some problem. However, these projects have a human dimension. Service-learning involves changes in peoples' beliefs, attitudes and values; impacting both the students and the recipient community. It is important for the academic community to develop assessment criteria that includes perspectives from all stakeholders engaged in the experience. It is imperative to assess not only the technical success but also the sustainability of the project and its larger effect. In courses involving service-learning, assessment needs to occur on three levels: the traditional evaluation of the student's knowledge of the technical content, the assessment of the experiences impact on the students' broader more humanistic "soft skills", and the customer's satisfaction. The paper examines the obstacles and opportunities in assessing project success from multiple international service-learning programs, and compiles insights and reflections that could serve to inform future projects.
Glater, J. D.   (2008, Jan. 21).   Investigation of study programs widens.   The New York Times.
Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/21/us/21cuomo.html
Abstract:  An investigation of college study abroad programs by the New York attorney general's office has expanded to include 15 colleges and universities, among them Harvard, Brown and Columbia, a senior lawyer in the office says. Investigators for Andrew M. Cuomo, the attorney general, are asking about who at each college is responsible for approving contracts related to study abroad, how each institution selects the programs it approves and whether it has received anything of value from a study abroad provider, among other issues, said the lawyer and representatives of some of the colleges that received the subpoenas and requests.
Glenncross, E., & Willis, L. E.   (2006).   Survey on study abroad: Data from 600 UNF freshmen.   The Osprey Journal of Ideas and Inquiry, 5, 123-131.
Abstract:  In light of the known benefits and the increasing importance of an international study experience, the UNF International Center has been investigating and offering more opportunities for Study Abroad. In the fall of 2004, the Director of the International Center, Dr. Tim Robinson, wished to investigate the level of interest of UNF freshman and sophomore students in studying abroad. He had the idea of conducting a survey to learn more about their previous experiences abroad and their attitudes towards Study Abroad Courses. Dominik Güss and Emma Glencross developed a first draft of the survey. Upon modification, a final survey was developed by the International Center.
Golay, P. A.   (2006).   The effects of study abroad on the development of global mindedness among students enrolled in international programs at Florida State University.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Florida State University). Available from Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. (No. etd-06292006-231440).
Retrieved from: http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-06292006-231440/
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to determine if a semester of study abroad influenced the development of global-mindedness among students enrolled in International Programs at Florida State University. The primary research question focused on whether a significant difference in global-mindedness was achieved in students after a semester of study abroad. The study also examined (a) whether a significant difference in global-mindedness occurred for all study participants after one semester, (b) if those among the study abroad group who had frequent contact with members of the host community differed significantly in global-mindedness from those who did not, and (c) if study abroad location influenced global-mindedness development.
Goldstein, H. A., Bollens, S., Feser, E., & Silver, C.   (2006).   An experiment in the internationalization of planning education: The NEURUS program.   Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25, 349- 363.
Abstract:  This article describes a new multi-institutional program in international planning education and exchange—the Network for European-U.S. Regional and Urban Studies—within the broader context of the continuing internationalization of graduate-level professional planning curricula. Using student exit interviews and an institutional survey, the outcomes and impacts of this program on participating students, on the departments involved, and on the partner universities are assessed. Program experiences to date in terms of lessons for planning education in an increasingly integrated world economy are highlighted.
Goldstein, S. B., & Kim, R. I.   (2005).   Predictors of US college students' participation in study abroad programs: A longitudinal study.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 507-521.
Abstract:  This study was designed to identify variables that predict participation in study abroad programs. A total of 179 undergraduates were followed through their 4-year college career. At year one, students completed a survey packet that included measures of study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, intolerance of ambiguity, and academic and demographic variables. During the students' senior year, follow-up data was collected from the college registrar's database regarding participation in study abroad, including placement and duration. Students who studied abroad differed significantly from those who did not in terms of concern about completing their major, study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and foreign language interest. Study abroad expectations and levels of ethnocentrism distinguished participants from nonparticipants in a binary logistic regression analysis. These findings suggest that participation in international study may be facilitated in part by interventions that seek to modify expectations, reduce ethnocentrism and prejudice, and help students understand the value of language study.
Gorbenko, K.   (2006, March).   International exchanges and political changes.   Paper presented at the International Relations in Eastern Europe Conference, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
Government of South Australia   (2010).   South Australia international education initiatives 2010: The key findings and state government response to the taskforce on enhancing the overseas student experience in Adelaide.   Government of South Australia.
Greatrex-White, S.   (2007).   A way of seeing study abroad: narratives from nurse education.   Learning in Health and Social Care, 6(3), 134-144.
Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1473-6861.2007.00157.x/pdf
Abstract:  This paper reports on the findings of a phenomenological study of nursing students studying abroad. The literature shows that study abroad has long been part of liberal educational approaches dating back to medieval times. Yet it is only recently that undergraduate nursing students have been allowed to study abroad as part of their formal programme. The research conducted was informed by the philosophical hermeneutic phenomenology of Martin Heidegger and was designed to answer the question: 'How is study abroad manifest in the experience of nursing students?' Data were collected through the use of unstructured diaries of 26 nursing students studying at two universities in the United Kingdom. Analysis uncovered six structures or 'ways for study abroad to be': leaving behind, escape, foreigner, learning, self-discovery and risk. The main focus of this paper is 'leaving behind'; the selection of this structure reflects its general interest and predominance in data analysis. Interpretation of the structure suggests that study abroad might offer an opportunity to militate against the limiting effects of personal and professional socialization processes. Here, socialization is viewed as a state of becoming and study abroad for some nursing students is a facet of this state of becoming. Finally, it is argued that study abroad is deserving of much greater attention in nurse education and beyond. For example, the concepts of global communities and a global economy necessitate the need for employees in the future to have wider experiences and understanding of different cultures and understanding the experience of study abroad is one possible contribution to this. Thus, it is believed that this study makes a valuable contribution to teaching and learning discourses, specifically nurse education and also in wider educational arenas.
Green, M. & Siaya, L. M.   (2005).   Measuring internationalization in U.S. higher education.   American Council on Education.
Retrieved from: http://www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=10436
Abstract:  Funded by the Ford Foundation, this publication series provides an overview by institutional sector type (community colleges, liberal arts, comprehensive, and research) of the status of internationalization across U.S. higher education. Drawing on data from two national surveys conducted in 2001 and 2003, ACE has created an "internationalization index" to measure internationalization across six key dimensions of internationalization: articulated commitment, academic offerings, organizational infrastructure, external funding, institutional investment in faculty, and international students and student programs. Each publication distinguishes "high activity" institutions and presents examples of successful internationalization strategies by sector type.
Green, M. F.   (2005).   Internationalization in U.S. higher education: The student perspective.   Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Retrieved from: http://www.acenet.edu/Content/NavigationMenu/ProgramsServices/cii/pubs/ace/Inter%20student%20perspective.pdf
Green, M. F.   (2007).   Internationalizing community colleges: Barriers and strategies.   New Directions for Community Colleges, 138, 15-24.
Abstract:  This chapter examines variables that make international education an essential component for community colleges and identifies barriers to institutionalization.
Green, M. F., & Koch, K.   (2009).   U.S. branch campuses abroad.   Washington, DC: ACE Center for International Initiatives.
Green, M. F., & Koch, K.   (2010).   Competition for international students.   International Higher Education, 59, 11-12.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2010.html
Grudzinski-Hall, M.   (2007).   How do college and university undergraduate level global citizenship programs advance the development and experiences of global competencies? .   (Doctoral dissertation, Drexel University). (UMI No. 3261868).
Retrieved from: http://idea.library.drexel.edu/bitstream/1860/1769/1/GrudzinskiHall_Magdalena.pdf
Abstract:  Colleges and universities across the nation have, within the last 20 years, mobilized to prepare their students to become globally aware, socially responsible, and engaged citizens of the world. Although the imperative for these colleges and universities is to provide students with the intellectual tools to function as global citizens, there is no scholarly consensus on the definition of the term "global citizenship," no agreement on the implementation of such a curriculum, and hence, no programmatic assessment model. As such, the scholarly discussions surrounding the topic of global citizenship programs have led to an increased curiosity about and interest in the development and experiences of global competencies. This study applies Hunter's (2004) concept of global competence as a measure of global citizenship, and evaluates a representative group of 25 colleges and universities offering undergraduate level global citizenship programs on a range of specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The focus of the study is to answer two major research questions: what are the guiding principles of undergraduate level global citizenship programs, and, how are they advancing the development of global competencies? This study employs a mixed methodological approach, consisting of a quantitative Likert-scale survey and in-depth interviews, to better understand global citizenship concepts, the manner in which programs are organized, thoughts about what is happening with global citizenship education, and faculty and administrator experiences. The findings of this research, although exhibiting overlap with Hunter's (2004) findings, reveal that global competencies are not synonymous with global citizenship. By employing Hunter's (2004) checklist, which provides a focused starting point for assessing global citizenship programs, this research study reveals the various programmatic components, themes and guiding principles that are beneficial to the development of global citizenship, but which are not the same as those required for global competency.
Gu, N.   (2006).   On the cultural legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US educational exchange (1949-1990).   Frontiers of Education in China, 1(4), 487-504.
Abstract:  The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges served as a political barometer and also acted as a conduit between the two when diplomatic relations were non-existent. It eased the tension when the relationship between the two countries had problems. The 40 years of exchanges were a win-win situation for both sides and one of the valuable cultural legacies that came out of the Cold War era.
Guerrero, E.   (2005).   Making the most of short-term immersion.   International Educator, 14(4), 42-45.
Guerrero, Jr., E.   (2006).   The road less traveled: Latino students and the impact of studying abroad.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3249418).
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived impact or effects that studying abroad has on Latino students and elements that are associated with these effects. Study abroad programs have increased in popularity in recent years and colleges have pushed for an international focus in their curricula. At the same time Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the general population and one of the fastest growing college student populations. The problem is that participation in study abroad programs is growing, as is the Latino student population and yet there is almost no systematic research on the impact of studying abroad on this growing segment of the college student population.
Guthrie, C.   (2004).   Education and international service.   IIENetworker, Spring, 53-55.
Gutierrez, R., & Bhandari, R.   (2009).   The value of international education to U.S. business and industry leaders: Key findings from a survey of CEOs.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Abstract:  Many respondents raised a crucial point that the importance of a study abroad experience is not merely the act of studying in a foreign country. Rather, the significance of international education often resides in the opportunity to partake in an intensive language program coupled with the prospect of developing skills that result from complete immersion in a foreign culture. Respondents also provided concrete suggestions for how companies can better recruit students with international experience, including for example, working more closely with study abroad offices to enhance recruitment possibilities, providing corporate-sponsored internships or scholarships, and increasing international opportunities and assignments for new and existing staff.
Haddal, C. C.   (2006).   Foreign students in the United States: Policies and legislation.   (CRS Report for Congress, Order Code RL31146).
Hadis, B.   (2005).   Gauging the impact of study abroad - How to overcome the limitations of a single-cell design.   Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(1), 3-19.
Hall, D. E.   (2007, Oct. 5).   Why professors should teach abroad.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(6), B20.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/free/v54/i06/06b02001.htm
Abstract:  In 2004, for the first time, the number of Americans studying abroad surpassed 200,000. While newer numbers are not yet available, there is every reason to think they will continue to climb steadily (even with recent legal turmoil over study-abroad providers and perks), since most universities now recognize global awareness and international experience as key components of the intellectual and vocational "value added" of an undergraduate education.
Hamilton, L. H.   (2004, Mar.).   Geopolitical trends and the implications for international education.   Paper presented at the NAFSA/Brookings Symposium.
Hammer, M. R.   (2005).   Assessment of the impact of the AFS study abroad experience: Executive summary.   Portland, OR: Intercultural Communication Institute.
Abstract:  An independent research study designed and conducted by Mitch Hammer.
Hammer, M. R., & Hansel, B.   (2005).   International study abroad: Impact of changing host families.   Interspectives, 21, 18-22.
Hammer, M. R., & Hansel, B.   (2005).   The international results study.   New York: AFS Intercultural Programs.
Abstract:  With the Educational Results Study, designed and conducted by Dr. Mitchell Hammer, AFS has learned much more about the level of intercultural competence students bring to the experience, and the impact that an AFS program can have on their development in intercultural sensitivity. This investigation drew deeper insight about several of the outcomes we had previously identified. We also used the study to understand better the level of foreign language development achieved by our students, their level of comfort and ease around other cultures, their intercultural social networks and friendships, and the extent to which they demonstrate the core values of AFS.
Hand, E., Ricketts, K. G., & Bruening, T. H.   (2007, May).   Benefits and barriers - Faculty internatioanl professional development.   Paper presented at the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Polson, Montana.
Retrieved from: http://www.aiaee.org/2007/Accepted/148.pdf
Harpur, J.   (2008).   The impact of exchange programs on student's personal and professional development.   Newfoundland: Center for International Business Studies, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Harrison, L., & Malone, K.   (2004).   A study abroad experience in Guatemala: Learning first-hand about health, education, and social welfare in a low-resource country.   International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 1(1).
Abstract:  The demographic characteristics of the United States are rapidly changing as the nation becomes more culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse. In light of these changes, it is increasingly important that health care professionals develop cultural competence and understanding. Study abroad expereinces can help students learn first-hand about other cultures and can promote the development of enhanced cultural sensitivity and competence. Although there are many advantages and benefits of study-abroad experiences, these experiences also present unique challenges for both students and faculty. This artilce presents a description of a 3-credit elective study abroad course that was offered for graduate or undergraduate credit in the summer of 2003 in Guatemala, including a description of course objectives, the process of planning and implementing the course from the faculty's perspective, and one student's perceptions of her study abroad experience.
Hart, D.   (2006, Nov. 17).   Global flows of talent: Benchmarking the United States.   Washington, DC: The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation.
Haupt, A., Krieger, T., & Lange, T.   (2010).   Competition for the international pool of talents: Education policy with student mobility.   CCES Discussion Paper Series, 31.
Abstract:  The paper presents a model of two countries competing for the international pool of talented students from the rest of the world. To relax tuition-fee competition, countries differentiate their education systems in equilibrium. While one country offers high education quality at high charges for students - the most talented ones study in this country - the other one provides lower quality and charges lower tuition fees. The regional quality-differentiation increases with the size of the international pool of talents, with the stay rate of foreign students in the host countries upon graduation and with the degree of development of the sending countries of foreign students. Compared to the welfare-maximizing education-policy, the decentralized solution is likely to imply an inefficient allocation of foreign students to the two host countries, as well as an inefficient quality differentiation.
Heilman, E. E.   (2007).   (Dis)Locating imaginative and ethical aims of global education.   In K. Roth & I. Gur-Ze'ev (Eds.), Education in the Era of Globalization. Netherlands: Springer.
Heisel, M., & Kissler, G. R.   (2010).   Financial strategies for expanding study abroad: Models, mission, management, and means for growth.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/resourcelibrary/default.aspx?id=20441
Hemsley-Brown, J., & Goonawardana, S.   (2007).   Brand harmonization in the international higher education market.   Journal of Business Research, 60, 942-948.
Abstract:  Universities today are increasingly competing for international students in response to trends in global student mobility, diminishing university funding and government-backed recruitment campaigns. This trend has driven the need for universities to focus on clearly articulating and developing their brand, and developing harmony within the brand architecture. This case study of one University focuses on brand architecture and found evidence of a move towards corporatization, based on the pressure for UK universities to align with the notion of a British Education, promoted through the British Council. However, the process of brand harmonization raises concerns about the potential impact on the marketing positioning and the autonomy of faculties and schools. The challenge seems to be to work on brand-building within the University with an understanding of two-way communication within the brand architecture: universities should acknowledge schools' and faculties' contributions to the identity of the brand.
Hendershot, K., & Sperandio, J.   (2009).   Study abroad and development of global citizen identity and cosmopolitan ideals in undergraduates.   Current Issues in Comparative Education, 12(1), 45-55.
Abstract:  This paper reports results from a broader study which focused on determining students' perception of the development of their global citizen identity within the context of an undergraduate global citizenship program, and what students believed were aspects of the program that contributed to this growth.
Hermes, J.J.   (2007, Oct. 26).   New Fulbright grant brings scientists to U.S..   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/article/New-Fulbright-Grant-Brings/14369
Abstract:  Program aims to improve America's ability to recruit foreign graduate students.
Herrin, C.   (2004).   It's time for advancing education abroad.   International Educator, 13(1), 3-4.
Herrin, C. A.   (2007).   Colloquium on diversity in education abroad: How to change the picture - An overview.   In Herrin, C. A., Dadzie, S., & MacDonald, S. A. (Eds.), The proceedings for the colloquium on diversity in education abroad: How to change the picture (pp. 20-30). Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development.
Retrieved from: http://www.aed.org/Publications/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&pageid=22775
Hill, B. & Thomas, N.   (2005).   Making sense of Bali: Unintended outcomes of study abroad programs.   New York: Routledge.
Abstract:  Study abroad programmes for teacher education students are increasingly being evaluated to determine their effectiveness in achieving intended outcomes. There is a danger, however, that such evaluations will ignore valuable but unintended and serendipitous outcomes of such programmes. This paper investigates an example of such an outcome, the development of a critical perspective towards media constructions of "otherness". 
Hoemeke, T. H., Krane, M., Young, J., & Slavin, G.   (2006).   A survey on chief international administrators, their institutions and offices.   Association of International Education Administrators: Committee on Campus Administration and Programs.
Retrieved from: www.aieaworld.org/_literature_45972/2006_Survey
Horn, A. S., Hendel, D. D., & Fry, G. W.   (2007).   Ranking the international dimension of top research universities in the United States.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11, 330-358.
Abstract:  This study presents an analysis of the relative internationalization of 77 research universities in the United States. Institutions enrolling undergraduate students were selected from the 2003 national report, The Top American Research Universities. Data were collected from publicly available sources for 19 indicators of internationalization pertaining to student characteristics, scholar characteristics, research orientation, curricular content, and organizational support. Data were standardized, weighted by a panel of experts, and summed to yield an overall internationalization index score for each institution. Index scores were then used to rank the 77 institutions. A sensitivity analysis yielded a significant positive correlation (.97, p < .001) between the ranking based on the weighted indicators and a ranking derived from unweighted indicators.
Hovater, S. E.   (2007).   Developing cultural awareness: A grounded theory of pre-service teachers' field experiences in Taiwan.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska-Lincoln). Available from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Digital Commons. (No. AAI3284718).
Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=cehsdiss
Hovey, H.   (2005, Mar.).   Study abroad, global knowledge and the epistemic communities of higher education.   Paper presented at the International Studies Association conference, Honolulu, HI.
Hovey, R.   (2004).   Critical pedagogy and international studies: Reconstructing knowledge through dialogue with the subaltern.   International Relations, 18(2), 241-254.
Hovey, R., & Weinberg, A.   (2009).   Global Learning and the Making of Citizen Diplomats.   In Lewin, R. (Ed.), The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad: Higher Education and the Quest for Global Citizenship. New York: Routledge.
