Research on U.S. Students Abroad

“Additional Resources”

A Bibliography

-       1987


Compiled and Edited by David J. Comp
Assistant Director

Office of International Affairs

University of Chicago


I wish to give a very special thank you to the following individuals for their encouragement and assistance as I compiled this bibliography:  Kathy Sideli, Bill Nolting, Gary Rhodes, Ana Campos and Gabriela Comp.



This bibliography is a supplement to the valuable bibliography edited by Henry D. Weaver: 


Research on U.S. Students Abroad

A Bibliography with Abstracts to 1987

Edited by Henry D. Weaver


Abstracts by

Barbara B. Burn, Jerry S. Carlson, JÅrgen C. Kempff,

Judith N. Martin, John Useem




March 15, 2003



Abe, H., & Wiseman, R.L.  (1983).  A cross-cultural confirmation of the dimensions of intercultural effectiveness.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 53-67.


Abrams, I.  (1960).  Study abroad. New dimensions in higher education:  Some newer developments.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.


Abrams, I.  (1963, January).  Preface to study abroad.  Journal of General Education, 14, 220-229.


Abrams, I.  (1969, April).  An interim report on Anitoch’s Education Abroad.  Clearing house of studies in higher education special reports, OE 50009, 1-5.  Washington, DC:  U.S. Office of Education – Government Printing Office.


Abrams, I.  (1971, Summer).  The evolution of undergraduate study programs abroad.  International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 15-24.


Abrams, I.  (1986, Spring).  The revolution of undergraduate study programs abroad.  International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 15.


Adler, N.  (1981).  Re-entry: Managing cross-cultural transitions.  Group and Organization Studies, 6, 341-356.


Adler, N., Hawes, F., Kealey, D., & Theoret, R.  (1979).  Re-entry: A guide for returning home.  Hull, Quebec:  Public Affairs Division of the Communications Branch, Canadian International Development Agency.


Adler, P.  (1972).  Culture shock and the cross cultural learning experience.  In D.S. Hoopes (Ed.), Reading in Intercultural Communication, II, (pp. 6-21).  Pittsburgh, PA:  Regional Council on International Education.


Adler, P.  (1982).  Beyond cultural identity:  Reflections upon cultural and multi-cultural men.  In L. Samovar & R.E. Porter (Eds.), Intercultural Communication:  A Reader (3rd ed.).  Belmont, CA:  Wadsworth.


Adler, P.S.  (1975).  The transitional experience:  An alternative view of culture shock.  Humanistic Psychology, 15 (4), 13-23.


Ali, S.  (1982, May).  Foreign language acquisition in adults in native and non-native linguistic environments – An experiment with English-speaking American students studying French at the University of Illinois and in Paris.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (11), 4748A. 

It is generally hypothesized that learning a foreign language is more effective in the native linguistic environment than in the non-native one, but not much empirical research has been conducted to support the hypothesis. The present study has investigated the role of the linguistic environment in adult foreign language acquisition by studying two groups of English speaking American students, one learning French at the University of Illinois and their counterpart in a Study Abroad Program in Paris.  Error analyses were performed on the French compositions of the students and errors were counted and classified into eighteen grammatical and stylistic categories. Mean error scores were computed and t tests were performed to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the performance of the two groups. No significant differences were found in the overall performance (t = 0.432). Significant differences were found between the two groups in some error categories, for instance, the Paris groups used a considerable amount of spoken language in their writings as compared to the Illinois group (t = 3.948) and the Illinois group used much more English (Anglicisms) in their French writings than the Paris group (t = 4.307).  A questionnaire was also administered to collect the students' biographical data; examine their attitudes towards the French language, culture, and people; and to determine the extent of language exposure outside the classroom. Pearsons' product moment correlations were computed to determine intercorrelations among the nine variables tested in the questionnaire and the error scores. The correlation matrices for both the groups yielded clusters of significant relationships, most of which appeared to be associated with the attitude variable. In general, there was a congruity between positive attitudes and low error scores, particularly for the Paris group. [Author].


Allison, M.  (1986). A review of proposals to strengthen foreign language and international education.  Foreign Language Annuals, 19.


Almeras, P.  (1974, March). Learning French in France: From the beginning. ADFL Bulletin, 5 (3), 34-35.


Althen, G.  (Ed.).  (1981).  Learning across cultures: Intercultural communication and international educational exchange.  Washington, D.C.: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


American Association of State Colleges and Universities.  (1985).  Guidelines: Incorporating an international dimension in colleges and universities.  Washington, D.C.: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.


American Express Company.  (1948).  To study abroad.  New York: American Express Travel Service.


Amir, Y., & Garti, C.  (1977).  Situational and personal influence on attitude change following ethnic contact.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1 (2), 58-75.


Anderson, L.  (1982).  Why should American education be globalized:  It’s a non-sensical question.  Theory into Practice, 21 (3), 155-161.


Anibal, C.E.  (1922).  The graduate student in Spain.  The Modern Language Journal, 6, 321-327.


 Anon.  (1928).  Summer study for the foreign language teacher.  The Modern Language Journal, 12, 348-350.