Abstract:  This chapter addresses the need for study abroad programs that prepare students for moral responsibility and democratic civic engagement in an increasingly globalized world. We examine how notions of citizenship, democratic education, and civic engagement can be expanded to a global knowledge community beyond the borders of home campuses and countries. This entails recognition of a global ecology of learning based on reciprocity, recognition of civic identities, and responsibility for one's actions and representations abroad. We explore the literature on global citizenship associated with study abroad and global civil society in order to understand how the norms, affiliations and markers of citizenship are being redefined. We conclude with a proposal that responsible, high road study abroad entails preparing students as global citizen diplomats, representing their own culture while developing the intercultural awareness to comprehend, respect, and represent the perspectives of another culture.
Hovland, K.   (2006).   Shared futures: Global learning and liberal education.   Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Hulstrand, J.   (2006).   Beyond anecdote: Education abroad comes of age.   International Educator, 15(1), 52-55.
Abstract:  The author describes the current state of research on education abroad by interviewing leading administrators, consultants and researchers in the field.
Hulstrand, J.   (2008).   Being proficient in a foreign language is becoming increasingly important to the global workforce in today's 'flat' world.   International Educator, (Sep/Oct), 24-31.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/file/_/ie_sepoct08_fluentwork.pdf
Hunter, B., White, G. P., & Godbey, G. C.   (2006).   What does it mean to be globally competent?.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 267-285.
Abstract:  To contribute to the valuable and ongoing debate regarding the definition of global citizenship and global competency, this study proposes a definition developed through the use of a Delphi Technique involving human resource managers at top transnational corporations, senior international educators, United Nations officials, intercultural trainers, and foreign government officers. This definition is used as the foundation for the development of a survey to determine the knowledge, skills, and attitudes and experiences necessary to be considered globally competent. The survey was sent to 133 representatives from universities that self-nominated for recognition in the "Profiles of Success at Colleges and Universities—Internationalizing the Campus 2003" (NAFSA: Association of International Educator publication) and the transnational corporation human resource officials serving as members of the National Foreign Trade Council's Expatriate Management Committee and Global Mobility Roundtable. Results are reported and discussed, and a proposed curricular plan is presented based on the findings.
IES Abroad   (2009).   Report of the IES Abroad think tank on diversity in education abroad.   Chicago: IES Abroad.
Ikeda, S.   (2006).   Building global skills: Workers with foreign internship and student experience in high demand.   Black Collegian, 37(1), 57-61.
Institute for the International Education of Students   (2007).   The IES map for study abroad (4th ed.).   Chicago, IL: Institute for the International Education of Students.
Abstract:  The IES MAP (Model Assessment Practice) for Study Abroad was created in response to this growing need for more effective program development and assessment in international education. The IES MAP is an educational tool for designing and evaluating study abroad programs and was the first of its kind in the field. It was developed by a task force of outstanding leaders in both international and U.S. higher education who drew on extensive site visits and solid data analyses of a wide variety of program components. This publication is the fourth edition.
Institute of International Education   (2010).   Attitudes and perceptions of prospective international students from India.   (An IIE briefing paper, February 2010).
Retrieved from: Institute of International Education website: http://www.iieapplicationcenter.org/en/Research-and-Publications
Interagency Working Group   (2007).   FY 2007 annual report.   Washington, DC: Interagency Working Group on U.S. Government-Sponsored International Exchanges and Training.
International Association of Universities, Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, American Council on Education, & Council for Higher Education Accreditation   (2005).   Sharing quality higher education across borders: A statement on behalf of higher education institutions worldwide.   International Association of Universities, Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, American Council on Education, & Council for Higher Education Accreditation.
Retrieved from: http://www.chea.org/pdf/StatementFinal0105.pdf
Abstract:  This document is based on the belief that market forces alone are inadequate to ensure that cross-border education contributes to the public good. Therefore, it lays the groundwork for fair and transparent policy frameworks for managing higher education across borders that are underpinned by a set of guiding principles and a process of dialogue among stakeholders. These frameworks should address the challenges we face in developing and sharing quality higher education across borders for the benefit of all, and ensure that cross-border higher education's contribution to the broader public interest is not sacrificed to commercial interests.
International Education and Research Network   (2010).   iEARN project book 09/10.  
Retrieved from: http://www.fmschools.org/webpages/mattsix/files/2009-2010iEARNProjectBook[1].pdf
International Education Association of Australia   (2009).   The Australian international education industry.   International Education Association of Australia.
Abstract:  This is a background paper on the international education industry in Australia, prepared for the Australian Services Roundtable Services Summit 2009 by the International Education Association of Australia (IEAA), Australia's leading international education professional organization.
International Education Services Ltd.   (2009).   Senate committee inquiry into the welfare of international students.   Queensland: International Education Services Ltd..
Abstract:  The submission argues that, unlike most other industries, international education lacks a systematic approach that requires that its workforce be trained, and suitably qualified and competent to fulfill relevant roles and responsibilities. This creates a serious risk in the provision of services to overseas students. Furthermore, it argues that education agents are a vital element of the international education supply chain, and should be supported in their activities through training and recognition of their professional role. It maintains that the ESOS regulations that apply to education agents are largely appropriate in holding education providers accountable, although the regulations have been poorly enforced. This has resulted in a perception by some providers that they need not be overly concerned by the risk of sanctions or the imposition of penalties for any inaccuracies in the representations made by agents on their behalf.
Isabelli, C. A., & Nishida, C.   (2005).   Development of the Spanish subjunctive in a nine-month study-abroad setting.  
Abstract:  In the present study, longitudinal data on the development of the Spanish subjunctive use in a study abroad (SA) setting is presented and compared with similar data gathered in a SH setting. The goal of the study is two-fold: 1) to present an empirical and qualitative analysis of the development of the Spanish subjunctive use among language learners over a nine-month period in a study-abroad setting, and 2) to attempt to answer the question whether the input received in the study-abroad influences the acquisition of the Spanish subjunctive.
Ismail, B., Morgan, M., & Hayes, K.   (2006).   Effect of short study abroad course on student openness to diversity.   Journal of Food Science, 1.
Jackson, J. J.   (2007).   Understanding the feelings, perceptions, and attitudes of students who participate in a service study abroad program.   (Master's Thesis, Brigham Young University). Retrieved from Brigham Young University Electronic Theses & Dissertations.
Retrieved from: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd2063.pdf
Abstract:  This study was designed to understand the experience of being a service study abroad student. It examined feelings, perceptions and attitudes that developed as students from Brigham Young University participated in a service-centered study abroad program to Guadalajara, Mexico. The study enumerates participants' initial, developing, and final impressions during service study abroad and shows that students go through an extensive process of discovering, reformulating, and solidifying their attitudes and perceptions as they interpret their experiences. The study examined factors related to language and culture, but focused on the service component of the program. It found that service study abroad participants feel their experience is more successful when they perceive that the service they render is needed, service assignments align with personal interests, duties are clearly outlined, and meaningful responsibilities are assigned.
Janes, D.   (2008).   Beyond the tourist gaze? Cultural learning on an American 'semester abroad' programme in London.   Journal of Research in International Education, 7(1), 21-35.
Jarecki, H. G., & Kaisth, D. Z.   (2009).   Scholar rescue in the model world.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Retrieved from: www.scholarrescuefund.org/.../SRF%20REPORT- Scholar%20Rescue%20in%20the%20Modern%20World.pdf
Jaschik, S.   (2007, Oct. 10).   The mobile international student.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/10/10/mobile
Abstract:  Much of the analysis of trends in international student mobility comes from the perspective of individual countries. American academic groups worry about the relative ability of colleges in the United States to attract the best foreign talent. British groups do the same, and so forth. A new analysis from the Observatory on Borderless Higher Education — a think tank based in Britain and affiliated with the Association of Commonwealth Universities and Universities UK — attempts to take a broader perspective.
Jenkins, K.   (2004).   Becoming a citizen of the world.   Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(19), 114.
Jenkins, K., & Skelly, J.   (2004).   Education abroad is not enough.   International Educator, 13(1), 7-12.
Jirka, A.   (2006).   Going global: Sustainable travel and study abroad.   Transitions Abroad Student Guide, Fall, 18-20.
Retrieved from: http://www.transitionsabroad.com/publications/studyabroadmagazine/2006Fall/sustainable_travel_and_study_abroad.shtml
John Kambutu, J., & Nganga, L. W.   (2008).   In these uncertain times: Educators build cultural awareness through planned international experiences.   Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 939-951.
Retrieved from: www.elsevier.com/locate/tate
Abstract:  This narrative inquiry explored the effectiveness of planned international experiences in promoting cultural awareness,understanding and appreciation among American educators. Participating educators (n = 12) were immersed in foreign cultures for 2-3 weeks during three different summers. To document the effectiveness of cultural immersion, participants completed pre- and post-visit surveys. Pre-visit data showed lack of cultural awareness. After the visit, however, participants had gained broader awareness, understanding and appreciation of host cultures such that familiar cultural practices were rarely used as the only point of reference. Follow-up interviews showed possible sustained acculturation.
Johnson, A. K.   (2004).   Increasing internationalization in social work programs: Healy's continuum as a strategic planning guide.   International Social Work, 47(1), 7-23.
Johnson, M. M.   (2007).   Next president should make international education policy central to meeting national needs. (Policy Brief Vol. 2, Issue 9).   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/publication.sec/periodicals/policybriefs/pb-vol2-9/
Abstract:  The nation faces important economic, security and public diplomacy challenges, and our next president, regardless of party affiliation, would be wise to take into account the important contribution international education can make in helping to address those challenges. One thing is clear: A U.S. policy for international education should be a central part of our next president's solution to re-establishing America's rightful place as a respected leader of the world and to restoring hope for a more prosperous, secure future.
Johnson, V. C.   (2008).   Ten years of NAFSA advocacy: Promoting U.S. soft power through student and scholar exchange.   International Educator, May/June, 6-10.
Abstract:  As we convene in Wa shington, D.C., for NAFSA's sixtieth annual conference, we celebrate an anniversary within the anniversary. The year 1998 marked the origin of NAFSA's public policy department as we know it today. Ten years ago, we set out to be what we have now become: a major, recognized player in the public policy debate as it relates to our issues. Now it's time to take stock—to understand why we have been successful and how we have fallen short, and to begin to map a vision for the future to ensure that 10 years from now, we will be as different from today as we are today from 10 years ago.
Johnson, V. R.   (2006).   Americans abroad: International educational programs and tort liability.   Journal of College and University Law, 32(2), 309-360.
Johnston, S., & Snyder, A.   (2006).   NAFSA financial aid resource for international education: Financial aid basics for advising undergraduate study abroad students.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/knowledge_community_network.sec/education_abroad_1/education_abroad_2/practice_resources_12/getting_started/financial_aid_basics/
Jokivirta, L.   (2006).   Foreign higher education activity in Francophone Africa.   International Higher Education, 43, 6.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Jurgens, J. C., & McAuliffe, G.   (2004).   Short-term study-abroad experience in Ireland: An exercise in cross-cultural counseling.   International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 26(2), 147-161.
Abstract:  International exchanges or study-abroad experiences can have lifelong impacts on students from various disciplines. This article describes the integration of a short-term study-abroad program to Ireland into two socio-cultural courses. The experience also offers course credit for major requirements in two programs. Through this two-week travel experience students are brought into intensive contact with educators, scholars, and community activists in Ireland and Northern Ireland and weigh differences and similarities in the social issues and services among the three countries. While the course is aimed at students in the counseling field, it also appeals to students majoring in criminal justice, sociology, women's studies, international studies, and political science.
Karseras, A.   (2004).   The first IDI qualifying seminar in Asia.   SIETAR Japan Newsletter, 10(Spring), 18.
Kehl, K. L.   (2005).   Differences in self-efficacy and global mindedness between short-term and semester-long study abroad participants at selected Christian universities.   (Doctoral dissertation, Baylor University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3195288).
Kehm, B. M.   (2005).   The contribution of international student mobility to human development and global understanding.   US-China Education Review, 2(1), 18-24.
Abstract:  International student mobility has been an important indicator for the degree of internationalisation in higher education. Today, international student mobility has moved from unorganised or self-organised study abroad to a variety of mobility forms organised within programmes. It has also become an issue of economic competitiveness, like attracting best talent, wealth creation and brain drain. This paper focuses on mobility as a limited period of study abroad (typically between six and 12 months) and not on mobility for the purpose of studying a whole degree programme abroad. Meanwhile, it takes ERASMUS program in Germany for example, analyzes the barriers to student mobility and possible solutions, and draws conclusions that widening participation and broadening geographical scope.
Kehm, B. M., & Teichler, U.   (2007).   Research on internationalisation in higher education.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 260-273.
Abstract:  This contribution provides an overview of the developments of research undertaken since the mid 1990s on international higher education. The general state of research is characterised by an increase of theoretically and methodologically ambitious studies without a dominant disciplinary, conceptual, or methodological "home." The main topics of research on internationalisation in higher education reach from mobility, mutual influence of higher education systems, and internationalisation of the substance of teaching and learning to institutional strategies, knowledge transfer, cooperation and competition, and national and supranational policies. The modes of inquiry are varied but have not changed much over time. A brief localisation of the role of the Journal of Studies in International Education in the context of research about internationalization in higher education is followed by conclusions emphasising a certain amount of continuity but also a broadening of the field with an increasing number of ambitious studies. The contribution closes with a few proposals for future research.
Kelo, M., Teichler, U., & Wächter, B.   (2007).   Toward improved data on student mobility in Europe: Findings and concepts of the Eurodata study.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 10, 194-223.
Retrieved from: http://jsi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/194
Abstract:  This article on student mobility data in Europe has a double objective: First, it investigates which data on international mobility of students are being compiled and made available—and which are not—both at the international, the national, and the programme level. Second, it presents some of the student mobility data identified, and—based on an analysis of these data—it tries to depict a picture of the main trends in international student mobility into and out of 32 European countries. Next to analysing and presenting the availability and quality of data on international student mobility, the article also makes recommendations for the improvement of student mobility statistics both at the national and international levels.
Kemp, N., Archer, W., Gilligan, C., & Humfrey, C.   (2008).   The UK's competitive advantage: The market for international research students.   London: UK HE International Unit.
Abstract:  The United Kingdom is a global leader in the provision of quality higher education and nowhere is this lead more apparent than in our 15% share of the international market for research students. Our universities are extraordinarily successful in attracting the best of them from around the world: almost half (42%) of all postgraduate research students in the UK are international students The benefits to the UK are clear to see: not only do these students directly raise the research output of our universities, they augment the knowledge base of the country, heighten the UK's capacity for innovation and enhance the UK's strategic position in the future international economy.
Kiehl, W. P.   (2007).   The influence of campus internationalization on local communities.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3255869).
Abstract:  This dissertation is a study of the influence of campus internationalization on the local community. The study attempts to determine if there is an influence on the local community stemming from internationalization efforts on the campus; what the nature and extent of that influence is; and what that influence may inform us about higher education internationalization and internationalization's role in the relationship between colleges and communities.
Kim, R. I.   (2005).   Intercultural attitudes predict favorable study abroad expectations of U.S. college students.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(3), 265-278.
King, R., Melsheimer, S., & Moses, R.   (2004).   A multi-university engineering summer study abroad program.   In D. Weichert, B. Rauhut & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Educating the Engineer for the 21st Century (pp. 235-241). Netherlands: Springer.
Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48394-7_27
Abstract:  This paper will describe a successful engineering study abroad program that occurs every summer for six weeks. The program participants are engineering and science students from Mississippi State University and Clemson University in the United States and the program takes place at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom. The program is designed to handle approximately 30 students in total from the two US schools and permits wavering enrollments at one university to be compensated by the other. Thus, the University of Bristol can be assured of a reasonable number of students on a continuing basis to keep the program profitable. The first four weeks are spent at the University of Bristol, where students take two classes and earn six credit hours. The program ends with a two-week independent travel period where students typically tour the continent. While attending classes at the University of Bristol, the students experience British culture firsthand by living with host families.
Kinginger, C.   (2010).   American students abroad: Negotiation of difference?.   Language Teaching, 43(2), 216-227.
Abstract:  This paper considers the ways in which American students' active engagement in local host communities abroad is at risk. Constraining forces include the new demographics of American study abroad, prejudicial attitudes toward international education and sheltered program designs, a research enterprise committed to representing the perspectives of students primarily, and the influence of globalization on communicative practice and habits of thought. To counter these influences, the elements of an activist stance are proposed.
Kinginger, C., & Whitworth, K.   (2005).   Gender and emotional investment in language learning during study abroad.   CALPER Working Paper Series, No. 2.
Knight, D. K.   (2006).   Examining global interdependence through study abroad in China and Hong Kong.   Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 98(3), 57-61.
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ754104&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ754104
Knight, J.   (2004).   Internationalization remodeled: Definition, approaches, and rationales.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31.
Knight, J.   (2004).   New rationales driving internationalization.   Boston College Center for International Higher Education Newsletter, 34.
Knight, J.   (2005).   Cross-border education: Not just students.   International Higher Education, 41, 5.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2005.html
Knight, J.   (2006).   IAU 2005 Internationalization survey: Preliminary findings report.   International Association of Universities/UNESCO.
Knight, J.   (2007).   Internationalization: concepts, complexities and challenges.   In Forest, J. J.F., & Altbach, P. G. (Eds.), International Handbook of Higher Education (pp. 207-227). Netherlands: Springer.
Koernig, S. K.   (2007).   Planning, organizing, and conducting a 2-week study abroad trip for undergraduate students: Guidelines for first-time faculty.   Journal of Marketing Education, 29(3), 210-217.
Abstract:  This article provides specific recommendations to help faculty members organize, plan, and conduct a short-term overseas study tour. Specifically, strategies are presented to help with managing student anxiety in the pretrip sessions, acclimating the students to their new environment in the early part of the trip, balancing academic content with cultural activities, selecting types of learning activities, and facilitating a student exchange with a local university. A secondary goal of this article is to discuss common on-theground problems that the faculty leader may face in the host country. Strategies are presented to help the faculty leader respond to these problems (or prevent them from occurring in the first place).
Koskinen, L., & Tossavainen, K.   (2004).   Study abroad as a process of learning intercultural competence in nursing.   International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10, 111-120.
Abstract:  The aim of this research was to describe an international student exchange programme as a context of learning intercultural competence in nursing. Twelve Finnish nursing students who had participated in an exchange programme in the United Kingdom participated. The data consisted of group interviews, learning documents, background questionnaires and research diary notes, and the method of inductive content analysis was used. Study abroad as a process of learning intercultural competence consisted of three ethno-categories: transition from one culture to another, adjustment to the difference and gaining intercultural sensitivity. The exchange programme as a context of learning intercultural competence was characterized by a problematic orientation phase, a study abroad phase that involved stressful but rewarding adjustment to the intercultural differences and an inadequate re-entry debriefing phase. In order for the international experience of nursing students to have an impact on their understanding of diversity, they need assistance in each phase of the programme. Particularly, the students need intercultural tutoring and mentoring to venture into encounters with local people, including direct client contacts, during their study abroad.
Kramer, P. A.   (2009).   Is the world our campus? International students and U.S. global power in the long twentieth century.   Diplomatic History, 33(5), 775-806.