Argyle, M.  (1982).  Intercultural communication.  In S. Bochner (Ed.), Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural communication.  New York:  Pergamon Press.


Armbruster, E.  (Ed.).  (1976, November).  A process for global enlightenment – International education: Link for human understanding.  A report of the Bicentennial project marking the 30th anniversary of the educational program under the Fulbright-Hays Act, Washington, D.C.


Armstrong, G.K.  (1982, January).  Effects of an intensive foreign study program on attitudes and Spanish language skills.  (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1981).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (7), 3133A.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a seven-week, intensive language program abroad on the second-language skills and attitudes of advanced high school Spanish students. The subjects were participants in the Indiana University Honors Program in Foreign Language for High School Students during the summers of 1979 and 1980. Immediate effects of the program were assessed using a pre/post test design.  Students were tested in Spanish listening, reading, and writing skills at the beginning and at the conclusion of their academic program in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In addition, scales designed to assess attitudes towards Mexico and towards learning Spanish were administered to all subjects before and after their participation in the program.  The instrument used to measure language skill gains was the MLA Cooperative Spanish Test, Form MB, in listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and writing proficiency. Oral proficiency was determined using a system of teacher ratings. Measured gains in the four skills proved to be greater than average gains expected in one full year of traditional language instruction.  Student attitudes were assessed using the scales, 'Attitudes towards Mexico, Mexicans, and Mexican Culture,' and 'Attitudes towards Learning Spanish and Other Foreign Languages.' Attitudes towards the target community and the language were very positive initially.  Many students developed new ideas about Mexico and Mexicans and may have corrected some earlier ideas; yet group attitudes did not appear to change dramatically.  Attitudes towards learning Spanish were quite stable, with strong positive attitudes prevailing at both the beginning and the end of the program.  Lasting effects of participation were ascertained by means of a questionnaire sent to 120 alumni of the Honors Program. The questionnaire dealt with topics such as placement in college Spanish classes, perseverance in language study, career and educational choices, and travel or study abroad. One open-ended question solicited students' perceptions as to the greatest benefit resulting from their participation in the program.  Evidence from the follow-up study indicated that a large majority of alumni continued studying Spanish throughout their college years. Most of them had placed in advanced (third-year) courses, and nearly one third of them had begun the study of additional languages. Eighty-two percent of the respondents were planning or already participating in further overseas study when they were surveyed. Nearly half were majoring in languages in college.  Students answering the questionnaire perceived themselves as having acquired greater maturity and a more positive self-concept as a result of the cross-cultural experience. Many felt that this was one of the most important aspects of the program. Others expressed the belief that the most important benefits resulting from their participation were that (1) they were able to master and become fluent in Spanish; (2) they were exposed to cultural differences and new value systems through firsthand experience; and (3) the establishment of cross-cultural associations and friendships had awakened within them a desire for further overseas experiences. [Author].

Armsrtrong, G.K.  (1984).  Life after study abroad: A survey of undergraduate academic and career choices.  The Modern Language Journal, 68, 1-6.


Association of American Universities.  (1986). To strengthen the nation’s investment in foreign languages and international studies: A legislative proposal to create a national foundation for foreign languages and international studies. Unpublished draft.


Association of International Education Administrators.  (1987).  Guidelines for international education at U.S. colleges and universities.  Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA).


Asuncion-Lande, N.  (1976).  Inventory of reentry problems.  In H. Marsh (Ed.), Reentry/Transition Seminars:  Report on the Wingspread Colloquium.  Washington, D.C.:  NAFSA.


Austin, C.N.  (1983).  Cross-cultural reentry:  An annotated bibliography.  Abilene, TX:  Abilene Christian University (ACU) Press.


Austin, C.N.  (1986).  Cross-cultural reentry:  A book of readings.  Abilene, TX:  Abilene Christian University (ACU) Press.


Babiker, I.C., Cox, J.L., & Miller, P.M.C.  (1980).  The measurement of cultural distance and its relationship to medical consultation, symptomatology and examination performance of overseas students at Edinburgh University.  Social Psychiatry, 15, 109-116.


Bachner, D.J., & Blohm, J.M.  (1986).  Orienting U.S. student sojourners to Japan:  Context, approach, and implications (pp. 283-309).  Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.


Backman, E.L.  (Ed.)  (1984). Approaches to International Education. New York: Macmillan.


Baker, J.O.  (1983, May).  A longitudinal study of the impact of study abroad on academic interests.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Society for Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Exchanges Cincinnati, OH.


Balke, F. H.  (1980, November).  An assessment of a German study abroad language program: An evaluation of the Oregon summer study abroad.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, 1980).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (5), 1983A. 

This study sought to determine whether the major program objectives of an intensive eight-week summer period of a German Study Abroad Language program were met. Four summer programs between 1976 and 1979 were examined. It is important that each study abroad program develop and implement a systematic program evaluation. It is also important that the effects of a language program abroad on the participating students be carefully analyzed. Evaluation results must provide sufficient information about the program in order to alter and improve future program operations.  Two major tasks of the study were:  (1) to develop and implement a suitable evaluation design in order to measure attitudes of students, staff members, and administrators participating in the Oregon Summer Study Abroad Program in Austria/Germany towards the general effectiveness of the program; and (2) to measure and compare language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing skills of the program's students abroad with a control group of students remaining in the United States.  The Procedure. The principal evaluation method used in this study consisted of post-program measurements of attitudes, beliefs, or opinions of all program populations and language performance testing of students on a pre- and posttest basis.  The instruments. Three opinion scales were constructed according to the facet design theory developed by Robert Hammond. The items of each questionnaire related directly to the major program objectives. Following a facet design, variables were stated in terms of program intents, methods, and resources.  The MLA Cooperative Foreign Language Achievement Test was selected to measure students' language skills in German listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  The population. Questionnaires were administered from 1976 through 1979 to 75 college students. An average of five staff members and two administrators per year also participated in the opinion evaluation of Oregon Summer Study Abroad in Austria/Germany. Fifty-seven students learning German abroad during the summers of 1977 to 1979 and forty-two students enrolled in second and third year German classes at Oregon College of Education during 1978 and 1979 were used as subjects in the performance evaluation. In addition, eighteen participants of the 1976 study abroad group took part in the study on a pre-and posttest basis in the audio-comprehension skill only.  Data Analysis. In order to determine success of the program, opinion means were analyzed for general satisfaction of the program among students, staff, and administrators.  A test of the difference between means for correlated groups was employed to analyze pre- and posttests of the Oregon Summer Study Abroad groups and to compare posttest means of the study abroad groups and the on-campus groups.  Conclusions. The principal findings of the study were:  (1) The program objectives (a) to learn the German language at an intensive rate, (b) to improve one's understanding of German speaking people and their customs, and (c) to expand one's cultural horizons through discovery of new cultural experiences and situations were attained. (2) A high extent of agreement among all raters existed. Nine of the twelve intercorrelation ratings were significantly positive at the .05 confidence level. (3) German language improvement between pre- and posttesting within both ability levels was significant in all skills. Level I and Level II students improved significantly greater in Writing and Speaking than in Reading and Writing. (4) The standardized MLA tests revealed that the means of all language skills of the study abroad students were significantly higher than those of the on-campus students at both levels. [Author].


Barber, E.G. (1983).  The impact of foreign educational experience on individuals.  ISECSI Bulletin of International Interchanges, 20, 7-10.


Barna, L.M.  (1983).  The stress factor in intercultural relations.  In D. Landis & R.W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training II.  New York:  Pergamon Press.


Barnhart, R., & Groth, L.  (1987).  The assessment of college student growth resulting from an international course and study experience.  College Student Journal, 21, 78-85.


Baron, B., & Smith, A.  (Eds.).   (1987).  Higher education in the European community.  Study Abroad in the European Community. Luxemborg.


Barrows, T.S., Bennett, M.F., Braun, H.I., Clark, J.L.D., Harris, L.G., & Klein, S.F.  (1981).  College students’ knowledge and beliefs: A survey of global understanding the final report of the Global Understanding Project.  New Rochelle, NY:  Change Magazine Press.


            Behrens, J.S., & Bennett, W.F.  (1984).  A course on reentry/transition of international students.  Texas:  Texas Tech University, College of Agricultural Sciences.


            Behrens, J., & Bennett, W.F.  (1986).  Looking forward, looking backward: The cultural readaptation of international students.  Lubbock, TX:  International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University.


            Bell, J., & Purcell, A.  (1986).  Sixteen years of teaching abroad: reflections and insights. English Journal, 75, 32-34.


            Bennett, J.M.  (1977).  Transition shock: Putting culture shock in perspective.  In N.C. Jain (Ed.), International and intercultural communication annual, 4, (pp. 45-52).  Falls Church, VA:  Speech Communication Association.


            Bennett, J.M.  (1986, July).  Intercultural communication training in cultural self-awareness for study abroad.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1985).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (1), 18A.

This study investigated an intercultural communication training program conducted for the Northwest Interinstitutional Council on Study Abroad (NICSA). The focus of the research addressed three primary questions: (1) To what degree did the students and staff of NICSA agree on program goals for study abroad? (2) To what degree did the training program designed, developed and implemented meet the NICSA goals? (3) To what extent did the training program modify the attribute of cultural self-awareness?  Subjects were 181 college students enrolled in study abroad programs in France, England or Germany. Students participated in a two-day intercultural communication training program conducted on-site in Europe. They completed a survey on study abroad goals, a post-program evaluation questionnaire, and an instrument to assess cultural self-awareness. In addition, NICSA staff completed the survey on goals.  The results of the assessment of the goals of NICSA staff and students revealed a high degree of agreement on the ranking and importance of six principal goals for study abroad.  Derived from these goals, an in-country training program was developed, based on a multidimensional model of intercultural training constructed for this study. The program addressed cognitive, affective and behavioral objectives, employed both experiential and intellectual processes, and contained both culture specific and culture general content. The results of the evaluation study of the program confirmed that the training as designed and implemented addressed the goals of the organization and the students to a highly significant level.  The research on cultural self-awareness provided evidence that as measured by the Kraemer 'Questionnaire on Nationality Clues,' cultural self-awareness can be improved significantly in a two-day multidimensional program. Students who had traveled more extensively were less receptive to improving their scores on culture self-awareness as a result of training. Extent of prior travel has no effect on the final scores the students achieve after training.  Overall, the study supports the merit of a multidimensional training model incorporating both organizational and participant goals as effective preparation for study abroad. [Author].