Abstract:  The history of foreign student migration ought to be explored as U.S. international history, that is, as related to the question of U.S. power in its transnational and global extensions.3 In this sense, my argument here is topical: that historians of U.S. foreign relations might profitably study international students and, in the process, bring to the fore intersections between "student exchange" and geopolitics.
Kraus, L. E., Henke, R. R., Nevill, S., Linnard, D., Pflueger, J., & Mattox, T.   (2008).   A study of four federal graduate fellowship programs: education and employment outcomes.   U.S. Department of Education (Task Order Number ED-04-CO-0106/001).
Retrieved from: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/opepd/ppss/index.html
Kuder, M. & Obst, D.   (2009).   Joint and double degree programs in the transatlantic context: A survey report.   New York: Institute of International Education, & Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin.
Abstract:  This report seeks to expand the knowledge about existing transatlantic degree programs and to address the challenges and opportunities in developing joint or double degree programs - especially in the transatlantic context. The report examines responses from 180 higher education institutions in the United States and the European Union to an extensive survey conducted in spring 2008. The survey was part of a project funded by EU-U.S. Atlantis Program of U.S. Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) and the European Union Commission, and was launched in cooperation with several leading U.S. and European institutions: the Institute of International Education and State University of New York (in the U.S.), and Freie Universität Berlin, the Franco-German University, and the Latvian Rectors' Council (in the E.U.). The major goals of the survey were to assess the current landscape of transatlantic degree programs and to identify inherent challenges and opportunities of expanding existing or developing new programs.
Kuenzi, J. J., & Riddle, W. C.   (2005).   National secrity education program-Background and issues.   Washington, DC: Federation of American Scientists.
Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL31643.pdf
Abstract:  A CRS report for Congress.
Labi, A.   (2007, Sep. 19).   Quest for international measures of higher-education learning results raises concerns.   The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/daily/2007/09/2007091903n.htm
Lacy, W. B.   (2006).   The year of study abroad: Academically core, professionally essential, and increasingly available.   University of California Davis International Programs Newsletter, 8(Fall), 1-2.
Retrieved from: http://uoip.ucdavis.edu/newsletters.cfm
Lafford, B. A.   (2006).   The effects of study abroad vs. classroom contexts on Spanish SLA: Old assumptions, new insights and future research directions.   Paper presented at the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, Somerville, MA.
Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.132.9574
Lamet, M., & Bolen, M.   (2005).   Education abroad in the campus context: NAFSA's guide to education abroad for advisers and administrators (3rd ed.).   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Langley, C. S., & Breese, J. R.   (2005).   Interacting sojourners: A study of students studying abroad.   The Social Science Journal, 42(2), 313-321.
Language Magazine   (2008, Dec.).   U.S. study abroad continues to rise.   Language Magazine, Dec., 44-45.
Abstract:  U.S. students are studying abroad in record numbers,vaccording to survey data released last month by the Institute of International Education. The number of Americans receiving academic credit for study abroad increased by eight percent to a total of 241,791 in the 2006/07 academic year, according to the Open Doors report, published annually by the Institute of International Education with funding from the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. This latest increase marks a decade of unprecedented growth in the number of American students receiving academic credit for their overseas studies, with an increase of close to 150 percent, from under 100,000 in 1996/97 to nearly a quarter of a million in 2006/07. Although figures are not available for the number of Americans who studied abroad without receiving academic credit, similar growth can be expected.
LaReau, R.   (2004, Oct. 29).   Programs couple international study and service.   National Catholic Reporter.
Latin America Working Group Education Fund   (2006).   Retreat from reason: US-Cuban academic relations and the Bush administration.   Washington, DC: Latin America Working Group Education Fund.
Lauman, B., Stubbs, N., Glizzo, C., & Lee, E.   (2006).   Financial aid and funding education abroad.   International Educator, 15(2), 50-53.
Lecaque, P.   (2005).   Creating a study abroad culture at a public liberal arts university: The case of Truman State University.   The Journal of Public Affairs, 8, 11-28.
Abstract:  How can international educators change their campus culture to make study abroad an integral part of a liberal arts education at a public institution? Identifying a conceptual framework and plan of action adapted to the specific conditions on the campus was the key to the development of study abroad programs that are attractive to students for their academic content and geographic location, and because of the guarantee that the students will still graduate on time if they plan for their study abroad experience in advance. The events of 9/11 only briefly interrupted an upward trend that has placed Truman State University among the most successful public institutions in the U.S. in providing global experiences for its graduates.
Lederman, D.   (2007, Feb. 21).   Quality vs. quantity in study abroad.   Inside Higher Ed.
Abstract:  Study abroad is hot in American higher education. The number of college students spending at least some time learning in other countries continues to grow, doubling over the last decade, and some institutions have taken aggressive steps to increase the proportion of their students (to 100 percent, in at least one case) who study in other countries. And a little over a year ago, a federal commission took up the cause, trumpeting a plan to increase the number of American college students who study abroad to a million by 2016-17.
Lee, E.H.   (2007).   An investigation of learners beliefs at two stages of study abroad.   (Master thesis, Michigan State University). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Thesis database. (UMI No. 1444278).
Abstract:  Learner beliefs have traditionally been considered to be stable and static. However, recent research in learner beliefs has highlighted their dynamic and variable nature. Adopting the new research approach to learner beliefs as a dynamic construct, the current study explores effects of study abroad (SA) on learner beliefs. Participants of early stage (N=38) and late stage (N=32 of study abroad were asked to respond to beliefs items on a questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted in order to investiage sources of learners' belief. The results reveal that learners who are at the later stage of SA hold significantly stronger beliefs regarding learner independence and perceived improvement in listening compared to the learners at the early stage. In the examination of belief changes, learners in both groups reported that their beliefs in learner autonomy and the importance of feedback has significantly strengthened during SA when compared to the strength of their beliefs when they were studying English in their home country. While learners at the early stage of SA showed significant changes in beliefs in the importance of grammar and in the difficulty of learning, beliefs of learners at the later stage significantly changed in the areas of teacher's role and the importance of knowing the culture.
Lee, J.   (2006).   International student experiences: Neo-racism and discrimination.   International Higher Education, 44, 3-4.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Leventhal, M.   (2005, Oct.).   The quality-trade nexus: How globalization of quality standards & educational marketing interact.   Paper presented at the Australian International Education Conference, Gold Coast.
Abstract:  Three global processes are underway: trade agreements are driving convergence of higher education standards (GATS, FTAs, APEC, etc.), quality agencies and accreditors are independently negotiating mutual recognition agreements (MRAs), universities are undertaking cross-border accreditation. All of these should increase opportunities for providing cross-border education.
Lewin, Ross (Ed.)   (2009).   The Handbook of Practice and Research in Study Abroad.   London: Routledge.
Abstract:  This handbook is a comprehensive survey of the field.
Lewis, T. L., & Niesenbaum, R. A.   (2005, Jun. 3).   The benefits of short-term study abroad.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 51(39), B20.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v51/i39/39b02001.htm
Li, H., Fox, R. F., & Almarza, D. J.   (2007).   Strangers in stranger lands: Language, learning, culture.   International Journal of Progressive Education, 3(1), 2007.
Abstract:  This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students' learning of English in other ways, including international students' isolation within their communities and America's lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students' learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country.
Liebhaber, A., & Greene, R. M.   (2006).   Internationalizing higher education in South Africa.   International Higher Education, 46, 17-18.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Lien, D.   (2007).   The role of scholarships in study abroad programs.   Education Economics, 15(2), 203-213.
Abstract:  This paper considers the role of scholarships in study abroad programs. Suppose that a university attempts to maximize the average ability of its student body by encouraging students to participate in study abroad programs. It is shown that the ideal scholarship vehicle to accomplish this is a fixed-amount award independent of a student's ability level.
Lien, D., & Liu, G.   (2010).   Financial assistance for study abroad students: An economic analysis.   International Review of Economics and Finance, 19, 515-522.
Abstract:  This paper examines the scholarship payback policy embedded in a study abroad program. A full payback policy requires a student to return the whole amount of the scholarship should he fail to achieve a target post-program performance, whereas a partial payback policy requires a payback amount in proportion to the extent of the under-performance. It is found that the university should adopt a fixed amount scholarship to maximize the average post-program ability. There is also an optimal partial payback policy.
Lindsey, E. W.   (2005).   Study abroad and values of development in social work students.   Journal of Social Work Education, 41(2)(Spring/Summer), 229-249.
Abstract:  This article presents results of a qualitative study of values development in U.S. and Scottish social work students who participated in a study-abroad program. Six themes emerged: opening the mind to new ways of thinking; awareness and insight into one's own values and beliefs; social awareness and challenges to societal values and beliefs; appreciation of difference, cultural sensitivity, and anti-discriminatory practice; social justice; and professional identity development. Implications for social work study-abroad programs and future research are discussed.
Lo, S.   (2008).   Defining the peer advisor in the American study abroad context.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(2), 173-184.
Abstract:  Peer advisor programs in study abroad offices have greatly increased in the past few years. Nevertheless, while many agree that peer advisors have many useful advantages, a clear definition of the peer advisor within the study abroad context remains unavailable. Hence, the purpose of this study is to find out how the peer advisor is perceived by study abroad offices across the United States and what implications those perceptions hold. To address these two questions, this article specifically sought to find out peer advisors' roles and responsibilities, what qualifications are required, and what type of training the peer advisors need to undergo. The article concludes with a preliminary definition of the study abroad peer advisor and its implication.
Loades, R.   (2006).   The future of graduate management education in the context of the Bologna Accord highlights.   Reston, VA: Graduate Management Admission Council.
Retrieved from: http://www.efmd.org/index.php/research-publications-a-awards/publications/other-publications/1174
Abstract:  In 2003, the Council established a task force of education and business leaders to study the potential effects of the Accord on graduate management education. This document reports the task force's findings. The report is not intended to be encyclopaedic; its focus is limited to management education rather than the consideration of other disciplines. The content is also limited to address specific audiences that need to understand the impact of the Accord: university administrators, government funding agencies, students and employers. The intention is to provide a catalyst for debate and to emphasise the need for concerted effort to maintain the impetus stimulated by the signing of the Accord in 1999.
Lombardi, S., & Simmons, D.   (2008).   Financial aid and college education abroad basics for high school guidance counselors and students.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/financialaid
Abstract:  This publication has two chapters. Chapter 1 provides guidance counselors a brief overview of financial aid for postsecondary students, and rules and guidelines for its use in study abroad. Chapter 2 provides students with a detailed series of questions to ask admissions advisers and financial aid officers during their college search. It also includes a sample budget sheet to use in determining the cost of study abroad and how any gain/loss of financial aid would impact their budget.
Longview Foundation   (2008).   Teacher preparation for the global age: The imperative for change.   Falls Church, VA: Longview Foundation.
Retrieved from: http://www.longviewfdn.org/122/teacher-preparation-for-the-global-age.html
Abstract:  In February 2008, the Longview Foundation convened a meeting to discuss what is currently being done in schools, colleges, and departments of education around the country to prepare future teachers for this challenge and to generate momentum to do more. This report shares ideas from that meeting and subsequent discussions. The strategies suggested do not represent a consensus on the best way forward. Our goal is to share examples and ideas and to challenge teacher preparation to embrace its critical role in educating teachers to better prepare tomorrow's citizens for their roles in our increasingly interdependent world.
Lord, G.   (2006).   Defining the indefinable: Study abroad and phonological memory abilities.   Selected Proceedings on the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, Somerville, MA.
Lough, B. J., McBride, A. M., & Sherraden, M. S.   (2009).   Perceived effects of international volunteering: Reports from alumni.   Washington Univ. in St. Louis: Center for Social Development (CSD research report 09-10).
Abstract:  This report examines how two different models of international volunteering may contribute to certain volunteer outcomes as reported by volunteer alumni. The focus is on self-reported volunteer outcomes only. In future reports, we will address outcomes for the organizations and host communities.
Louie, Andrea   (2010).   Crafting places through mobility: Chinese American "roots-searching" in China.   Identities, 8(3), 343-379.
Abstract:  A cultural heritage tour to China that is jointly sponsored by Chinese American organizations and the People's Republic of China government represents the "forging" (Schein 1998) of a transnational relationship between Chinese Americans and China through which Chinese Americans re-assess their identities. Multicultural discourses in the United States and mainland Chinese government narratives of modernity produce racialized and territorialized ideas of Chineseness that forcibly attach Chinese American identities to their places of ancestral origin in China. In contrast, the Chinese American participants in this program draw from cultural and historical references formed through their experiences in the United States and use their privileges of mobility to experience their ancestral places in China in ways that draw upon multiple understandings of their relationships to China as a place. Their visits reflect transnational processes that are built upon yet qualitatively differ from those of previous generations.
Loveland, E.   (2006).   Education abroad required.   International Educator, 15(1), 22-25.
Loveland, E., & Murphy, C.   (2006).   Education abroad today and beyond: Leaders speak out.   International Educator, 15(1), 30-35.
Lowell, B. L., Bump, M., & Martin, S.   (2007).   Foreign Students coming to America: The impact of policy, procedures, and economic competition.   Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Internaitonal Migration, Georgetown University.
Retrieved from: http://www12.georgetown.edu/sfs/isim/Publications/SloanMaterials/Foreign%20Students%20Coming%20to%20America.pdf
Lozada, S. T.   (2008).   Two-year college study abroad participation and persistence.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Capella University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and These. (No. 3274563).
Abstract:  This study examines each Hocking College student who participated in a study abroad course from 2000-2006, and comparatively examines students who, though eligible, did not participate in a study abroad course. Specifically examined were: student persistence two quarters post study abroad participation, student persistence to graduation, student persistence by major and the role of on- and off-campus living in those who participated in study abroad courses. This is a quantitative study involving 916 subjects. This research focuses on the role of study abroad participation in the persistence of two-year students of Hocking College, Nelsonville, Ohio, USA. With the ever-increasing accountability required within higher education, the responsibility of retaining students is more critical than ever before. It is well known that completion failure has significant costs to an institution. Similarly understood are the considerable financial benefits of retaining students. Vincent Tinto's (1994) research brought focus to the factors that must be in place in order to ensure student persistence. Student interaction with and integration into the academic and social subsystems of the institution are critical pieces of the retention puzzle (Tinto, 1975). Study abroad is perhaps one of the most effective efforts ensuring student involvement in the academic and social subsystems of higher education. Significance was found in the graduation rates between those who participated in study abroad as compared to those who did not participate. Students living off-campus in non-college affiliated housing were more likely to participate in a study abroad course. Participating in a study abroad course had significant impact on graduation rates, particularly within certain majors.
Lund, J. A., & Blake, L. P.   (2011).   Student engagement & study abroad: Discoveries in existing institutional data.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Retrieved from: http://www.iienetwork.org/page/85515/
Abstract:  International education administrators are frequently in the position of advocating for increased attention to study abroad with anecdotal evidence and comparative statistics. Have we increased study abroad participation during our tenure? How much? At what cost? How do we compare with peer institutions? Our time is consumed with administering offices, programs, and budgets; while simultaneously advising students, managing crises abroad, conducting site visits and supporting faculty initiatives.
Lutjens, S. L.   (2006).   National security, the state, and the politics of U.S.-Cuba educational exchange.   Latin American Perspectives, 150(33)(5), 58-80.
Abstract:  In the context of the global war on terror, the political logic of U.S. Cuba policy seems oddly constant. Despite the renovation of the national security state and U.S. global strategy, and the expanded constellation of domestic interests at play in the Clinton-era policy of people-to-people exchange, long-lived hostility toward Castro and intractable reliance on economic sanctions and threats seem to characterize the post-911 Cuba policy of the Bush administration. Yet striking changes have in fact occurred, among them the radical restriction of travel and remittances to Cuba by Cuban-Americans and the limiting of academic exchange between Cuba and the United States. An exploration of Bush's Cuba policy and its implementation in the homeland security state reveals the tensions between antiterrorism and anti-Castroism.
Luu, D., Bain, O., & Green, M.   (2007).   The future of student flows in the United States.   International Higher Education, 43, 11.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2007.html
Maddix, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D.   (2009).   Cultural Borders and mental barriers: The relationship between living abroad and creativity.   Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(5), 1047-1061.
Abstract:  Despite abundant anecdotal evidence that creativity is associated with living in foreign countries, there is currently little empirical evidence for this relationship. Five studies employing a multimethod approach systematically explored the link between living abroad and creativity. Using both individual and dyadic creativity tasks, Studies 1 and 2 provided initial demonstrations that time spent living abroad (but not time spent traveling abroad) showed a positive relationship with creativity. Study 3 demonstrated that priming foreign living experiences temporarily enhanced creative tendencies for participants who had previously lived abroad. In Study 4, the degree to which individuals had adapted to different cultures while living abroad mediated the link between foreign living experience and creativity. Study 5 found that priming the experience of adapting to a foreign culture temporarily enhanced creativity for participants who had previously lived abroad. The relationship between living abroad and creativity was consistent across a number of creativity measures (including those measuring insight, association, and generation), as well as with masters of business administration and undergraduate samples, both in the United States and Europe, demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon.
Mahmud, S. et al.   (2010, Oct.).   Collaborative approaches to moderation of assessment in transnational education.   Paper presented at the Australian International Education Conference, Sydney , Australia.
Retrieved from: http://www.aiec.idp.com/PDF/2010_Mahmud_Fri_0900_B103_Paper.pdf
Abstract:  Transnational education (TNE) teaching and professional teams conduct assessment work across organisational, national and cultural boundaries. Achieving a shared set of principles and understandings, and through that, fair assessment processes within and across programs, is a complex task that requires ongoing dialogue and collaboration between all members of the teaching team. Collaborative approaches facilitate development of a community of practice in transnational programs with input of all staff involved in the teaching team. This research, from a two-year study into moderation of assessment in TNE, has revealed a number of challenges to collaboration amongst transnational teaching teams undertaking moderation of assessment including issues of trust and control, communication and cultural differences. This research has also identified many examples of good practice in developing a community of practice and aspirations in working towards developing and maintaining collegial relationships and sharing power.
Marcum, J. A.   (2006).   Challenge 2006: Study abroad and internationalizing the university.   University of California Education Abroad Program.
Retrieved from: http://eap.ucop.edu/common/reference/Challenge2006.pdf
Abstract:  Internationalization has become a widely proclaimed priority among American universities. Enrolling some 4000 UC and 1500 exchange students, the University's system wide Education Abroad Program (EAP) is positioned to contribute significantly to the institution's international aspirations. EAP provides UC students with curricular opportunities that can prepare them for careers in a global, knowledge-based economy.
Marginson, S. and Wende, A.   (2007).   Globalisation and higher education.   Paris: Organization for Economic and Co-operation and Development.
Marginson, S., & van der Wende, M.   (2007).   To rank or to be ranked: The impact of global rankings in higher education.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 306-329.