Bennett, J.M.  (1986).  Towards ethnorelativism:  A development model of intercultural sensitivity.  In R.M. Paige (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation:  New conceptualizations and applications (pp. 27-69).  Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.


            Benson, P.G.  (1978).  Measuring cross-cultural adjustment:  The problem of criteria.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2 (1), 21-37.


            Berry, J.W., & Annis, R.C.  (1974).  Acculturative stress.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5, 382-406.


            Bjerstedt, A.  (1962).  Informational and non-informational determinants of nationality stereotypes.  Journal of Social Issues, 18 (1), 24-29.


            Blake, B.F., & Heslin, R.  (1983).  Evaluating cross-cultural training.  In D. Landis, & R.W. Brislin (Eds.).  Handbook of intercultural training, vol. 1.  (pp. 203-223).  New York:  Pergamon.


            Blohm, J.M., & Mercil, M.C.  (1982).  Planning and conducting reentry orientations. Washington, DC: Youth for Understanding, Educational Services.


            Bochner, S.  (1973).  The mediating man: Cultural interchange and transitional education.  Honolulu, HI:  East-West Center.


            Bochner, S.  (1982).  The social psychology of cross-cultural relations.  In S. Bochner (Ed.), Cultures in contact:  Studies in cross-cultural interaction.  New York:  Pergamon Press.


            Bochner, S., Hutnik, N., & Furnham, A.  (1986).  The friendship patterns of overseas students and host students in an Oxford student residence.  Journal of Social Psychology, 125, 689-694.


            Bochner, S., Lin, A., & McLeod, B.M.  (1979).  Cross-cultural contact and the development of an international perspective.  Journal of Social Psychology, 107, 24-41.


            Bochner, S., Lin, A., & McLeod, B.M.  (1980).  Anticipated role conflict of returning overseas students.  Journal of Social Psychology, 110, 265-272.


            Bochner, S., McLeod, B.M., & Lin, A.  (1977).  Friendship patterns of overseas students:  A functional model.  International Journal of Psychology, 12, 277-294.


            Bochner, S., & Wicks, P.  (Eds.).  (1972).  Overseas students in Australia.  Sydney:  New South Wales University Press.


            Bock, P.  (Ed.).  (1970).  Culture shock:  A reader in modern anthropology.  New York:  Knopf.


            Bray, W.P., & Stevenson, S.  (Eds.).  (1979, February).  Study abroad: Handbook for Advisers and Administrators, Guideline series: 10.  Washington, D.C.: Field Service Program, National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Breazeale, E.  (1929).  Your semester’s leave in France.  The Modern Language Journal, 13, 360-363.


            Brein, M., & David, K.  (1971).  Intercultural communications and the adjustment of the sojourner.  Psychology Bulletin, 76, 215-230.


            Breitenbach, D.  (1970).  The evaluation of study abroad.  In E. Eide (Ed.), Students as links between cultures.  Paris:  UNESCO and the International Peace Research Institute (Ohio).


Brickman, W.W.  (1976).  Bibliographical essays on comparative and international education.  Norwood, PA:  Norwood Editions.

Articles originally published in School and society (now Intellect) 1946 through mid-1950's.


            Briggs, A., & Burn, B.  (1985).  Study abroad: A European and an American perspective, Organization and Impact of study abroad, No. 1. CIEE and European Cultural Foundation, European Institute of Education and Social Policy.


            Brislin, R.W,  (1974).  The establishment of re-entry/transition seminars of overseas sojourners.  Paper presented at the First National Conference on Re-Entry/Transition, Racine Wisconsin.


            Brislin, R.W.  (1979).  Orientation programs for cross-cultural preparation.  In A. Marsella, R. Tharp, & T. Ciborowski (Eds.), Current perspectives in cross-cultural psychology.  New York:  Academic Press.


            Brislin, R.W.  (1981).  Cross cultural encounters: Face to face interaction.  New York:  Allyn and Bacon.


Brislin, R.W.  (1983).  Why live abroad?:  Outcomes, human relations, and contributions to task effectiveness as key variables in educational exchanges. East-West Culture Learning Institute Report. Honolulu, HI:  East-West Center.


            Brislin, R.W.  (1983).  Benefits of a close intercultural relationship.  In S.H. Irvine & J.W. Berry (Eds.), Human assessment and cultural factors.  New York:  Plenum.


            Brislin, R.W.  (1986).  A culture general assimilator: Preparation for various types of sojourns.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10 (2), 215-234.