Abstract:  Global university rankings have cemented the notion of a world university market arranged in a single "league table" for comparative purposes and have given a powerful impetus to intranational and international competitive pressures in the sector. Both the research rankings by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the composite rankings by the Times Higher Education Supplement have been widely publicised and already appear to have generated incentives in favour of greater system stratification and the concentration of elite researchers. However, global comparisons are possible only in relation to one model of institution, that of the comprehensive research intensive university, and for the most part are tailored to science-strong and English-speaking universities. Neither the Shanghai nor the Times rankings provide guidance on the quality of teaching. It is important to secure "clean" rankings, transparent, free of self-interest, and methodologically coherent, that create incentives to broad-based improvement.
Marino, S. C., & Brena, M. O.   (2006).   The Bush administration and academic and educational exchange between Cuba and the United States.   Latin American Perspectives, 33(5), 13-28.
Abstract:  A new set of regulations has been implemented by the Bush administration to limit academic, cultural, and educational exchange between Cuba and the United States. The United States' political priority after the 9/11 attacks, the so-called war on terrorism, could have fostered cooperation between the two countries. Instead, and against the logic of collaborative policies, the Bush administration has taken a series of measures that further threaten the precarious bilateral interactions. As a result, academic and educational exchange has been seriously affected.
Marklein, M. B.   (2009, May 28).   Students studying abroad face dangers with little oversight.   USA Today.
Markos, K. N.   (2010).   The importance of a global education.   Colorado State University Journal of Student Affairs, 19, 10-14.
Abstract:  This article examines the importance of preparing post-secondary students for life in a global society. Faculty, administrators, and student affairs professionals must be aware of numerous factors involved in the preparation process. Research findings and recommendations focused around internationalization of the university are offered. These include the importance of leadership, university mission statements, curriculum reform, and education abroad.
Martin, P.   (2009).   Study abroad programs: Elements of effective international student and faculty exchange programs.   Sacramento, CA: State Research Bureau.
Abstract:  The California Research Bureau (CRB) has collected data on the current state of international education as well as some California-Mexico programs being conducted by California public institutions of higher education. Based on this data and a review of the literature, the CRB has identified five programmatic and funding elements that make up an effective international student and faculty study abroad program.
Martin, R.   (2006).   A context, categorization and measurement of international learning outcomes.   (Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University). Available from SFU Library Repository.
Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.sfu.ca/handle/1892/2640
Abstract:  This dissertation places the activity of mobility in historical, political, educational and global contexts that illustrate the evolving role of the state in supporting higher education, and the state's continuing attempts to influence the course of education through the more modern activity of student mobility. Trends such as globalization and massification are addressed, as is internationalization, to explain the rationale of the state for this continued engagement and the motivations of primary stakeholders - the state, the institution and the individual - to support study abroad. Positive outcomes are achieved by all players, hence their ongoing support. But what are these outcomes? A continuum of potential international learning outcomes is established from which the primary stakeholders choose hoped-for outcomes to motivate their engagement; these include economic and linguistic imperatives as well as intellectual, social and personal/attitudinal outcomes. The literature review leads to a methodology and research instrument used on a population of sojourners to test for the achievement of these outcomes and if achievement is significantly and causally related to the study abroad activity itself. or perhaps to some other variable. Data are conclusive and corroborate previous studies in showing positive intellectual and personal outcomes. Recommendations are made on the current research and for other research topics germane to the field of outcomes study. Of import is an exploration of the data's applicability for practitioners in pursuing outcomes-motivated programming, and the adaptation of new mobility models to replace much of the laissez-faire mobility programming common today, towards achieving sought-after outcomes and the internationalization objectives of institutions.
Martinez, M.   (2006).   Academic exchange between Cuba and the United States.   Latin American Perspectives, 33(5), 29-42.
McAuliffe, M. S., & Cohen, M. Z.   (2005).   International nursing research and educational exchanges: A review of the literature.   Nursing Outlook, 53(1), 21-25.
Retrieved from: http://www.nursingoutlook.org/article/S0029-6554(04)00155-1/abstract
Abstract:  For more than 40 years, nurses have been involved in international programs and networks established to strengthen nursing education and research in developed and developing countries. After discussing international educational and research exchanges at the American Academy of Nursing's International Expert Panel, we reviewed the state of the literature about these collaborations to evaluate the results. MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched for papers between 1982-2003 on international nursing education exchange programs. The 79 papers identified and reviewed included, primarily, descriptions of or experiences with the exchanges. Most were written by faculty, even though most exchanges were for students. Most papers were written by persons from only one side of the exchange. Literature on this topic needs to begin including a theoretical basis and review of the literature; more research on and evaluation of the effects of these programs is needed.
McBride, A. M., Sherraden, M. S., & Lough, B. J.   (2007).   Inclusion and effectiveness in international volunteering and service.   St. Louis: MO: Washington University Center for Social Development. (CSD perspective 07-13).
Abstract:  Drawing on research about international service conducted in the United States and overseas, this statement is an overview of what is known about the status and impacts of international volunteering and service.
McCabe, L.   (2005).   Mental health and study abroad: Responding to the concern.   International Educator, 14(6), 52-57.
McClure, K. R., Szelényi, K., Niehaus, E., Anderson, A. A., & Reed, J.   (2010).   "We just don't have the possibility yet": U.S. Latina/o narratives on study abroad.   Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(3), 367-386.
Retrieved from: http://journals.naspa.org/jsarp/vol47/iss3/art7/
Abstract:  Whether indirectly from governmental and non-governmental organizations or directly from higher education institutions, students receive messages that they should study abroad. Studying in a foreign country is considered essential if students are to be marketable to future employers and prepared to lead the U.S. into a new era. Despite the presence of such messages, the understanding of what it means to be absent from the undergraduate student population willing and able to study in a foreign country is severely limited. Importantly, what are the perceptions and experiences of students who repeatedly hear the value of study abroad and who, at the same time, are not willing and/or able to participate? The purpose of this critical qualitative study was to seek answers to this question by exploring the perceptions and experiences of a population that continues to experience low rates of study abroad participation: Latina/o undergraduate students.
McCormack, E.   (2006).   Conflict in Lebanon causes some U.S. colleges to suspend study abroad.   Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(3), A41.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i03/03a04101.htm
McLeod, L., & Scheib, M. (Eds.)   (2005).   A practice of yes! Working with overseas partners to include students with disabilities.   Eugene, OR: Mobility International USA and National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange.
McMurtrie, B.   (2007).   International educators discuss foreign recruitment and study abroad.   Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(40), A33.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v53/i40/40a03301.htm
McMurtrie, B.   (2009, Oct. 23).   Fullbright program adapts to Obama administration's priorities.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, LVI9.
Melchionna, L.   (2009, Jan.).   Transnational study programs and the global law school.   St. John's University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series (Paper #09-0164).
Retrieved from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1331609
Abstract:  Data shows that employers are more inclined to hire graduates who have studied and/or worked abroad. However, in order to remain competitive and satisfy an increasing demand of professionals with a foreign background, U.S. employers need to hire foreign educated graduates. U.S. law schools are realizing the importance of preparing students for the global knowledge-based economy. The rise in tuition costs, the wealth of the labor market, the complexity of visa procedures and a renewed competition among universities (in steady expansion) are re-shaping the globalization process of legal education. Law schools are changing and adapting to the ever changing legal education needs.
Mello, N., DiBiasio, D., & Vaz, R.   (2007).   AC 2007-500: Fulfilling accreditation board for engineering and technology (ABET) outcomes by sending students away.   Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.
Mendelson, V. G.   (2007, May/June).   The best laid plans: Goals setting in study abroad - Research conducted with API students in Spain Spring 2005-Spring 2007.   Paper presented at the NAFSA 2007 National Conference, Minneapolis, MN.
Abstract:  Many recent presentations and publications by our colleagues have focused on outcomes assessment, discussing a variety of complex variables that may characterize an education abroad experience. Researchers continually face the challenge of accounting for these variables from the "outside"; indeed, what is often left unaddressed is the flip side of the coin, the complementary "inside" perspective: what do students themselves feel they are getting out of study abroad? What do they hope and expect to get out of study abroad? Put simply, what are their goals?
Metzger, C. A.   (2006).   Study abroad programming: A 21st century retention strategy?.   College Student Affairs Journal, 25(2)(Spring), 164-176.
Miller, D. C., Sen, A., Malley, L. B., & Owen, E.   (2007).   Comparative indicators of education in the United States and other G-8 countries: 2006.   Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007006.pdf
Abstract:  This report describes how the education system in the United States compares with education systems in the other Group of Eight (G-8) countries. The G-8 countries—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States—are among the world's most economically developed countries. The main findings of this report are summarized and organized around the five major sections of the report—population and school enrollment; academic performance; context for learning; expenditure for education; and education returns: educational attainment and income.
Milstein, T.   (2005).   Transformation aborad: Sojourning and the perceived enhancement of self-efficacy.   International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(2), 217-238.
Abstract:  This paper empirically examines communication self-efficacy as a possible profound payoff of sojourning. A review of relevant literature explores the interrelationships of communication, sojourning, and personal growth. Questionnaire data from an international sample of 212 Japan Exchange and Teaching Programme (JET) alumni are used to test hypotheses about the sojourn and perceived changes in communication self-efficacy. Data analysis revealed that 95.5% of the sample retrospectively reported a perceived increase in self-efficacy. In addition, positive correlations were found between self-reported challenge of sojourn and reported perceived change in self-efficacy, and between self-reported success of sojourn and perceived communication self-efficacy scores. Discussion addresses these findings as well as study limitations, possible future research directions, and implications for practice.
Mitchell, P.   (2006).   Revisiting effective re-entry programs for returnees from US academic programs.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/resourcelibrary/default.aspx?id=8888
MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages   (2007).   Foreign languages and higher education: New structures for a changing world.   New York: Modern Language Association of America.
Retrieved from: http://www.mla.org/pdf/forlang_news_pdf.pdf
Moffatt, R.   (2004).   Building a foundation for success.   NAFSA Newsletter, 55(3)(May/Jun).
Monalco   (2009).   Survey of third party study abroad providers - Final report.   Fredonia, WI: Monalco, LLC.
Abstract:  This survey, conducted by Monalco, Inc. during summer and fall of 2002, is the first attempt by a consortium of nine third party study abroad providers to collect statistics pertaining to their unique niche in the field of study abroad. This effort was initiated by the Data Collection Committee of SECUSSA in 1999. The survey was designed to collect information similar to that collected annually for all U.S. Study Abroad in Open Doors: Report on International Educational Exchange. However, the survey design is intentionally more comprehensive than that of Open Doors in that it includes measures of elements of study abroad programs such as housing selection, program type, language prerequisites, staffing specifics on-site, financial aid availability, etc. Since 3rd party providers are not invited to submit data to Open Doors, this provides more detailed information for the field. Also, the data is more current than that of Open Doors since it captures the prior year's data.
Montrose, L.   (2008).   International study and experiential learning: The academic context.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 8.
Retrieved from: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/issues/vol8/vol8-08_montrose.htm
Moon, H. J.   (2006).   Student's perception of need for support in a mandatory study abroad program.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3251559).
Murphy, C. (Ed.)   (2007).   The Bologna process.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  In eight years, the Bologna Process changed the landscape of European higher education more than individual national initiatives did for decades. But is must be seen as an ongoing process to be properly understood.
Myers, D. N., Hill, M., & Harwood, S. A.   (2005).   Cross-cultural learning and study abroad: Transforming pedagogical outcomes.   Landscape Journal, 24(2)(5), 172-184.
Abstract:  This article reflects on the multiple dimensions of cross-cultural learning as a transformational process. Our case study, the Sustainable Futures Program, is a multiinstitutional, interdisciplinary, collaborative study-abroad program hosted by the Monteverde Institute in Costa Rica. Community-based studio projects are focal points of the program and range from site-scale landscape and architectural developments to conservation- based planning and design. North American students work with native Costa Ricans and naturalized Quakers living in the community, as well as with accompanying faculty from architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. The students gain new insights into diverse cultural systems and values, alternative professional methods and design solutions, as well as their own personal identity and career aspirations. The paper describes and analyzes each of the program structures, identifies the students' resulting personal and professional transformations from a student perspective, and summarizes program challenges. The transformation process extends beyond the students, providing transformational opportunities for the faculty, host institution, community-based organizations, and local residents.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2006).   Restoring U.S. competitiveness for international students and scholars.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  The United States is engaged in a global competition for international students and scholars.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2007).   The economic benefits of international education to the United States for the 2006-2007 academic year: A statistical analysis.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Assocation of International Educators.
Abstract:  NAFSA estimates that foreign students and their dependents contributed approximately $14.5 billion to the U.S. economy during the 2006-2007 academic year. This conservative figure is based on tuition figures from Peterson's, enrollment figures from the Institute of International Education's Open Doors 2007 report, living expenses calculated from Peterson's figures and analysis of the data by Jason Baumgartner at Indiana University - Bloomington's Office of International Services.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2008).   NAFSA's contribution to internationalization of higher education.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  In NAFSA's 2008-2010 strategic plan, the association recognizes internationalization of higher education as an area on which NAFSA should place more emphasis to "establish internationalization as an essential component of higher education" in the United States.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2008).   Task Force on Peace and Justice in International Education final report.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  Following on our interim report of September 2008, the Task Force on Peace and Justice in International Education is pleased to present its final recommendations to the NAFSA Board of Directors, pursuant to the charge issued by President Everett Egginton in March 2008. As was noted in September, the principal finding of the first phase of our work is that while there has been demonstrated interest among the NAFSA membership and leadership in advancing international education as a tool for promoting peace and justice, the Association has not yet been intentional about charting a path in that direction. This report then lays out recommendations to address that challenge.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2008).   The economic benefits of international education to the United States for the 2007-2008 academic year: A statistical analysis.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Assocation of International Educators.
Abstract:  NAFSA's annual Economic Impact Statements estimate the amount of money foreign students bring to the United States to support their education. This report does not rely on a "multiplier effect." Although this might provide a more accurate estimate of actual economic impact, there is no consensus on the appropriate size of such a multiplier. Along with our partners at the Institute of International Education and Indiana University, we are committed to continuing efforts to improve our data and methodology. By any measure, international education makes a significant contribution to the U.S. economy.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2009).   Renewing America's global leadership, a policy statement by NAFSA Association of International Educators.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  NAFSA: Association of International Educators shares and pledges its support for President Obama's commitment to renew America's global leadership. Our country, and indeed the entire world, welcomes the path our new president has charted - one that seeks to return America to its core principles, to reaffirm our commitment to extending a hand of friendship and understanding to the global community, and to assert our shared humanity in the advancement of peace in our world.
NAFSA Association of International Educators   (2010).   Working with the news media: A different kind of advocacy.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/uploadedFiles/NAFSA_Home/Resource_Library_Assets/Public_Policy/media_handbook.pdf
Abstract:  It is not necessary to be a communications professional to utilize the news media as a tool for advocacy. In fact, international educators themselves are often the best spokespeople for international education, particularly at the local level. As expert practitioners and members of the community, they offer an important point of view.
NAFSA Task Force on Institutional Management of Study Abroad   (2008).   Strengthening study abroad: Recommendations for effective institutional management for presidents, senior administrators, and study abroad professionals.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  The Task Force on Institutional Management of Study Abroad was formed by NAFSA: Association of International Educators to recommend guidelines for the effective management of study abroad, a key element in campus internationalization that is increasingly viewed as an essential component of the education of today's college graduates. Growth and change in study abroad have brought significant opportunities and challenges.
Naidoo, V.   (2007).   Research on the flow of international students to UK universities: Determinants and implications.   Journal of Research in International Education, 6, 287-307.
Abstract:  Using time series data over the 1985-2003 period, this article examines some of the determinants of international student mobility to universities in the UK. The research found that some of the main factors influencing international student mobility to the UK include access to domestic education opportunities in the source country, the level of tuition fees in the host country and the level of involvement of the source country in the global economy. At a time when recruiting international students is getting more competitive, these findings will provide the international student recruiter with an enhanced understanding of the dynamics of the international education sector.
NASULGC Task Force on International Education   (2004).   A call to leadership: the Presidential role in internationalizing the university.   Washington, DC: National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED483871.pdf
Abstract:  Global leadership in higher education by American colleges and universities is increasingly at risk, ironically by the very forces the institutions helped to create. Advances in technology and telecommunications and a remaking of the global economy have created a world in which interdisciplinary, cross-border research and discovery are the norm and expectations for students prepared to live, work and contribute to an interconnected world are high. Institutions that are able to prepare students-of-the-world will be the colleges and universities of the next century. This document focuses on the need for American colleges to Internationalize. It contains the following topics: (1) The Internationalization Challenge; (2) Four Good Reasons to Internationalize; (3) The 3 A's of Presidential Leadership; (4) Articulate: Creating a Transforming Vision; (5) Advocate: Mobilizing Support; and (6) Act: Leadership Action Strategies. [ERIC]
National Academies   (2005).   Policy implications of international graduate students and postdoctoral scholars in the United States.   Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Retrieved from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11289.html
Abstract:  This report reflects the continuing interest of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) in the education and training of scientists and engineers in the United States.
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges   (2004).   A call to leadership: The presidential role in internationalizing the university.   Washington, DC: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges.
National Leadership Council   (2007).   College learning for the new global century.   Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Retrieved from: http://www.aacu.org/leap/documents/GlobalCentury_final.pdf
Abstract:  This report is about the aims and outcomes of a twenty-first-century college education. It is also about the promises we need to make—and keep—to all students who aspire to a college education, especially to those for whom college is a route, perhaps the only possible route, to a better future.
Navarro, M.   (2004).   Analysis of factors affecting participation of faculty and choice of strategies for the internationalization of the undergraduate agricultural curriculum: The case of two land grant universities.   (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Thesis database. (UMI No. 3132113).
Abstract:  To adapt to the new global system, internationalization is increasingly being accepted as a necessity in higher education. Although the process involves the research, service, and education components of academic institutions, many authors have contended that the internationalization of the curriculum is the most important component of the process and that faculty are its main drivers and actors. While a number of the issues involving internationalization are very well documented, there is still little published information regarding the perspectives of random samples of faculty regarding strategies by which to internationalize the undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this study was to analyze perspectives of faculty in two land grant colleges of agriculture regarding academic and institutional strategies for the internationalization of the undergraduate agricultural curriculum. Faculty knowledge of international issues was positively correlated with their participation in the internationalization process. Knowledge and participation were, in turn, positively correlated with faculty perceptions of relevance of internationalization of the curriculum, and with faculty acceptance of most of the proposed academic and institutional strategies for internationalization. Faculty ranked mobility and infusion approaches as their preferred academic strategies for internationalization of the curriculum, and there were clear patterns of associations between selections by faculty, with mobility and infusion belonging to different groups. When asked about incentives to participate in the internationalization process, faculty mentioned funds, "real" recognition, and release time as their foremost choices. Also, faculty expressed a need for increased leadership, vision, and focus for the process. When looking at the academic and institutional strategies together, various patterns of association also appeared, reiterating the notion that there is not a single best approach to internationalization, but that multiple and complementary strategies are needed.
Neelakantan, S.   (2006, Feb. 10).   Slackers need not apply: An intensive study-abroad program immerses Americans in South Indian culture.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(23), A36.
Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/weekly/v52/i23/23a03601.htm
Nelson, C.   (2010).   A gay immigrant student's perspective: Unspeakable acts in the language class.   TESOL Quarterly, 44(3), 441-464. doi: 10.5054/tq.2010.226853.
Abstract:  This article focuses on a subset of the student cohort that has, until recently, been largely hidden from view in the literature of language education: gay immigrants. Little is known about what sorts of classroom experiences gay immigrant students find engaging or alienating, or why this sort of knowledge is needed. This case study uses interview excerpts to examine self-accounts of three classroom interactions that were significant to Pablo (a pseudonym), a 25-year-old gay man from Mexico studying English at a community college in the United States. The analysis takes into account Pablo's premigration experiences, together with relevant literature on second language socialisation, sexual migration, and gay language learners. By tracing Pablo's responses to the shutting down of gay themes, the presumption of heterosexuality, and the potential risks of signalling a gay identity, the analysis shows how gay topics and perspectives are constructed as unspeakable in the language classroom. The findings indicate that it can be difficult for gay immigrant (and international) students to establish communicative legitimacy in the language classroom, which can restrict learning opportunities. The classroom challenges that gay immigrants encounter—and the identity savvy they require—yield useful insights about language teaching in this age of mass migration.
Neppel, J. M.   (2005).   Study abroad as a passport to student learning: Does the duration of the study abroad program matter?.   (Master's Thesis, University of Maryland). Available from Digital Repository at the University of Maryland..
Retrieved from: http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/2652
Abstract:  This study examined the effect of the length of a study abroad program on the achievement of four learning outcomes: cognitive complexity, liberal learning, personal philosophy, and interpersonal self-confidence. Data was collected through a web-based survey instrument that was administered to a sample population of University of Maryland study abroad participants. The following study abroad programs were represented: Fall 2003, Winter 2004, Spring 2004, Summer 2004, Academic Year 2003-2004, Fall 2004, and Winter 2005. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed in the research design with gender and academic class standing as covariates.
Nerad, M.   (2010).   Globalization and the internationalization of graduate education: A macro and micro view.   Canadian Journal of Higher Education Revue, 40(1), 1-12.
Netherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC)   (2008).   What determines the (new) imperative for promoting the internationalisation of higher education?.   The Hague, Netherlands: NUFFIC.
Retrieved from: http://www.nuffic.nl/international-organizations/docs/nuffic/olympic/flow-EN.pdf
Abstract:  The central question of this Information Map is divided into two parts. The upper part answers the question "What do we think about internationalisation of higher education?" by listing the pros and cons of internationalisation. The lower part addresses the question "How is the internationalisation of higher education progressing?" by listing the factors that influence the level of internationalisation.
Norcini, J., Anderson, M. B., & McKinley, D. W.   (2006).   The medical education of United States citizens who train abroad.   Surgery, 140, 338-46.
Abstract:  Graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) make up approximately one quarter of the physician workforce in the United States. Among IMGs are a number of US citizens (USIMGs) who take graduate training positions and ultimately practice in the United States. Compared with graduates of US medical schools (USMGs), relatively little is known about the undergraduate educational experiences of these US citizens. The objective of this study was to identify the schools that produce the most USIMGs and to describe the educational experiences and examination performance of graduates of these schools.
Nunan, P.   (2006, Oct.).   An exploration of the long term effects of student exchange experiences.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Australian International Education Conference, Perth, Australia.
Retrieved from: http://www.aiec.idp.com/past_papers/2006.aspx
O'Callaghan, J. A.   (2006).   How a one semester study abroad experience affects an undergraduate college student's identity development.   (Masters thesis, Montana State University). Available from Montana State University Libraries.
Retrieved from: http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/2006/ocallaghan/OCallaghanJ0506.pdf
Abstract:  Obtaining a global perspective and world-mindedness is an important component to an undergraduate education in today's complex world. While the focus of a college education is to improve a student's breadth of knowledge, so to, is assisting students in their overall development as citizens of the world. Identity development is a key component to undergraduate education in this respect. In order to determine if study abroad is a useful tool in promoting higher levels of identity development in college students, a qualitative study was conducted with 8 undergraduates at Montana State University, Bozeman. Interviews conducted with the participants in this study indicate that study abroad did have a positive affect on the students' identity development.
O'Dell, K.   (2008).   Brief Note: An international faculty development experience.   International Social Work, 51(2), 247-252.
O'Donnell, K.   (2004).   Student perceptions of language learning in two contexts: At home and study abroad.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). Available form University of Pittsburgh Electronic Dissertations and Theses. (No. etd-12072004-075125).
Retrieved from: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-12072004-075125/unrestricted/ODonnellDecember2004.pdf
Abstract:  This study investigated the relationship between students' self-reported perceptions of their learning experiences and outcomes on measures of oral fluency, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, communicative ability and cognitive ability. Specifically, the study analyzed the correlation between activities in the classroom, in the social realm, and in the home environments with outcomes from measures Spanish acquisition. In addition, diary analysis was conducted to investigate which environment seemed most relevant to the learners during the semester.
O'Hara, S.   (2009).   Vital and overlooked: The role of faculty in internationalizing U.S. campuses.   Meeting America's Global Education Challenge, 6, 38-45.
Abstract:  One of the key objectives of U.S. colleges and universities is to prepare students for an increasingly global world and job market. Scholars have proven to be tremendously effective in advancing this important goal. They serve as models of international collaboration to students, colleagues, and professional organizations as they bring their international experience to bear in their teaching and research, as well as in the advising roles they play on and off campus.
O'Malley, F., Miller, J., Wang, S., & Harris, T.   (2004).   Report on the Delaware K-20 international education capacity study.   Newark: Institute for Public Administration.
O'Neal, F.   (2006).   Socially responsible programming for study abroad students: Preparation through videoconferencing.   Association of Academic Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Abstract:  Pre-departure education is a necessary preface for socially responsible programming. The University of Alabama provides this through its International Honors Program's seminar. International videoconferencing has brought a new dimension to the seminar, allowing students to engage in cross-cultural communication and gain knowledge that will help them engage in a socially responsible study abroad experience. The details of our videoconferencing ventures and their results are provided.
Obst, D., Bhandari, R., & Witherell, S.   (2007).   Meeting America's global education challenge: Current trends in U.S study abroad & the impact of strategic diversity initiatives.   New York: Institute for International Education.
Abstract:  This May 2007 IIE White Paper represents the first of the Institute's new policy research series. It assesses current trends in study abroad in the United States, providing a benchmark for future expansion. It includes an analysis of existing strategic funding initiatives - such as the Gilman, Boren and Freeman-ASIA Scholarships - showing how resource allocation can influence the diversity of participants, geographic destinations, field of study and length of study. In addition, the paper also highlights institutions that have created specific program models that better facilitate a more diverse group of students participating in study abroad.
Ogden, A. C.   (2006).   Why study abroad? Highlighting reasons for non-traditional destinations.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/file/_/why_study_abroad_reasons.pdf
Abstract:  Document addresses diversification of destination in education abroad. While Western Europe will likely remain the most conventional destination for US students studying abroad in the foreseeable future, greater emphasis should be placed on encouraging diversification of destination.
Ogden, A. C.   (2007).   The view from the veranda: Understanding today's colonial student.   Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, Winter, 35-55.
Retrieved from: http://www.frontiersjournal.com/documents/OgdenFRONTIERSJOURNALXVWinter2007-08-3.pdf
Abstract:  This article will seek to reexamine the student experience in education abroad today by employing an analogy derived from a post-colonial paradigm, thus describing contemporary students as Colonial Students. Moreover, the extent to which the profession of education abroad is complicit in developing and perpetuating a Colonial System will be demonstrated. Issues involved in the degree to which students are motivated toward pursuing meaningful intercultural learning and engagement will be presented and discussed in the context of working effectively with colonial students.
Ohmori, F.   (2004).   Japan and transnational higher education.   International Higher Education, 37, 13-14.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Oldstone-Moore, J.   (2009).   Sustained experiential learning: Modified monasticism and pilgrimage.   Teaching Theology and Religion, 12(2), 109-122.
Abstract:  This article outlines a template for sustained experiential learning designed to provide a context for learning the affective and performative as well as intellectual power of religion. This approach was developed for a traditional academic framework, adapting pedagogies developed for experiential learning, aesthetic training, and study abroad, and draws on personal experiences of teaching East Asian religions. The approach integrates intellectual learning with out of class experience to stimulate and enrich the highly personal and often significant questions that may arise upon studying religion and encountering religious practices both in and out of the classroom.
Olney, R. L.   (2008).   U.S. based business needs for technical/occupational employees with internations skills: considerations for community college and sub-baccalaureate programs in the Tampa Bay economic zone.   Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Florida.
Retrieved from: http://digital.lib.usf.edu:8080/fedora/get/usfldc:E14-SFE0002630/DOCUMENT
Abstract:  This study provides the first systematic needs assessment of a U.S. business region to determine if businesses want international skills taught in community college technical and occupational programs. Without this assessment, community college leaders and faculty are not able to determine whether they are adequately preparing students in these skills to be successful in tomorrow's fast paced, mobile and integrated global workforce.
Olsen, E. F.   (2007).   Authentic out-of-class communication in study abroad programs: Success defined by continued motivation and cultural appreciation.   (Masters thesis, Brigham Young University). Available from BYU Digital Collections.
Retrieved from: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ETD&CISOPTR=1190&CISOBOX=1&REC=4
Abstract:  The benefits of study abroad experience in second language acquisition have evolved from unchallenged assumption to the focus of rigorous study in the past several decades. The benefits of out-of-class contact with natives have likewise been questioned. Despite conflicting evidence of its benefit, students frequently cite out-of-class conversations with natives as among the most beneficial aspects of their language acquisition experience. Reviewing the extant literature, this study narrows in on authentic communication—that is, meaningful out-of-class contact with natives, in which students are able to genuinely express themselves and their personality—as a previously unanalyzed element of study abroad research. It is suggested that such conversations contribute to the success of study abroad students, particularly as it is measured by student motivation leading to continued engagement with the language study post-study abroad and cultural understanding. Surveys and essays by 85 students in two separate Arabic study abroad programs to the Middle East were analyzed. The findings bear on the efforts of educators to design and prepare students for successful study abroad programs.
Ono, H., & Piper, N.   (2004).   Japanese women studying abroad, the case of the United States.   Women's Studies International Forum, 27, 101-118.
Abstract:  There is clear statistical evidence showing that increasing numbers of Japanese people in general, and young Japanese women in particular, are spending time abroad. Considering Japan's full integration into the global economy in an age of enhanced globalization characterized by economic development and unprecedented ease of travel, it is not surprising that the number of Japanese individuals working, studying and traveling abroad is on the rise. This paper analyzes patterns of out-migration among Japanese women, with a particular focus on women who migrate to institutions of higher education abroad. Given the limited opportunity and reward structure of women in the Japanese labour market, it is not surprising that an increasing number of women choose to study abroad as a means to enhance their human capital, and to improve their employment prospects.
Oosterbeek, H., & Webbink, D.   (2006).   Assessing the returns to studying abroad.   CPB Discussion Papers (No. 64).
Retrieved from: http://www.cpb.nl/node/10181
Abstract:  The market for higher education increasingly becomes an international market. Nowadays, the number of students studying abroad is substantial and increasing. Many governments stimulate students to study abroad by offering a wide range of grants. However, little is known on the returns to studying abroad. This paper explores the feasibility of a new approach for finding credible evidence on the returns to studying abroad. We use a sample of graduates who applied for a specific grant for studying abroad and compare the outcomes of graduates who received the grant with the outcomes of graduates who did not receive the grant. The ranking of the applicants by the selection committee has been used to create credible control groups. We find that the grant has increased the probability of studying abroad with 23 to 42%-points and the duration of the study with 7 to 9 months. An extension of the study with 7 to 9 months increases the probability of living abroad with 30 to 39%-points. Studying abroad is associated with higher wages. However, it is not clear whether these higher wages are caused by studying abroad.
Oosterbeek, H., & Webbink, D.   (2009).   Does studying abroad induce a brain drain?.   Economica, 1-20.
Abstract:  This paper investigates whether studying abroad increases the propensity to live abroad later on. We use an IV approach based on cut-offs in the ranking of Dutch higher education graduates who applied for a scholarship program for outstanding students. Applicants ranked above the cut-off received a scholarship to study abroad. Applicants ranked below the cutoff were denied a scholarship. Assignment of a scholarship increases the probability to study abroad and the number of months spent studying abroad. Studying abroad and the number of months spent studying abroad increase the probability of currently living abroad.
Organisation for Economic Co-Ordination and Development   (2010).   Highlights from education at a glance 2010.   OECD Publishing.
Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932310434
Otero, M. S., & McCoshan, A.   (2006).   Survey of the socio-economic background of ERASMUS students - DG EAC 01/05.   Birmingham, UK: ECOTEC Research and Consulting Limited.
Abstract:  In October 2005 ECOTEC Research and Consulting Ltd. was commissioned by the European Commission (DG Education and Culture) to undertake a "Survey of the socio-economic background of ERASMUS students". The overall objective of this contract was to update a similar survey originally carried out by the European Commission in 1981 and published in 2000. Its overall aim was to give an overview of the socio-economic situation of students who participated in the ERASMUS programme during the academic year 2004/05.
Paige, R. M.   (2004).   Instrumentation in intercultural training.   In Landis, D., Bennett, J. M., & Bennett, M. J. (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (3rd ed., pp. 85-128). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Paola, R. J.   (2004).   The experience of American undergraduates in study-abroad programmes in South Africa.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa). Available from UNISA Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Retrieved from: http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/2068
Abstract:  This research examines, through a qualitative study, using in-depth, semi-structured descriptive interviews, the experience of six American undergraduates who chose to spend a semester in South Africa from January to June 2004. A focus group of professionals within the American university study-abroad setting was also interviewed in May of 2003 to determine factors of interest to professionals within the field.
Paus, E., Okay, J.   (2007).   Global education for all students: Innovation & integration in expanding learning abroad.   New York: The Teagle Foundation.
Peacock, J. I.   (2005).   Corporate recruiters' perceived value of study abroad and international travel experiences.   (Master's thesis, North Carolina State University).
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive listing of the character traits and personal gains students who participate in study abroad have claimed to acquire from international trips abroad (from secondary data sources) and to determine whether these are congruent with the desires of corporate recruiters and hiring managers. This study was also used to determine if and how corporate criteria is used to evaluate study abroad/international travel experiences during the resume portion of interviews. Conclusions were made from the results of personal interviews regarding the themes which emerge about travel/study abroad and employability. This study contributed to a general understanding of company interviewing procedures and the role study abroad and international travel experiences associated with studying abroad during interviews. Recommendations were made based on interaction between human resource directors, hiring managers and campus recruiters during the interview process of this study.
Pence, H. M., & Macgillivray, I. K.   (2007).   The impact of an international field experience on preservice teachers.   Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 14-25.
Abstract:  This study addresses the question, ''What is the impact of an international field experience on preservice teachers?'' and corroborates many of the findings of a similar study by Willard-Holt [(2001). The impact of a short-term international experience for preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 505-517]. In May 2005, 15 teacher education students from the US completed a 4-week international practicum, working in the classroom with teachers and students at a private international primary through secondary (K12) school in Rome, Italy. Data include preservice teachers' reflections and comments collected from their personal journals, focus groups with supervisors, observation notes, a final reflection paper, course evaluations, and a questionnaire completed 1 year after the experience to assess any lasting impact the trip may have had on them as individuals and future teachers. While there were a few negative experiences, the results indicate that overall the benefits included both professional and personal changes, such as increased confidence, a better appreciation and respect for differences of others and other cultures, and an awareness of the importance that feedback and reflection play in professional and personal growth. The article concludes with recommendations on how to improve such experiences to enhance the personal growth and cross-cultural competency of preservice teachers.
Penn, E. B., & Tanner, J.   (2009).   Black students and international education: An assessment.   Journal of Black Studies, 40(2), 266-282.
Abstract:  Black students participate in international education or study abroad experiences far less than other college students. The reasons, as stated in previous literature, include choice of major, attrition rates, lower levels of social economic affluence, and the lack of encouragement and support. These conclusions were tested with a sample of Black high school graduates enrolled in a residential, summer college-preparatory program. Results contradicted previous findings and led to the creation of a model to increase Black students' participation in international education through a service learning pedagogy using short, intensive study abroad experiences.
Peter D. Hart Research Associates   (2006).   How should colleges prepare students to succeed in today's global economy.   Washington, DC: The Association for Amercian Colleges and Universities.
Retrieved from: http://www.aacu.org/leap/documents/Re8097abcombined.pdf
Peterson, P. M.   (2008, Feb.).   The centrality of faculty to a more globally oriented campus.   Keynote address, American Council on Education Internationalization Collaborative Annual Meeting.
Retrieved from: http://www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=cii_networks&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=25878#Workshop
Petrie, M., Quill, E., & Smith, L.   (2007, Aug. 17).   Cuomo spokesman says attorney general's office finds problems 'under every rock we turn over'.   Chronicle of Higher Education.
Pew Global Attitudes Project   (2008).   Global public opinion in the Bush years (2001-2008).   Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
Pew Global Attitudes Project   (2009).   Most muslim publics not so easily moved: Confidence in Obama lifts U.S. image around the globe.  
Retrieved from: http://pewglobal.org/files/pdf/264.pdf
Pilon, J. G.   (2007, Dec. 3).   Obsolete restrictions on public diplomacy hurt U.S. outreach and strategy.   Backgrounder, 2089.
Abstract:  Section 501 of the U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 (Smith-Mundt Act) prohibits domestic dissemination of information designed for foreign consumption, ostensibly to ban "domestic propaganda." In the war on terrorism, this amounts to self-sabotage. Until Congress relegates this piece of legislation to the dustbin of history, the U.S. cannot expect to conduct public diplomacy effectively.
Pisano, R. H.   (2007).   Transforming students through service in study abroad: A case study of an international service-learning program in Ecuador.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3275168).
Abstract:  Experiential programs are thought to increase student learning in a variety of educational settings. Service-learning is a growing trend in study abroad yet it remains an option that is not yet widely acknowledged nor well understood. Designed to be a transforming experience, documenting the ways in which students undergo change from an international service-learning experience helps to identify best practices in program design and implementation and lends credibility to service-learning as a worthwhile study abroad option. This case study analyzed students participating in the International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership (IPSL) program in Quito, Ecuador during the fall 2006 semester. The study focused on students' transformation, including their motivations, goals, and outcomes. The effect of the variables of student gender and type of service site on the service-learning experience, as well as the impact of key people in the service-learning program, were also examined. A variety of qualitative techniques were employed: a series of student questionnaires; observations in the community agencies and the required service-learning course; interviews with agency staff and the service-learning course instructor; and document analysis of student journals, IPSL website and pre-departure materials, on-site orientation information, the service-learning course syllabus, and agency literature. The results indicate the overall impact of participating in an international service-learning program is tremendously positive and allows students to expand upon their motivations and goals and achieve profound benefits in the areas of cultural adaptation, knowledge acquisition, and impact on their values and future career plans. While the findings revealed some evidence of gender and service placement type differences, they were not frequent or substantial enough to make any claims regarding their effect on the student experience in international service-learning programs in general. Although difficult to quantify, those who had a role in the IPSL Quito program impacted the student outcomes resulting from the international service-learning experience to some degree, however marginal. While much can be gained through participation in education abroad, this study demonstrates that the inclusion of a service element allows students to experience their learning in a more in-depth and meaningful way.