A set of training materials has been developed which can form the basis of various cross-cultural orientation programs. The materials can be used no matter what people's role in other countries (e.g., businessperson, foreign students, diplomats) or their country of assignment. Further, the materials can be used with people who have extensive interaction with members of minority groups within their own country, such as cross-cultural counselors or social workers who interact frequently with refugees and immigrants. Since the materials are based on 100 critical incidents and presented in a manner similar to existing culture assimilators, the newly developed set of materials is called a "culture general assimilator." The materials are based on the assumption that there are commonalities, or similar personal experiences, when people live and work in cultures other than their own. These shared experiences, sometimes negative and sometimes positive, form the basis of the phenomenon known as culture shock, as well as opportunities for learning and personal development frequently reported by sojourners. The commonalities form the basis of the 100 critical incidents, which include such concepts as anxiety, disconfirmed expectancies, the ingroup-outgroup distinction, confrontation with one's prejudices, and attributions about the behavior of others. The 100 incidents were derived from conclusions about cross-cultural experiences found in the published literature, the experiences of the four people involved in the materials development, and from interviews with colleagues. The methods of developing the assimilator are reviewed, including the step during which 60 people with extensive cross-cultural experiences validated the incidents. Sample incidents are presented, and suggestions are made for use of the materials in culture-specific training programs, undergraduate college classes, professionals who work with a multicultural clientele, and study abroad participants returning to their home country. [Author].


            Brislin, R.W., Landis, D., & Brandt, M.E.  (1983).  Conceptualizations of intercultural behavior and training.  In D. Landis & R.W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training I.  New York:  Pergamon Press.


            Brislin, R.W., & Van Buren, H. IV.  (1974).  Can they go home again?  International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 9, 19-24.


            Brown, M.A.  (1983). U.S. students abroad.  In H.M. Jenkins & Associates (Eds.), Educating students from other nations (pp. 65-85).  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass Publishers.


            Bunker, D.F.  (1975, November).  An investigation of selected areas of Spanish culture and its application to the design of a college or university study abroad program.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1974).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (5), 2661A.


            Burn, B.  (1982). The impact of the Fulbright experience on grantees from the United States.  ADFL Bulletin, 14 (1), 39-43.

In 1979 the Fulbright Alumni Association, in collaboration with the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, undertook a comprehensive survey of the experiences of Americans who were abroad as Fulbright grantees. The study included students, schoolteachers, researchers, lecturers, and those who went with travel-only grants; it focused on the impact of the experience on participants' professional careers, on involvements with community and other international education activities, on the proficiency of grantees and their families in the language of their host country, and on personal values and lifestyles. This

paper discusses the survey's findings relating to Fulbright grantees who went to the Federal Republic of Germany. [Author].


            Burn, B.B.  (1979). Expanding the international dimension of higher education.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


            Burn, B.B.  (1985).  Higher education is international.  In W.H. Allaway, & H.C. Shorrock (Eds.).  Dimensions of international higher education.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


            Burn, B.B.  (1985, March/April).  Research in progress:  Does study abroad make a difference?.  Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 48-49.


            Burnham, W.  (1966). Impact of foreign study on American students: A study of some attitudinal changes of American students who studied abroad. Unpublished dissertation, Indiana University.


            Bush, S.H.  (1928).  Travel for teachers.  The Modern Language Journal, 12, 343-347.


            Campbell, D.M.  (1982, Fall).  Attitudes of selected Black and White American students towards study abroad programs. (Master’s thesis, American University, 1981).  Masters Abstracts International, 20 (3), 303.


            Canfield, L.  (1974, March). Evaluation of summer schools for American students and teachers of Spanish in Mexico and Spain: A progress report. Hispania, 57, 107-139.


            Canfield, D.L.  (1975, March). Evaluation of summer schools for American students and teachers of Spanish in Mexico and Spain: Final report. Hispania, 58, 158.


            Carlson, J.S., & Jensen, M.C.  (1982).  Participant questionnaire 80-81:  Analysis of responses.  Santa Barbara, CA:  University of California, Education Abroad Program.


            Carlson, J.S., & Jensen, M.C.  (1983).  Participant questionnaire 81-82:  Analysis of responses.  Santa Barbara, CA:  University of California, Education Abroad Program.


            Carlson, J.S., & Yachimowicz, D.  (1986).  Evaluation of the university of California’s education abroad program:  The 1985-86 participant questionnaire.  Santa Barbara, CA:  University of California.


            Carlson, J.S., & Yachimowicz, D.  (1987).  Evaluation of the university of California’s education abroad program:  The 1986-87 participant questionnaire.  Santa Barbara, CA:  University of California.


            Carter, W.D.  (1973).  Study abroad and educational development.  Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.


            Choquette, C.A.  (1940).  A substitute for a sabbatical leave.  The Modern Language Journal, 24, 353-355.


            Christian Science Monitor.  (1960, February 6).  Study abroad is a necessity for college students.


            Churchill, R. (1960).  The effect of Antioch education abroad on students’ attitudes.  (Mimeographed publication of the Testing Office) Antioch College.


            CIDA.  (1981).  What is reentry?  Canadian International Development Agency.


            Clark, K.L.  (1950).  The University of Maryland graduate foreign study centers.  The Modern Language Journal, 34, 377-380.


            Clark, K.L.  (1952).  We put our children in a French school.  The Modern Language Journal, 36, 276-278.