Poole, D., & Davis, T.   (2006).   Concept mapping to measure outcomes in study abroad programs.   Social Work Education, 25(1), 61-77.
Abstract:  Faculty efforts to measure outcomes in study abroad programs typically fall short of current expectations for measurable results and increased competencies. Part of the problem stems from the dual challenge of conducting rigorous, objective assessment of these programs without losing the rich, subjective meaning of the cultural experience for student growth and development. The concept mapping method developed by Trochim is a potentially powerful tool for overcoming this challenge, allowing evaluators to utilize qualitative and quantitative research designs simultaneously. This paper illustrates the use of the method in an American social work study abroad program based in Mexico.
Powell, A.C., et. al.   (2007).   International experience, electives, and volunteerism in surgical training: A survey of resident interest.   Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 205(1), 162-168.
Retrieved from: http://www.journalacs.org/article/S1072-7515(07)00270-0/abstract
Abstract:  Sustainable international surgery expertise is more frequently being discussed in the US surgical community. At the resident level, there is discussion about incorporating international experience into residency training, but current opportunities for residents are limited and often require personal funding and use of vacation time. This study analyzed resident interest in acquiring international experience.
Powers, B.   (2006).   Visiting Fulbrighters in Asia: What really happens after they leave our offices?.   NAFA Journal, Summer, 10-12.
Abstract:  When students win overseas fellowships, they are thrilled, advisors are excited and institutions are appreciative, but what happens when the publicity stops and the adventure starts? Several of my students have been good email correspondents and I've been able to get intermittent glimpses of what their time abroad was like, but I've always wanted more, to see them in action and get a better sense of what they are experiencing.
Prince, J., DeRomana, I., Holvey-Bowles, J., & Hopkins, S.   (2006).   Best practices in addressing mental health issues affecting education abroad participants.   New York: NAFSA Institute of International Educators.
Public Diplomacy Council   (2005).   A call for action on public diplomacy.  
Retrieved from: http://www.oss.net/dynamaster/file_archive/050131/dbb63847f3d9dc2fd82de4f11377e124/Public_Diplomacy_White_Paper.pdf
Quezada, R. L.   (2004).   Beyond educational tourism - Lessons learned while student teaching abroad.   International Education Journal, 5(4), 458-465.
Raby, R. L.,& Valeau , E. J.   (2007).   Community college international education: Looking back to forecast the future.   New Directions for Community Colleges, 138, 5-14.
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ767600&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ767600
Abstract:  This chapter traces the historical foundations on which today's community college international programs are based and concludes with strategies for strengthening and expanding the internationalization of community colleges.
Radhakrishna, R. B.   (2006, May).   Teaching an extension program development course in an international setting: Challenges and opportunities.   Paper presented at the Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 22nd Annual Conference, Clearwater Beach, FL.
Abstract:  This study provides a glimpse of a teaching assignment that this author completed in Russia that involved teaching of Extension Program Development Course to Russian and American students. The course was designed to provide an understanding of the U.S. land-grant system with a special emphasis on Cooperative Extension System.
Redden, E.   (2007, Aug. 14).   Study abroad under scrutiny.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/08/14/abroad
Abstract:  A New York Times article suggesting that decisions in study abroad offices could be influenced by perks similar to those that have clouded ties between colleges and private lenders inspired mixed reactions among international educators Monday. But even those who took issue with some aspects of the article said that they saw the scrutiny — and the transparency it could potentially help bring about — as more essential than ever as the American study abroad market continues to grow.
Redden, E.   (2007, Aug. 20).   The middlemen of study abroad.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://insidehighered.com/news/2007/08/20/abroad
Abstract:  With the newfound scrutiny on the ties binding college study abroad offices and outside organizations, and whether these relationships are ethical or even legal, a broader question has also emerged: Leaving aside questions of monetary incentives and junkets, why do colleges use these entities in the first place?
Redden, E.   (2007, Jun. 1).   So what did you learn in London?.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://insidehighered.com/news/2007/06/01/research.
Redden, E.   (2007, Jun. 11).   Study abroad isn't just for white students.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/06/11/diversity
Redden, E.   (2007, Mar. 1).   Sexual harassment on study abroad.   Inside Higher Ed.
Redden, E.   (2007, May 31).   The next frontier.   Inside Higher Ed.
Abstract:  With accountability a buzzword in the air, it's only natural that study abroad programs might soon come under stricter scrutiny, compelled to pony up data and dossiers for policing of some sort. A largely unregulated industry that's experienced rapid growth in recent years, study abroad programs are ripe for quality control mechanisms, said Brian J. Whalen, president and chief executive officer of The Forum on Education Abroad, an organization representing about 250 institutions that is beginning a voluntary, standards- and mission-based self-study and external evaluation review process this coming year that looks something like accreditation.
Redden, E.   (2007, Nov. 13).   Study abroad gone awry.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/11/13/washington
Redden, E.   (2007, Oct. 9).   Study abroad policies and practices.   Inside Higher Ed.
Abstract:  New survey data released Monday provides the clearest picture yet of the prevalence of potential conflicts of interest in study abroad.
Redden, E.   (2008).   Creating capacity in study abroad.   Inside Higher Ed.
Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/01/02/cea
Reinig, M., & Schouten, P.   (2010).   Use of technology in education abroad.   Washington, DC: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/ea_tech_report.pdf
Abstract:  The Education Abroad Knowledge Community commissioned a task force to investigate the ways in which technology is currently being used in the education abroad field. A survey was sent to over 2,700 education abroad directors and assistant directors, who hailed from a variety of institutions and organizations. In total we received 515 responses.
Reisberg, L.   (2004).   Where did all the international students go.   International Higher Education, 37, 11-12.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Reyes, X. A.   (2006, Feb.).   Study of organizer perspectives on the impact of linguistic and cultural immersion experiences in Mexico and Puerto Rico.   Paper presented at the 2006 APPLAC Conference, Puebla, Mexico.
Abstract:  This study examines exchange programs that have been in place for a number of years at two institutions and led by two Spanish professors.
Rhodes, G.   (2005).   Preparing for the possibility of an avian flu pandemic: Issues to consider for study abroad programs.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_special_topics_avian_flu.asp
Rieffel, L.   (2005).   Reaching out: Serving American overseas.   Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Abstract:  The purpose of this paper is to focus on one particular soft instrument in one category of these instruments. The category is activities funded by the federal budget. The instrument is overseas service, typified by the Peace Corps. The central question addressed in this paper is whether federal government funding for overseas service is too big or too small. A preliminary answer involves an attempt to measure the "bang for the buck" in two distinct exercises. One compares the major overseas service programs supported by the US Government—the Peace Corps program—with other soft instruments, such as overseas study. The other compares the Peace Corps program with alternative overseas service programs. Both exercises are constrained by the lack of any broadly accepted methodology for comparing these kinds of apples and oranges.
Rizvi, F.   (2004).   International student mobility and its limits: The Australian case.   International Higher Education, 37, 7-9.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Rose, S., & Bylander, J.   (2007).   Border crossings: Engaging students in diversity work and intergroup relations.   Innovative Higher Education, 31(5), 251-264.
Abstract:  As an innovative model for diversity education, Dickinson College designed the Crossing Borders program to encourage culturally diverse students to live, work, and study together in multiple contexts both within the United States and abroad. Envisioning a series of crossings, the program brings together up to 20 students from Dickinson College, a predominantly White Institution, and Xavier University, Dillard College, and Spelman College, three Historically Black Colleges/Universities, to spend 4 weeks studying together in Cameroon. West Africa. Students then study at Dickinson for one semester and at one of the Historically Black Colleges/Universities for one semester.
Rotabi, K. S., Gammonley, D., & Gamble, D. N.   (2006).   Ethical guidelines for study abroad: Can we transform ugly Americans into engaged global citizens?.   British Journal of Social Work, 36, 451-465.
Retrieved from: http://bjsw.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/3/451.full.pdf+html
Abstract:  Study abroad has become a common experience for American social work students. However, there is little guidance for facilitation of such courses in an international context. As a result, there is a risk that students and facilitators can perpetuate the privileged and 'Ugly American' image. Providing guidance for prevention of such mistakes, the authors present a conceptual model for international learning, based on an ethical framework founded on personal values and supported by traditional ethical principles and values. Included are the pillars of social justice and human rights, community capacity, dignity and worth of the person, self-determination, boundaries, competence, facilitated learning in a safe environment and integrity. Finally, consciousness-raising as professionals,respectful engagement in context, and intercultural competence are discussed.
Rubin, K.   (2004).   Going 'home' to study.   International Educator, 13(1), 26-33.
Rubin, K.   (2005).   Beyond the great wall: China's potential as a destination for study abroad.   International Educator, 14(5), 24-33.
Rubin, K.   (2008).   Growing rapidly at small, medium, and large institutions.   International Educator, Sept./Oct., 42-44.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/ie_sepoct08_edabroad.pdf
Rumbley, L.   (2007).   Internationalization via "Europeanization" in Spain.   International Higher Education, 48, 6-7.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2007.html
Rust, V. D., Johnstone, B., & Allaf, C.   (2009).   Reflections on the development of comparative education.   In R. Cowen & A. M. Kazamias (Eds.), International handbook of comparative education (pp. 121-138). New York: Springer.
Abstract:  This chapter deals with our reflections on the development of the field of comparative education. We ask three major questions. What are its beginnings? Where has it gone? Where is it going?
S Jiusto, S., & DiBiasio, D.   (2006).   Experiential learning environments: Do they prepare our students to be self-directed, life-long learners?.   Journal of Engineering Education, 95(3), 195-204.
Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3886/is_200607/ai_n17178202/
Abstract:  Recent research indicates that traditional academic structures may not effectively promote self-directed learning. We investigated whether an experiential interdisciplinary projects program, called the Global Studies Program, increased readiness for self-directed learning (SDL) and life-long learning (LLL) using three methods: a nationally recognized course evaluation system called the Individual Development and Educational Assessment system (IDEA); an internal student project quality assessment protocol; and the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS). Student self-assessments through the IDEA system showed Global Studies Program students reported much greater progress in LLL-related skills than did national and local comparison groups. Similarly, review of student projects by independent faculty teams found Global Studies Program students consistently outscored on-campus project students in LLL-related measures by wide margins. The SDLRS also showed a positive, but less emphatic increase in SDL readiness among a Global Studies Program cohort. The research demonstrates the success of one experiential learning environment in promoting SDL/LLL, while raising interesting issues regarding alternative methods of measuring potential benefits.
Salisbury, M. H., Paulsen, M. B., & Pascarella, E. T.   (2010).   To see the world or stay at home: Applying an integrated student choice model to explore the gender gap in the intent to study abroad.   Research in Higher Education, 51(7), 615-640.
Abstract:  Although interest in study abroad has grown consistently in recent decades, study abroad professionals and higher education scholars have been unable to explain or rectify the long-standing gender gap in study abroad participation. This study applies an integrated model of the student-choice construct to explore differences between male and female intent to study abroad. Results indicate that, not only can various forms of social and cultural capital predict student decisions about curricular opportunities during college such as study abroad, but gender plays a substantial role in altering the ways in which those forms of capital shape student decisions differently. These findings present a range of implications for researchers interested in better understanding the decision making process of college students as well as study abroad professionals and national policymakers intent on narrowing the gender gap in study abroad participation.
Salisbury, M.H., Umbach, P.D., Paulsen, M.B., & Pascarella, E.T.   (2008, May).   Going global: Understanding the choice process of the intent to study abroad.   Paper presented at the 48th Association for Institutional Research Forum, Seattle, WA..
Abstract:  This study applies an integrated model of college choice to better describe students who do and do not intend to study abroad. Although internationalization through study abroad is widely touted as a preferred means of developing globally competent college graduates, very little is known about the factors that influence students' predisposition to study abroad. This research explores the impact of economic, human, social, and cultural capital on students' intent to study abroad. Analysis of data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNSLAE) demonstrates a complex interplay between SES, accumulated pre-college capital, and capital acquired during the freshman year. Important implications for national policy makers, senior administrators, study abroad professionals and higher education researchers are discussed.
Savicki, V., Adams, I., Wilde, A., & Binder, F.   (2006).   Sequences of socio-cultural adjustment.   Portland, Oregon: AHA International.
Abstract:  Intercultural adjustment of 72 study abroad students in a major European city was followed over a three month period by means of tracking categories of cultural contact that students identified as salient. Nine or ten times during their sojourn students spontaneously identified such topics, no lists or categories of issues were proposed to choose from. The reports were contemporaneous rather than retrospective. Twenty three categories of topics were coded.
Savicki,V., Heller, L., Binder, F., & Suntinger, W.   (2008).   Contrasts, and changes in potential and actual psychological intercultural adjustment.   In Savicki, V. (Ed.), Developing intercultural competence and transformation: Theory, research, and application in international education (pp. 111-127).
Abstract:  A comparison was made between students studying abroad (SA) in a foreign culture versus students staying in their home culture (Home) in relation to potential and actual intercultural adjustment. In addition, the SA sample was followed over five time periods from pre-departure, beginning, middle, end, and 3 month follow-up of the study abroad semester. The SA group was higher than the Home group in actual adjustment and most of the measures of potential intercultural adjustment both at the beginning and at the end of the semester. SA students changes in the Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale (ICAPS) did not support a single theory of adjustment. ICAPS Total and Emotional Regulation scores for the SA group at pre-departure were significantly correlated with actual adjustment three months later at the end of the semester. Actual and potential intercultural adjustment changed in opposite directions over the course of the foreign sojourn. Follow-up measures indicated a continuation of growth in the Critical Thinking scale beyond the end of the study abroad sojourn. In addition, the total intercultural adjustment scale rebounded at follow-up while the actual adjustment remained high indicating preservation of gains brought about by the study abroad experience. Discussion focuses on key features that may enhance both actual and potential intercultural adjustment. This study has implications for selection and preparation of students for their study abroad experience. Likewise, coaching and support activities could be made more effective by considering the changes over time in actual and potential intercultural adjustment of study abroad students.
Scheib, M.   (2009).   Tracking students with disabilities who study abroad.   International Educator, (Mar/Apr), 52-55.
Schemo, D. J.   (2007, Aug. 16).   Study abroad is new focus of inquiry into perks.   The New York Times.
Schneider, A. I.   (2004).   What can be done to internationalize teacher training? A research report on the undergraduate training of secondary school teachers.   International Studies Perspectives, 5, 316-320.
Abstract:  The following excerpted report discusses the interaction of the international studies field and teacher education programs at colleges and universities around the country. The reform of teacher education in whatever substantive area is a topic at the forefront of initiatives from the federal government in Washington, DC, as well as ones from private foundations. One such initiative has recently been launched by the Carnegie Corporation of New York and is called Teachers for a New Era (TNE). Linking 11 universities across the country, TNE can be viewed as an innovative attempt to better integrate the content education provided by colleges of arts and sciences with the pedagogical knowledge resident in schools of education. The ultimate aim is to impact student learning by producing better classroom teachers nation-wide. The following article engages many of these same topics as they relate to the international studies education. The Editors hope that you will find the article thought-provoking, and we invite comments and responses from members of the ISA community.
Schucher, D.   (2009).   Where minds meet: The "professionalization" of cross-strait academic exchange.   Hamburg, Germany: GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
Abstract:  In international relations, transnational academic exchange or, more generally, cultural ex-change is usually seen as a function of the quality of bilateral relations. As a variety of public diplomacy intended to win the "hearts and minds" of intellectuals in another country, the development of educational exchanges depends on the twists in foreign policy. Academic exchange across the Taiwan Strait commenced in the late 1980s, directly after the lifting of the travel ban, and had gathered momentum by the mid-1990s. It even accelerated further after the inauguration of the pro-independence Chen-government in Taiwan in 2000, creat-ing the "paradox" of the expansion of social contacts in times of frosty political relations. One possible explanation for this is that due to the rather unique situation in the Taiwan Strait people-to-people exchanges between Taiwan and mainland China have been officially promoted as a substitute for official contacts. What is often neglected by analysts of cross-Strait relations, however, is the fact that academic exchange is also a response to the global pressure to internationalize higher education. Within this two-dimensional framework (in-ternational relations and the internationalization of higher education), cross-Strait academic exchange has been developing its own dynamic. The outcome has been an increasing amount of nonofficial communication and the growing "professionalization" (in the sense of the academic profession) of academic exchange.
Schwietz, M. S.   (2006).   Internationalization of the academic profession: An exploratory study of faculty attitudes, beliefs and involvement at public universities in Pennsylvania.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). Available from the University of Pittsburgh Electronic Theses and Dissertations..
Retrieved from: http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-04162006-185907/unrestricted/SchwietzMicheleApril162006.pdf
Abstract:  This study investigates the attitudes, beliefs, experiences and involvement related to internationalization by faculty members at a group of universities in the United States. Data collected from faculty at nine public universities in Pennsylvania (n = 829) were used to provide a descriptive and correlational analysis that: explores faculty attitudes, beliefs and experiences; reviews the extent to which faculty incorporate an international perspective into their teaching, research, and scholarship; determines what relationships exist between faculty characteristics, campus climate, and attitudes, beliefs and behaviors; and examines patterns that are used to describe or predict faculty members' orientation to internationalization.
Scott, G. A.   (2007).   Challenges in attracting international students to the United States and implications for global competitiveness.   Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office.
Retrieved from: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-1047T.
Scott-Smith, G.   (2006).   Searching for the successor generation: Public diplomacy, the US embassy's international visitor program and the Labour Party in the 1980s.   The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 8(2).
Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-856X.2006.00221.x/abstract
Abstract:  This article looks at the influence of US public diplomacy in the UK, in particular the use of the International Visitor Program as a channel for encouraging dialogue and the introduction of new ideas into the Labour party during the 1980s. The drift towards the left and the adoption of unilateralism caused great concern for the Americans. What was at stake was the future direction of the party and the need to realign its international stance with American interests. A keen eye was always kept on new talent entering the House of Commons after each election. In 1983 the 'best and the brightest' were undoubtedly Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. By using the Program to open up the United States to these young politicians and their political allies, the Embassy contributed to the linkage and cross-fertilisation between those who would become New Labour and the New Democrats a decade later.
Scott-Smith, G.   (2008).   Mapping the undefinable: Some thoughts on the relevance of exchange programs within international relations theory.   The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616.
Abstract:  This article examines the importance of exchange programs as channels of political influence and the value that can be gained from examining their impact via various theoretical positions in international relations (IR). Although there are clear possibilities for linking the study of public diplomacy with IR theory, so far this has not occurred to any real extent. Following World War II, a whole swathe of social scientific and behavioralist research, mainly in the fields of communications and psychology, laid the basis for understanding the political implications of public diplomacy and exchanges. Using these studies as a springboard, the article moves on first to consider their continuing relevance and then to insert exchanges within reflections on IR fields such as regime theory, Gramscian-based critical theory, constructivism, epistemic communities, and transnational networks. The article concludes with some observations on the relevance of exchanges as forms of cultural-political interchange and the use of case studies for confirming their importance as an object of study for IR.