            Cleveland, H.  (1960, March). The options of study overseas.  NEA Journal, 52.


            Coelho, G.V.  (Ed.).  (1962a).  Impact of studying abroad.  Journal of Social Issues, 8.


            Cole, J.B., Allen, F.C.L., & Green, J.S.  (1980).  Survey of health problems of overseas students.  Social Science and Medicine, 14A, 627-631.


            Coleman, A.P. (1925). American students and French universities.  The Modern Language Journal, 9, 413-422.


            Committee on Educational Interchange Policy.  (1955, January).  The goals of student exchange:  An analysis of goals of programs of foreign students.  New York.


            Cormack, M.L.  (1968).  International development through educational exchange.  Review of Educational Research, 38, 293-302.


Conference Board of the Associated Research Councils, Committee on International Exchange of                 Persons.  (1954, December).  Educational exchanges; aspects of the American experience.  Report of a conference

sponsored by the Committee on International Exchange of Persons of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils, Princeton, NJ.


            Correa, J.M.  (1970).  Intercultural interaction and the worldmindedness of college students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 1970).  Dissertation Abstract International, 31, 07-A3288.  (University Microfilms No. 71-00958).


            Cort, D.A., & King, M.  (1979).  Some correlates of culture shock among American tourists in Africa.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3, 211-225.


            Dalichow, F., & Teichler, U.  (1986).  Higher education in the European Community: Recognition of study abroad in the European Community.  Luxembourg:  Office for Publications of the European Communities.


            David, K.H. (1971).  Culture shock and the development of self-awareness.  Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 4, 44-48.


            David, K.  (1972).  Intercultural adjustment and applications for reinforcement theory to problems of culture shock.  Trends, 4 (3), 1-64.       


            Davidson, D.  (1982). Assessing language proficiency levels of American participants in Russian language programs in the Soviet Union. Russian Language Journal, 36, 125.


            Day, J.T.  (1987).  Student motivation, academic validity, and the summer language program abroad:  An editorial.  The Modern Language Journal, 71, 261-266.


            De Ley, H.  (1975). Organized programs of study in France: Some contributions of stranger theory. French Review, 48, 836-847


            De Vito, A.J.  (1946).  Clean streets: A plea for broad educational horizons.  The Modern Language Journal, 30, 265-267.


            DeKeyser, R. (1986). From learning to acquisition? Foreign language development in a U.S. classroom and during a semester abroad.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.


            Decoster, C.C.  (1950).  Thinking of studying in Spain?  The Modern Language Journal, 34, 48-50.


            Denney, M. (1987). Going home: A workbook for reentry and professional integration. Washington DC: NAFSA:  Association of International Educators.


            Dennison, N. (1970). A community in limbo: An anthropological study of an American abroad. Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University Press.


            Denorsek, C. (1973). Status and trends of foreign study programs – 1973. ADFL Bulletin, 4 (4), 33-37.

The number of foreign study programs in the U.S. has grown considerably over the last fifty years. The few programs in existence in the 1920's primarily served the needs of foreign language majors. By the 1960's, however, a vast array of programs had been organized by colleges and universities all over the U.S. which sent students to the Orient and Latin America as well as Western Europe, and which were encouraging more and more students who were not language majors to participate. The proliferation of study abroad programs was so great that by 1966 there were over 300 programs with a total enrollment of more than 10,000 students. Although the skyrocketing expansion of the programs has subsided, the trend continues for an ever-increasing number of students to spend an academic year abroad studying studio art, psychology, education, political science, and other subjects.


The future of study abroad, however, depends not only on the desire of American students to participate, but to a larger extent on the willingness of the foreign university to host a burgeoning number of visitors, auditeurs libres , and the like who benefit from a state-run system to which they do not contribute as taxpayers. If a university abroad should decide that its overcrowded facilities can no longer stand the demands of a growing foreign population, or if a country should determine that having a large number of American students in its universities does not serve its best interests, then the possibility exists that American study abroad in these areas could be abruptly terminated. The threat of expulsion, which probably will never occur in most of the countries where Americans study, nevertheless enters into the relationships of American administrators with their foreign counterparts and comes to mind in times of a change in program policy. This, coupled with the rising costs of maintaining an administrative bureau in the foreign country to advise students on matters of credits, living arrangements, etc. and to pay foreign professors to teach these students, may one day close down the whole American study abroad operation for good. To assess correctly these and other trends, we asked the directors of a number of well-known programs for their opinions on the status and future of study abroad. This report is a compilation of their remarks. [Author].


            Detweiler, R.A.  (1984).  Youth for understanding evaluation research:  Cross-sectional study of 1977-1983 participants and longitudinal study of 1983 participants.  Washington, D.C.:  Youth for Understanding.


            Dickinson, J.F.  (1958).   Tourist travel versus contact travel.  The Modern Language Journal, 42, 341-343.


Downie, R.D. (1976).  Re-entry experiences and identity formation of third culture experienced

dependent American youth: An exploratory study. (Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University,

1976).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 3493A.


            Duffy, C.G.  (1971, Summer).  Individual overseas program for undergraduates.  International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 7, 40-45.