Scott-Smith, G.   (2008).   Networks of Empire: The US State Deparment's foreign leader program in the Netherlands, France, and Britain 1950-1970.   Brussels: Peter Lang.
Sebastian, E. F.   (2009).   Protest from the fringe: Overseas students and their influence on Australia's export of education services policy, 1983-1996.   Available from University of Sydney eScholarship Repository.
Retrieved from: http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/5833
Abstract:  The thesis investigates the motivations behind, the methods used in, and the results of the overseas students' collective action contesting the measures, which the Australian government introduced from 1983 to 1996.
Settle, W.   (2005).   Study abroad and mental health: Identifying, assisting, and referring students in distress.   SAFETI Online Newsletter, 3(1).
Retrieved from: http://www.globaled.us/safeti/v3n12005ed_study_abroad_and_mental_health.asp
Shah, T.   (2006).   Affordability and access.   International Higher Education, 43, 5.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2006.html
Shaheen, S.   (2004).   The effect of pre-departure preparation on student intercultural development during study abroad programs.   (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3159930).
Abstract:  The question addressed in this project is whether pre-departure preparation can help students to gain intercultural competencies when they study abroad, especially on shorter length programs. Specifically, the following research questions were examined; 1) How does a pre-departure orientation course titled Intercultural Experiential Learning (IS 693) affect the cultural learning for students on study abroad programs, 2) How do the changes in intercultural learning of students on study abroad programs compare with students who studied abroad without the pre-departure orientation course, and with students who did not study abroad, as measured by the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) post-test scores on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), 3) What dynamics or factors influence the nature of student learning about intercultural competence on study abroad programs?
Sheppard, K., & Henson, S.   (2006, Dec.).   Global classroom: Teaching political science through study abroad and international internships.   Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Charlotte, NC.
Shirley, S. W.   (2006).   The gender gap in post-secondary study abroad: Understanding and marketing to male students.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3233968).
Abstract:  Given the post-September 11, 2001, environment, a renewed focus has been on broadening the global perspective of American university students. During the past 20 years, the participation rate of American college and university students studying abroad has grown tremendously. International education has experienced much growth and increased attention; yet, despite the interest, enrollment in these programs has consistently been primarily by females with only limited participation by male students. Study abroad professionals have speculated about this gender gap, yet very little research has been completed to understand the disparity. This study examined differences in how males and females perceive studying abroad to potentially find ways of encouraging more males to study abroad.
Siddiq, F., Baroni, J., Lye, J, & Nethercote, W. C. E.   (2010).   The economic impact of post-secondary international students in Atlantic Canada: An expenditure analysis.   Halifax, Nova Scotia: Dalhousie University School of Public Administration.
Abstract:  The School of Public Administration, Dalhousie University, carried out an expenditure analysis of the economic impact of international students in Atlantic Canada's universities and colleges. The study used a survey of international students and a combination of the literature, government and university information. The initial economic impact of international students was found to be $376 million per year, including an initial injection of $175 million of new money to Atlantic Canada. International students spent $2.64 ($1.91 of which is new money injected into the economy) in Atlantic Canada for every dollar spent by Atlantic Province governments for their education and health care. The total economic impact of international students was $565 million after application of the spending multiplier. Generally, international students had positive impressions of Atlantic Canada, and 40 percent of survey respondents expressed interest in permanent residence, suggesting that this group was a good candidate source of future immigrants who could help to address the region's demographic challenges.
Sideli, K., & Kreutzer, K.   (2005).   Data collection, demographics, and the research agenda.   In Brockington, J., W. Hoffa, W., & Martin, P. (Eds.), NAFSA's Guide to Education Abroad for Advisers and Administrators (3rd ed., pp. 45-60). Washington, D.C.: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Simon, L. A. K., Foster, R. M., & Austin, J. C.   (2010).   The federal role in supporting public universities' global missions.   Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.
Retrieved from: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2010/0927_great_lakes/0927_great_lakes_papers/0927_great_lakes_higher_education.pdf
Abstract:  The federal government can aid in the economic transition of the Great Lakes and its older industrial metros by helping to support the capacities and new potential these institutions offer, extending the spirit and mission of federal land grant universities into the "next economy." To this end, this paper calls for federal support to stimulate the first cluster of "World-Grant" universities to both refresh the region's (and nation's) competitiveness in cutting edge technologies, and to better connect the older industrial metros where many of these institutions reside to the world at large.
Simpson, T. W.   (2005).   Mormons study "abroad": Latter-day saints in American higher education, 1870-1940.   (Doctoral dissertation, Universirt of Virgina). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3177499).
Abstract:  In the 1870s American Mormons began to invade American universities. By 1940 hundreds of Mormons had left Utah and Idaho to enroll at Harvard, Michigan, Cornell, Stanford, Berkeley, Columbia, and the University of Chicago. Church leaders initially sent the students as missionaries, but not to proselytize. Rather, they tapped these women and men for specialized training in professions ranging from law, medicine, and engineering to education. Mormons saw education in Gentile universities as a means to realize a corporate hope: a kingdom of God in the Mountain west. The goal was, in the words of Brigham Young, to gather the world's knowledge of Zion, to help build the perfect society in the "latter days" before God's millennial reign. My project examines how Mormon students maintained their identity outside Utah, the commitments and restraints that brought them back, and the fate of Mormon attempts to reconcile faith and reason.
SIT Study Abroad   (2008).   After study abroad: A toolkit for returning students.   Brattleboro, VT: World Learning.
Abstract:  For those who took the challenge to study abroad, the transition back to life at home is full of exciting possibilities. This toolkit will be a starting point for you as you readjust to home life. Our goal is to provide you with resources to help smooth your transition, to help you integrate your experiences into your academic and professional lives and to help you take action and be an engaged global citizen. Your study abroad experiences can be put to use in a variety of ways. Take a look at the world of resources available to you.
Siwinska, B.   (2009).   Poland: Problems of internationalization.   International Higher Education, 55, 11.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2009.html
Smolentseva, A.   (2004).   International students in Russia.   International Higher Education, 38, 18-19.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2004.html
Snow, N.   (2008).   International exchanges and the U.S. image.   The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(198).
Solem, M., & Ray, W.   (2005).   Gauging disciplinary support for internationalization- A survey of geographers.   Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.
Abstract:  This study assesses the status of internationalization within the discipline of geography by examining patterns of international collaboration and faculty support for global learning outcomes. Through a survey of the AAG postsecondary membership, we interpret the professional capabilities, experiences, and contexts of faculty members who have internationalized their practice for the purpose of enhancing teaching, research, or service. Nearly 25% of the sample reported having at least one experience with an international collaboration focused on teaching or course development, whereas 57.3% participated in an international collaborative research project. Overall, geographers embraced the goals of global education in their teaching, yet their support varies considerably when considered by gender, research specialty, and institutional context. Human geographers, women, non-native English speakers, and liberal arts faculty were more inclined to support global learning outcomes, especially those outcomes with a strong affective-trait or values component. Our analysis shows that faculty members who practice international collaboration and incorporate global perspectives in their courses are more likely to perceive internationalization as important for their professional growth and for student learning. Incentives and professional support from departments, institutions, and professional networks also proved to be important factors in faculty decisions to pursue internationalization efforts. The results of this study contribute to theories of faculty development and educational change, but can also help professional associations, academic departments, and higher education institutions design policies aimed at facilitating scholarly and educational collaborations among faculty worldwide.
Spencer, S. E., Kreutzer, K., & Shallenberger, D.   (2008, Apr.).   Professionalizing the field: Salaries, workload and other job-related topics we don't discuss.   Forum on Education Abroad, Boston, MA.
Stainburn, S.   (2008, Mar. 24).   The world is their classroom.   Crain's Chicago Business.
Abstract:  Schlepping to class on nights and weekends used to be enough travel for executives earning their MBAs while working full time. Not anymore.
Steen, S. L.   (2007).   The effects of disclosure on the reentry experience of U.S. college and university students returning from a semester abroad.   (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3289755).
Abstract:  This study investigated the effects of disclosure on American college and university students' experiences of intercultural reentry following a semester of study abroad.
Stella, A.   (2006).   Quality assurance of cross-border higher education.   Quality in Higher Education, 12(3), 257-276.
Abstract:  Cross-border higher education raises a number of challenges and there is a growing awareness among quality assurance agencies that they have to work together to address these challenges. The joint effort of UNESCO-OECD to develop Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-border Higher Education is an educational response to this need. This paper presents the background and outcome of discussions of the quality assurance agencies with specific reference to these Guidelines, during the workshop held at The Hague in May 2006. Section 1 presents the background to the theme. Capacity building emerges as a major challenge to be addressed. Section 2 explains how UNESCO-OECD joint effort is an educational response to this challenge. Section 3 argues that the Guidelines are helpful to address the concerns of different perspectives but also raises six specific questions that need attention. Section 4 summarises what emerged during the parallel group discussions on those six questions. Finally, section 5 draws the emerging pattern from the discussions and attempts to identify future directions for the networks such as INQAAHE and its member agencies.
Stephenson, S.   (2006).   Toward globally responsible study abroad.   International Educator, (Nov/Dec), 67-71.
Sternberger, L., Pysarchik, D. T., Yun, Z. S., & Deardorff, D.   (2009).   Designing a model for international learning assessment.   Diversity and Democracy: Civic Learning for Shared Futures, 12(1), 7-9.
Stohl, M.   (2007).   We have met the enemy and he is us: The role of the faculty in the internationalization of higher education in the coming decade.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 359-372.
Abstract:  This article argues that the chief challenge for developing and sustaining internationalization in the context of the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century is the engagement of the faculty. It argues that although higher education has been successful in providing mechanisms for student mobility because institutions have not successfully engaged the faculty that mobility is not as sizeable as it should be, but also, in and of itself, will not deliver the learning, discovery, and engagement that we seek through internationalization. To capture the faculty's interest in, and commitment to, internationalization, we need to move beyond the conceptualization of the internationalization or globalization of higher education in terms of how the different aspects of teaching, research, and service functions of the university are becoming more "internationalized" and examine how these activities encourage greater learning and discovery. Our challenge is to convince faculty that their scholarship and teaching will benefit from these efforts by considering the risk and reward structures within our institutions and faculty cultures.
Strang, H. C.   (2006).   Characteristics of faculty leaders in a study abroad experience.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and Theses. (No. 1158521201).
Retrieved from: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=02-27-2016&FMT=7&DID=1158521201&RQT=309&attempt=1
Abstract:  Many factors contribute to a successful study abroad experience, not only for the students, but for the faculty leaders as well. The literature surrounding the faculty in a study abroad situation is, however, limited. This research examined motivations of the faculty leader and reported commonalities that group leaders share.
Streitwieser, B., & Leephaibul, R.   (2007, Nov.).   Shock value vs. academic value: Undergraduate study abroad research.   Paper presented at the Council on International Education Exchange 2007 Conference, Toronto, Canada.
Stromquist, N.P.   (2007).   Internationalization as a respones to globalization: Radical shifts in university environments.   Higher Education, 53, 81-105.
Abstract:  This case study probes recent developments in a number of academic and non-academic aspects of a private research university in response to current globalization trends. Under the name of internationalization, university administrators and external firms are emerging as powerful decision-makers shaping academic content and even academic governance. This is manifested in student recruitment and in the hiring of prestigious professors and researchers to increase university reputation and thus to appeal to more students and secure more research funds. Among disciplines central to economic and technological globalization, such as communication, business, and engineering, patterns of convergence are emerging. Rather than internationalism, internationalization is found to prevail, and internationalization is found to signify predominantly a search for student markets domestically and abroad rather than positioning the university's knowledge at the service of others in less advantaged parts of the world.
Sursock, A. and Smidt, H.   (2010).   Trends 2010: A decade of change in European higher education.   Brussels, Belgium: European University Association.
Retrieved from: http://www.eua.be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the-european-higher-education-area/trends-in-european-higher-education/trends-vi.aspx
Abstract:  The Trends 2010 report - A decade of change in European Higher Education (the sixth in the series) was published in March in 2010, the year of the official launch of the European Higher Education Area. Based on the qualitative information and quantitative analysis of longitudinal data from higher education institutions across the 46 countries of the European Higher Education Area, it has the following objectives: To provide an overview of progress towards the European Higher Education area from 2007 to 2010 ; To assess the achievements and impact of the Bologna process over the past decade from a university perspective; To analyse the impact of globalisation and international trends on European higher education in the past; To set an agenda of priority actions for the next decade building on the achievements of the last.
Taguchi, N.   (2008).   Cognition, language contact, and the development of pragmatic comprehension in a study-abroad context.   Language Learning 58(1), 33-71.
Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ784098&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ784098
Abstract:  This study examined two issues: (a) whether there are gains in accurate and speedy comprehension of second language (L2) pragmatic meaning over time and (b) whether the gains are associated with cognitive processing ability and the amount of language contact in an L2 environment. Forty-four college students in a US institution completed three measures three times over a 4-month period. The learners' pragmatic comprehension was analyzed for accuracy (the scores on the pragmatic listening test) and comprehension speed (the average time taken to answer items correctly). Results showed that the learners made significant improvement on comprehension speed but not on accuracy of comprehension. Lexical access speed was significantly correlated with comprehension speed but not with accuracy. The amount of speaking and reading outside class that the students reported on the language contact survey significantly correlated with the gains in comprehension speed but not with accuracy of comprehension.
Taillefer, G. F.   (2005).   Foreign language reading and study abroad: Cross-cultural and cross-linguistic questions.   The Modern Language Journal, 89(4), 503-528.
Task Force on Environmental Sustainability in Education Abroad   (2008).   Sustainability in international education: Recommendations for education abroad administrators and faculty.   New York: NAFSA Association of International Educators.
Abstract:  The following recommendations are offered to the Education Abroad Knowledge Community (EAKC) with the intention of keeping the topic of sustainability "on the table" at NAFSA and to develop new resources and opportunities over time. Some recommendations will be easy and cheap to implement; others might be more difficult and resource intensive; and some may seem out of the parameters of the Education Abroad Knowledge Community. Our goal was to cast a wide net and to encourage the EAKC to consider how to best support and/or forward specific recommendations. For example, recommendations regarding Conferences and Workshops may best be reviewed by NAFSA's Annual Conference Committee and many recommendations under Networking, Resources and Standards could be folded into a Working Plan for a Sustainability Network or MIG if one is established. We view these recommendations as a "jumping off point" and are confident that consequent efforts will continue to evolve and attract a growing support network over time.
Tchaicha, J. D., & Davis, M. M.   (2005).   The impact of culture on technology and business: An interdisciplinary, experiential course paradigm.   Journal of Management Education, 29, 738-757.
Abstract:  In today's global environment, companies continue to seek new customers and suppliers on an international level. However, the "rules" for doing business can differ from country to country. Business schools, therefore, need to develop courses that will sensitize their students to these differences. This article presents an innovative, interdisciplinary approach for a short-term study tour to Europe that addresses this challenge. In addition to the underlying theory and pedagogy behind the course, this article includes a detailed description of the structure, implementation, and focus of the course that provides multilens analyses at the intersection of culture, technology, and business practices and how these three influence one another.
Teicher, S. A.   (2008, Jun. 25).   Muslim-US diplomacy - one teen at a time.   The Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved from: http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0628/p12s02-legn.html
Abstract:  The US government sponsors a student exchange that brings young people from Muslim nations to America. Here's how Ruba, an Iraqi, spent the school year in Falmouth, Mass.
Teichler, U.   (2004).   Temporary study abroad: The life of ERASMUS students.   European Journal of Education, 39(4), 395-408.
Abstract:  For young Europeans who decide to embark on higher education studies, studying in another country has become a normal option. Statistics suggest that, of the generations who graduated in the mid-1990s, about 10% had studied abroad for some period or the whole study period (Jahr, Schomburg & Teichler, 2002). Since then, this proportion has increased. Available data also suggest that almost 5% of the European graduates are awarded their degree by a university outside their home country. These figures could seem low if we take into consideration the importance that is now placed on internationalisation and globalisation. But they are certainly high compared to estimates that only 3% of highly qualified EU citizens are employed abroad. Although international student mobility is not a mass phenomenon, it is no longer just an exotic option.
Teichler, U.   (2004).   The changing debate on internationalisation of higher education.   Higher Education, 48, 5-26.
Abstract:  ''Internationalisation'', the growing border-crossing activities between national systems of higher education is losing ground to ''globalisation'', increasing border-crossing activities of blurred national systems which is often employed to depict world-wide trends and growing global competition. This article addresses recent issues of knowledge transfer. It points out tensions between increasing diversity in higher education and efforts to facilitate recognition of prior studies on student mobility. It shows the diversity of steering and management policies with respect to internationalization and globalisation. Finally, it asks whether globalisation of higher education has to be viewed as a manifestation of ''turbo-capitalism'' or could be viewed instead as a move towards ''global understanding''.
Teranishi, C. S.   (2007).   Impact of experiential learning on Latino college students' identity, relationships, and connectedness to community.   Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 6(1), 52-72.
Abstract:  Using mixed methods of inquiry, this study examines the impact of experiential learning on Latino/a college students' development as they move away from home to study and do community service in another country. Journals reveal that students developed their identity, relationships, awareness of structural inequalities, and connectedness to community. Survey results indicate increased self-efficacy, civic participation, career preparedness, and understanding of diversity. Findings underscore the importance of experiential learning for future Latino/a educators and community leaders.
Terzian, S. G., & Osborne, L. A.   (2006).   Postwar era precedents and the ambivalent quest for international students at the University of Florida.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 286-306.
Abstract:  The number of international students studying at U.S. institutions of higher education in the 2003-2004 academic year dropped for the first time in more than three decades. New visa restrictions and international tensions in the wake of September 11, 2001, have been cited as central factors. This article identifies historical precedents from the postwar era (1945 to 1960) as additionally significant causes of this decline. Highlighting competing advocates of altruism, cultural diplomacy, or exclusion, it recounts the conflicting priorities of one public research university in the postwar years—the University of Florida—as an exemplification of the nation's ambivalent quest for international students at American colleges and universities.
The Public Diplomacy Council   (2007).   FY 2008 U.S. Department of State educational and cultural exchange programs.   Washington, DC: The Public Diplomacy Council.
The Scholar Ship   (2007, Apr. 9).   Study abroad boosts employability say global HR execs in new study.   Collegiate Presswire.
Abstract:  Three in four cite study abroad experience as important when evaluating candidates for junior-level positions.
Thies, C. G.   (2005).   How to make the most of your summer study abroad teaching experience.   Political Science & Politics, 38(01), 83-87.
Retrieved from: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=285550&jid=PSC&volumeId=38&issueId=01&aid=285548
Abstract:  Teachers of international relations and comparative politics spend a considerable amount of time looking for ways to bring the politics of the world outside of the United States into their classroom to enhance student learning experiences through increased relevance or &ldquo;reality.&rdquo; Simulations are one method to make world politics seem more relevant (e.g., Dougherty 2003; Kille 2002; Shellman 2001; McIntosh 2001; Newmann and Twigg 2000; Kaarbo and Lantis 1997; Smith and Boyer 1996). The use of film is another popular method that enhances the drama and emotion of foreign cultures and politics (e.g., Waalkes 2003; Weber 2001; Kuzma and Haney 2001). Finally, the Internet and web-based technologies (e.g., Cogburn and Levinson 2003; Hauss et al. 2002; Bonham and Seifert 2000) and foreign newspapers (e.g., Schattle 2003) are also employed to connect textbook knowledge to the real world of foreign affairs.
Thomas, N. L.   (2009).   Deliberative democracy and intercultural dialogue: An international agenda.   Diversity and Democracy: Civic Learning for Shared Futures, 12(1), 16-17.
Thompson, J. W.   (2004).   An exploration of the demand for study overseas from American students and employers.   A report prepared for the Institute of International Education, the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the British Council, and the Australian Education Office.
Retrieved from: http://www.iienetwork.org/file_depot/0-10000000/0-10000/1710/folder/10528/JWT+Study.doc
Abstract:  An analysis of how future employment considerations are likely to impact students' decisions to study overseas and employers' perceptions of candidates with overseas qualifications.
Tillman, M.   (2005).   The right tool for the job.   International Educator, 14(4), 4-7.
Abstract:  In an ever more globalized economy, educators need to assist students in building a sophisticated "toolkit" to market the value of their varied portfolio of international experiences to employers. [Author]
Trahar, S.   (2007).   Teaching and learning: The international higher education landscape - Some theories and working practices.   Bristol, UK: Escalate, University of Bristol Graduate School of Education.
Retrieved from: http://escalate.ac.uk/3559
Abstract:  This discussion paper is written in two parts. Part One provides an overview of the international higher education context in the UK: it explores theoretical frameworks of learning and teaching in a range of cultures, drawing on relevant research to illustrate some of the difficulties that can be encountered by both students and academics in this complex environment. Part Two challenges some myths and stereotypes and offers some practical suggestions of how to facilitate successful intercultural learning in increasingly complex contexts.
Tsvetkova, N.   (2008).   International education during the Cold War: Soviet social transformation and American social reproduction.   Comparative Education Review, 52(2), 199-217.
Tuleja, E. A.   (2006).   Aspects of intercultural understanding through an MBA study abroad program.   Paper presented at the 71st annual convention of the Association for Business Communication, San Antonio, TX..
Retrieved from: http://www.businesscommunication.org/conventionsNew/proceedingsNew/2006New/abc2006ProceedingsNew.html
Abstract:  Understanding the globalization of business practices is an important area of learning for students studying in MBA programs today. Fitting in yet another course into a core curriculum can be a challenge for any academic program. Administrators of MBA programs across the country realize that their students must be able to interface with both business practices and business people around the world in order to re-enter the competitive work force. This paper discusses how one particular MBA program on the east coast addresses the need to prepare students for the global market place through a summer study tour program. This paper will show that even short-term exposure to learning and living overseas can significantly enhance one's intercultural awareness and appreciation of international business and culture.
U.S.-Muslim Engagement Project   (2008).   Changing course: A new direction for U.S. relations with the Muslim world.   Washington DC: Search for Common Ground and the Consensus Building Institute.
Retrieved from: http://www.usmuslimengagement.org/storage/usme/documents/Changing_Course_Second_Printing.pdf
Abstract:  This report presents a strong consensus on fundamental principles and core recommendations for improving U.S. relations with Muslim countries and communities, with some variation in support for particular findings and recommendations. Where there are significant differences in the views of Leadership Group members, the report notes those differences.
UK Council for International Student Affairs   (2010).   International students in the UK: facts, figures, and fiction.   London: UK Council for International Student Affairs.
Retrieved from: http://www.ukcisa.org.uk/files/pdf/about/international_education_facts_figures.pdf
UNESCO   (2007).   Global education digest 2007- Comparing education statistics across the world.   Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
UNESCO   (2008).   Global education digest 2008- Comparing education statistics across the world.   Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
UNESCO   (2009).   Global education digest 2009- Comparing education statistics across the world.   Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics   (2005).   Tertiary students abroad: Learning without borders.   Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/factsheet_foreignstudents.pdf
Abstract:  Tertiary education increasingly reaches beyond national boundaries. In many parts of the world, tertiary-level students are enrolled in programmes in countries where they are not permanent residents.
United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organziation   (2009).   2009 World conference on higher education: The new dynamics of higher education and research for societal development and change.  
Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/ED/pdf/WCHE_2009/FINAL%20COMMUNIQUE%20WCHE%202009.pdf
Urias, D., Deardorff, D., & Heyl, J. D.   (2007).   Standards of quality for master's degree level programs in international education: Ensuring quality & effectiveness.   New York: Institute of International Education.
Retrieved from: http://www.iienetwork.org/file_depot/0-10000000/0-10000/1710/folder/53578/Urias.Deardorff.pdf
Abstract:  Based on a thorough review of institutional websites, published materials and a national survey of readily identified master's level programs in global, international, intercultural, and comparative education, a set of standards and benchmarks are proposed by which such programs may be evaluated and ranked.
Utrecht, N. L.   (2005).   Study abroad and the creation of global citizens - American students in Europe post 9/11.   Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship.
Retrieved from: http://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/2315
Abstract:  This project investigates how the university's abstract objectives with regard to study abroad and the creation of global citizens are implemented, experienced, and evaluated both by university staff and students. On the basis of interviews and review of university documents, this study finds that "American insularity" not only forms an important reason to promote study abroad, but also complicates the integration into the host culture for American students who have had relatively little exposure to other countries, other cultures, and other languages. Current international politics and developments may very well further obstruct this process, as foreigners are often quick to confront the American with their opinions on issues such as the war in Iraq, which may create a somewhat hostile environment. Evaluations of study abroad programs seem to be limited to counting the numbers of students participating and their responses and suggestions after the experience. However, it is a much more complex exercise to link evaluations directly to the UIUC objective of "creating global citizens". A student's positive experiences abroad do not necessarily reflect an increase cultural awareness, while more intensive struggles and confrontations may initiate a thinking process that continues well beyond return to the home country. The project includes a proposal for continued research.
Van Der Wende, M.   (2007).   Internationalization of higher education in the OECD countries: Challenges and opportunites for the coming decade.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 274-289.
Abstract:  This article explores the possible development of internationalization of higher education in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, analyzing how the main driving forces may influence the internationalization process, globalization and the changing role of nation-states, regional and international bodies, and multilateral frameworks and agreements. The analysis is carried out based on four future scenarios for higher education developed by the OECD. Implications of various scenarios are analyzed in terms of their broader meaning for the main functions of higher education and issues of access, quality, and equity. Consequently, the implications for internationalization are derived. A special focus is placed on the consequences of the various scenarios for cooperation and competition as major strategic categories in the internationalization process. Finally, some further questions are raised with respect to the internationalization mission of higher education institutions in a globalized world and how the concept of internationalization may evolve.
Van Der Wende, M.   (2007, Mar. 30).   A wide world of risk.   The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(30), A1.
Abstract:  The growth in study abroad forces colleges to foresee dangers wherever students travel.
Van Dyke, G.J.   (2007, Feb.).   Fostering global citizenship: Connecting American students to Europe and the world.   Paper presented at the American Political Science Association's Teaching and Learning Conference, Charlotte, NC.
Retrieved from: http://www.apsanet.org/tlc2007/TLC07VanDyke.pdf
Van Hoof, H. B., & Verbeeten, M .J.   (2005).   Wine is for drinking, water is for washing: Student opinions about international exchange programs.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 9, 42-61.
Abstract:  This article reports on a study done among students who participated in student exchange programs, both in the United States and other parts of the world, between January 2001 and May 2003. Issues such as why students decide to study abroad, why they select a certain institution, how their home institution compares to a partner institution abroad, and what they consider to be the relevance of their international experience were investigated. Students agreed with the literature on the topic to a large extent and were very positive about the experience. Some interesting differences of opinion between incoming (to United States) and outgoing (from United States) students were observed.
Van Hook, C. W.   (2004).   Preparing teachers for the diverse classroom: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity.   Champaign, IL: Clearinghouse on Early Education and Parenting.
Retrieved from: http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/vanhook.html
Vance, C. M.   (2005).   The personal quest for building global competence: A taxonomy of self-initiating career path strategies for gaining business experience abroad.   Journal of World Business, 40, 374-385.
Abstract:  Work experience abroad can be valuable for developing global competencies that promote organizational effectiveness and individual career success. However, the literature has taken a mostly organizational perspective, with little attention about what individuals can self-initiate to advance their international career and competencies development. Especially lacking is research on preparatory activities and career strategies that individuals may select leading to significant foreign work experience. Based on interviews with 48 American expatriates in five major cities in East Asia, this study presents a illuminating taxonomy of ''pre- international'' self-initiating career path strategies and activities for gaining valuable international business experience for building global competencies.
Vande Berg, M.   (2007).   Intervening in the learning of U.S. students abroad.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 392-399.
Abstract:  This article traces the outlines of a profound and ongoing change in U.S. attitudes about study abroad. In chronicling the shift from a Junior Year Abroad paradigm that governed study abroad theory and practice as recently as two decades ago, to an emerging Student Learning paradigm that increasingly informs study abroad attitudes and goals today, the author argues that there is a widening gulf between what U.S. study abroad professionals believe their students ought to learn through studying abroad and what many programs abroad aim to provide.
Vandeveer, R., & Menefee, M. L.   (2006, Mar.).   Study abroad, international internship and experiential learning: A world-class adventure in learning.   Paper presented at the Decision Sciences Institute Southwest Region Annual Conference, Oklahoma City, OK.
Retrieved from: http://www.swdsi.org/swdsi06/Proceedings06/Papers/IE07.pdf
Abstract:  Globalization! International competition! World-class! World-community! Diversity! These are all very powerful words we are hearing every day. Today's student's education is enhanced when it includes an international component allowing the learner to experience first hand the global business in a new learning environment. Out of necessity, curriculums are being changed to include courses and activities providing an element of international learning including an international work experience. With the movement to a more complex global business, a greater understanding of the diversity and challenges presented by different cultures, nationalities, governments, businesses and organizational structures are needed. Research by Gray, Murdock, and Stebbins (2002) found study abroad programs have in recent years become increasingly legitimized as forms of experiential learning. At Purdue University, these types of programs have increasingly become popular, growing from 560 in 2002-03 to 840 in 2003-04, reflecting the need for a true experiential international experience. Over 1000 undergraduate students, graduate students and faculty members received an introduction to the true global community through Purdue's International Programs in the 2004-05 academic year promoting exceptional learning opportunities. The internship experience provides a unique experiential international experience providing insights into international business, leadership, travel, education, and culture. This session will explore the possibilities, the excitement and the mechanics to make the international experience possible.
Verbik, L., & Jokivirta, L.   (2005).   National regulation of transnational higher education.   International Higher Education, 41, 6-7.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2005.html
Vulliamy, G.   (2004).   The impact of globalisation on qualitative research in comparative and international education.   Compare, 34(3), 261-284.
Abstract:  This is a revised version of the 2003 British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Presidential Address delivered at the 7th Oxford International Conference on Education and Development. The processes of globalisation have been viewed by some as a major threat to the qualitative research tradition in education. Two main aspects of the impact of globalisation on qualitative research are addressed here. Firstly, it is argued that given the vital role of culture in mediating global policies at different levels, qualitative research still has a very important role to play. Secondly, it is argued that the knowledge and information revolution associated with globalisation has created an increasingly positivist climate that represents both a challenge for, and a challenge to, comparative education as it is currently conceived, particularly in the UK. This is illustrated by the growing international interest in systematic review methodology and its associated privileging of quantitative research strategies, such as randomized controlled trials, in evidence-based policy.
Walton, W.   (2005).   Internationalism and the junior year abroad: American students in France in the 1920s and 1930s.   Diplomatic History, 29(2), 255-278.
Ward, D.E.   (2006, Aug./Sept.).   Internationalizing the American politics curriculum.   Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.
Retrieved from: http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/Ward_APSA_2006.pdf
Wathington, H. D., & Hovland, K.   (2009).   Building knowledge, growing capacity: Global learning courses show promise.   Association of American Colleges & Universities, 12(1), 12-13.
Weimer, L.   (2008).   Fulbright vs. Erasmus Mundus: A comparative policy analysis.   (Master's Thesis, Universitetet Oslo).
Abstract:  The focus of this study is to compare the United States Fulbright educational exchange program and the European Union Erasmus Mundus mobility program. Within the international higher education community, these two programs have been placed in the same box, uttered in the same sentence, and said to be rival competitors in the game of competing for foreign students. Furthermore, the new Erasmus Mundus program is assumed to be modeled after the 60-year-old Fulbright program. Using this rhetoric as a jumping off point to conduct a comparative research study, this study analyzes the policy process leading to the implementation of these two programs. As such, the study offers an in-depth look at the unique attributes and dimensions of phase one of the policy process: agenda setting. By means of a policy analysis, this study investigates documents as a way to compare the two program's conceptions. After analyzing the policy problems, objectives, instruments, linkages, and the normative basis of the policy process leading to the conception of the two programs, these characteristics are infused into an adapted agenda setting model with three streams: problems, politics, and policies. Finally, a comparative discussion draws the conclusion that even though the scaffolding of these programs is parallel, the conception of the programs is quite different. This is likely the first comparative analysis of these two programs.
West, C.   (2008).   Building education brands.   International Educator, (Sep./Oct.), 52-55.
West, C.   (2009).   Internationalization of teacher education: Three case studies.   NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/TeacherEducation
Abstract:  Giving students the skills they need to function in a twenty-first century world—one that is becoming increasingly global—is one of the major challenges facing today's educators. As new teachers graduate from schools of education, their task is not only to adopt a global perspective in their instruction, but also to transfer that awareness to their own K-12 students. Several institutions have made great strides in the internationalization of teacher education, ranging from innovative student teaching abroad programs, such as the Cultural Immersion Projects at Indiana University, to making international experiences accessible to all teacher candidates, as does the School of Leadership and Education Sciences, University of San Diego. Another success story is the University of Maryland's Office of International Initiatives, which has put into place a comprehensive institutional infrastructure to promote internationalization across its school of education.
Westrick, J.   (2004).   The influence of service-learning on intercultural sensitivity: A quantitative study.   Journal of Research in International Education, 3(3), 277-299.
Whitaker, A. M.   (2004).   The internationalization of higher education: A US perspective.   (Master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute). Available from Virginia Tech Digital Library and Archives. (No. 06202004-192329).
Retrieved from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-06202004-192329/unrestricted/WhitakerMP.pdf
Abstract:  Globalization affects many sectors of society. Higher education is no exception. Universities worldwide respond to challenges presented by globalization in various ways. One response is the internationalization of the university campus. This paper argues that many US higher education research institutions engage in processes of internationalization. This study examines the geography of international education programs associated with US research institutions and shows that world cities emerge as popular places for US institutions to interact with other universities. The paper contributes to both educational and globalization literature by examining on a macroscale the internationalization programs associated with US research institutions.
Whitworth, K. F.   (2006).   Access to language learning during study abroad: the roles of identity and subject positioning..   (Doctoral Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University). Available from Proquest Dissertation and Thesis Database. (UMI No. 3229461).
Willard, J.   (2006).   Global competency.   Sudbury, MA: LanguageCorps.
Williams, F. D.   (2007).   Study abroad and Carnegie doctoral/research extensive universities: Preparing students from underrepresented racial groups to live in a global environment.   (Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3286526)..
Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to identify current practices in study abroad offices and to investigate factors that may impact the number of minority students that participate in study abroad programs.
Woodfield, S.   (2007).   Institutional Responses to Internationalization in the UK.   International Higher Education, 48, 6-7.
Retrieved from: http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe/ihe/issues/2007.html
Woodruff, G., Gladding, S., Knutson, M., & Stallman, E.   (2005).   The forum on education abroad - A baseline survey of curriculum integration in education abroad.   Northampton, MA: The Forum on Education Abroad.
Woolf, M.   (2004).   International education and the question of quality.   International Educator, 13(2), 26-32.
Woolf, M.   (2005).   Avoiding the missionary tendency.   International Educator, 14(2), 27-31.
Abstract:  For service learning in education abroad to gain esteem and recognition parity within the wider academic world and beyond, the question of academic content rather than social good must be addressed.
Woolf, M.   (2007).   Impossible things before breakfast: Myths in education abroad.   Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3-4), 496-509.
Abstract:  In recent years, there has been a considerable development of administrative skills in study-abroad management, but much less in the educational dimension of this endeavour. The field is burdened by myths and conceptions that exist unchallenged in the uncontested climate of study abroad. An exploration of three of these prevailing myths demonstrates the degree to which the field needs to reexamine some of its assumptions: the association of immersion and integration with quality, the growth of short-term programmes, and the call to significantly expand programmes in nontraditional locations. This essay critically examines the misconceptions that have accumulated around these topics.
Yee, S., & Cummings, L.   (2005).   Understanding entitlement to services and protections under U.S. special education law: Are foreign exchange high school students covered?.   Eugene, Oregon: Mobility International USA.
Abstract:  This article addresses the question of whether foreign exchange high school students with disabilities qualify for special education and related services under IDEA. The article is also written under the following assumptions: i) the high school in question and its school district have agreed to participate in an international program of student exchange; ii) the student meets the exchange program's general criteria (e.g., the student maintains a certain minimum grade point average, is willing to stay with a host family, and/or can demonstrate a certain level of English language proficiency); and iii) the student has been admitted into the United States for the purposes of the exchange program.
Zamastil-Vondrova, K.   (2005).   Good faith or hard data? Justifying short-term programs.   International Educator, Jan-Feb, 44-49.
Retrieved from: http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/educationabroadjan_feb05.pdf
Ziegler, N. J.   (2006).   Cultural learning in study abroad from the perspective of on-site staff in France and Senegal.   (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (No. 3230284).
Zielinski, B. Z.   (2007).   Study abroad length of program influence on cross-cultural adaptability.   (Master's Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic University). Available from Virginia Tech Digital Library and Archives. (No. etd-04302007-105204).
Retrieved from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-04302007-105204/
Abstract:  The literature available on study abroad addresses reasons students chose to study abroad, outcomes of participation in study abroad, and study abroad program characteristics. However, there is a lack of research linking outcomes of study abroad to program characteristics. The present study will add to the literature by providing information about study abroad program characteristics and their relationship to one possible outcome of study abroad, cross-cultural adaptability.
Zukroff, S., Ferst, S., Hirsch, J., Slawson, C., & Wiedenhoeft, M.   (2005).   Program assessment and evaluation.   In Brockington, J., Hoffa, W., & Martin, P. (Eds.), NAFSA's Guide to Education Abroad for Advisers and Administrators (3rd ed., pp. 445-478). Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.
Zuniga, V., & Hamann, E. T.   (2009).   Sojourners in Mexico with U.S. school experience: A new taxonomy for transnational students.   Comparative Education Review, 5(3), 329-353.