            Duffy, W.F.  (1976).  The international understanding of American students in two American sponsored schools abroad (Ed.D. dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College).


            Duley, J.S.  (1975, April). Learning how to learn through a cross-cultural experience.  In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp. 65-67).  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Durnall, E.J.  (1967, November).  Study-abroad programs: A critical survey.  Journal of Higher Education, 38, 450-453.


            Dyal, J.A.  (1984).  Cross-cultural research with the locus of control construct.  In H.M. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control construct (Vol. 3).  New York:  Academic Press.


            Dyal, J.A., & Dyal, R.Y.  (1981).  Acculturation, stress, and coping:  Some implications for research and education.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5 (4), 301-328.


            Eakin, K.B. (1979, August). The real culture shock: Adolescent re- entry to the United States.  Foreign Service Journal.


            Eaton, E.M.  (1957).  Language and the experiment in international living.  The Modern Language Journal, 41, 330-331.


            Ellingsworth, H.W.  (1976/1985, November).  The sojourner:  A continuing source of insight about cultural entry and re-entry.  Paper presented at the meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO (originally presented at the Philippine American Intercultural Conference, July 2, 1976).


            Eustis, C.  (1985). Is summer study abroad worth it? For the students? For the director?  In D.J. Hill (Ed.), Study abroad in the eighties (pp.92-104). Columbus: Renaissance.


            Fantini, A.  (1975, April).  The role of language in an overseas experience.  In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp. 68-69). Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Fantini, A.E.  (1984).  Returning home (field guide) and re-entry.  In Cross-cultural orientation:  A guide for leaders and educators.  Battleboro, VT:  The Experiment in International Living.

This work is a guide for those responsible for conducting cross-cultural orientation for students planning to live, work, or study abroad.  It is divided into two sections, focusing on content and process and addresses orientation as an ongoing process – from pre-departure, through to sojourn and re-entry. [SIT – Occasional Paper #3].


            Fantini, A.E.  (1984).  Getting the whole picture: A student’s field guide to language acquisition and culture exploration.  Brattleboro, VT: The Experiment Press.

This work is a student companion piece to the Cross-Cultural Orientation Guide cited above.  It provides a variety of activities for students during the pre-departure, sojourn, and re-entry phases that are designed to maximize their language development and cross-cultural learning. [SIT – Occasional Paper #3].


            Feinstein, B.E.S.  (1987).  Culture shock versus loneliness:  The effects of selected variables on psychological adjustment of sojourners.  Unpublished Masters thesis, National University of Singapore, Singapore.


            Fiedler, F., Mitchell, T., & Triandis, H.  (1971).  The culture assimilator:  An approach to cross-cultural training.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 95-102.


            Fish, I., (1974). Foreign language learning and short-term study abroad.  American Foreign Language Teacher, 4 (4).


            Flack, M.J.  (1981).  Experiential learning in transnational contexts.  In C.B. Neff (Ed.), Cross cultural learning (pp. 11-19).  San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass.


            Fontaine, G.  (1986).  Roles of social support systems in overseas relocation:  Implications for intercultural training.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 361-378.


            Frank, J. (Ed.). (1975, April). SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors for U.S. students planning an overseas experience.  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


Fraser, S.E. (Ed.).  (1969).  International education: Understandings and misunderstandings.  Nashville:  Peabody International Center, George Peabody College for Teachers.

A symposium sponsored by Alpha Pi Chapter Kappa Delta Pi, Peabody International Center.


            Fraser, S.E., & Brickman, W.W.  (1968).  A history of international and comparative education:  Nineteenth-century documents.  Glenview, IL:  Scott Foresman.


            Freeman, S.A.  (1966).  Undergraduates study abroad:  U.S. college-sponsored programs.  New York:  Institute of International Education.


            Frey, J.S.  (1977, February).  The development of a criterion instrument for evaluating agency-sponsored study abroad programs.  (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1976).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (08), 4893A.


            Frey, J.S.  (1977). A review of the problems concerning the granting of transfer credit for undergraduate study abroad programs.  Unpublished AACRAO document.


            Frey, J.  (Chair).  (1979, May).  Study abroad programs: An evaluation guide.  Washington, D.C.: AACRAO/NAFSA Task Force on Study Abroad (ANTFOSA). 


            Fugate, J.K.  (1976). Confessions of an American foreign study enthusiast.  ADFL Bulletin, 8 (2), 31-36.  


            Fulbright, J.W.  (1976).  The most significant and important activity I have been privileged to engage in during my years in the Senate.  The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 424, 1-5.


            Furnham, A., & Bochner, S.  (1982).  Social difficulty in a foreign culture:  An empirical analysis of culture shock.  In S. Bochner (Ed.), Cultures in contact.  Oxford:  Pergamon Press.


            Furnham, A., & Bochner, S.  (1986).  Culture shock:  Psychological reactions to unfamiliar environments.  New York:  Methuen & Co.


            Fry, G.W.  (1984, May).  The economic and political impact of study abroad.  Comparative Education Review, 28, 203-220.


            Gardner, G., & Washburn, S. Jr.   (Eds.).  (1961).  New horizons in education:  The benefits of study abroad.  International guide to the principle universities of the world.  Chicago: Rand McNally.


            Gellar, C.  (1981). International education: Some thoughts on what it is and what it might be. International Schools Journal, 1 (1), 21-27.


Gelpi, E.  (1985).  Lifelong education and international relations. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm.


            George, D.E.R.  (1969, February).  The American study center in Germany.  Comparative Education Review, 13, 104-118.


            Gezi, K.I.  (1977).  Education in comparative and international perspective.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.


            Gibb, M.M.  (1924).  One or two practical hints to American students at the Sorbonne.  The Modern Language Journal, 8, 389-398.


            Gleason, T.P. (1970).  Social adjustment patterns and manifestations of worldmindedness of overseas-experienced American youth, (Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1969).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 31, 2494A.


            Gochenour, T., & Janeway, J.  (1975, April). Seven concepts in cross-cultural interaction: A training design.  In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp.86-89).  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Goldin, D.  (1984). Overseas programs: Suggestions for a director. Hispania, 67, 640-642.


            Goldsen, R.K., Schuman, E.A., and Williams, R.M.  (1956).  Factors associated with the development of cross-cultural social interaction.  Journal of Social Issues, 12 (1), 26-33.


            Gordon, K.A.  (1987). Study abroad and language proficiency: Methods of developing and evaluating student skills. ADFL Bulletin, 19 (1).

In 1982 the Department of Modern Languages at Central Missouri State University (CMSU) began to offer on a regular basis a summer study program at the University of Bourgogne in Dijon, France. During July and August of each year the University of Bourgogne International Summer School for Foreigners offers classes in French language, civilization, and literature in four-week, six-week, and eight-week sessions. 1 Courses are available on all levels. Three-hour morning sessions stress traditional grammar study, and two-hour afternoon sessions provide creative approaches to language learning (e.g., writing original skits, going on visits in the community, hearing talks by local resource people). Classes are taught by native speakers, many of whom have special training in teaching French as a foreign language. CMSU students attend both sessions, in addition to special meetings with a member of the CMSU French staff. This faculty member serves as program director for CMSU and makes all academic and travel arrangements for the stay in Dijon. The CMSU program uses the four-week option, for which students are awarded six semester credits. This paper considers methods used in the CMSU program to develop student skills outside the classroom per se and procedures for evaluating student work. [Author].


            Grove, C.L., & Hansel, B.  (1982).  Impact of an AFS experience on American youth:  Vol. I:  The short term program.  New York:  AFS International/Intercultural Programs.


            Grove, C.L., & Hansel, B.  (1983).  Impact of an AFS experience on American youth:  Vol. II:  The year program.  New York:  AFS International/Intercultural Programs.


            Grove, C.L., &  Torbion, I.  (1986).  A new conceptualization of intercultural adjustment and the goals of learning.  In M. Paige (Ed.), Cross cultural orientation: New conceptualizations and applications (pp. 70-110).  Lanham, MD: University Press of America.


            Gudykunst, W.  (1979).  Intercultural contact and attitude change: A view of literature and suggestions for future research.  International and  Intercultural Communication Annual, 4, 1-16.


            Gudykunst, W.  (1983).  Toward a typology of stranger-host relationship.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 401-413.

The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of the stranger as it has been used in sociology, anthropology, and intercultural relations. Based upon this literature and two recent critiques, a typology of stranger-host relationships is developed. The implications of the typology for integrating research in the sociology of tourism, intercultural adjustment, and acculturation/assimilation are discussed. [Author].


            Gudykunst, W.B., & Hammer, M.R.  (1987).  Strangers and hosts:  An uncertainty reduction based theory of intercultural adaptation.  In Y.Y. Kim, & W.B. Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural education.  Newbury Park, CA:  Sage.


            Gudykunst, W.B., Wiseman, R.L., & Hammer, M.  (1977a).  An analysis of an integrated approach to cross-cultural training.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1 (2), 99-110. 


            Gudykunst, W.B., Wiseman, R.L., & Hammer, M.  (1977b).  Determinants of the sojourner’s attitudinal satisfaction.  In B. Ruben (Ed.), Communication Yearbook I.  New Brunswick, NJ:  Transaction-International Communication Association.


            Gullahorn, J.T., & Gullahorn, J.E.  (1956).  American students in France.  Washington, D.C.:  International Educational Exchange Service, U.S. Department of State.


            Gullahorn, J.T., & Gullahorn, J.E.  (1960).  The role of the academic man as a cross-cultural mediator.  American Sociological Review, 14, 414-417.


            Guthrie, G.  (1975).  A behavioral analysis of culture learning.  In R.W. Brislin, S. Bochner, & W.J. Lonner (Eds.), Cross-cultural perspectives on learning.  New York:  Wiley.


            Guthrie, G.M., & Zektick, I.N.  (1967).  Predicting performance in the Peace Corps.  Journal of Social Psychology, 71, 11-21.


            Gwin, M.E.C.  (1986, March).  Study abroad advising: Information delivery and quality assessment in computer-assisted advising on study abroad opportunities.  (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Mississippi, 1985).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9), 2580A.

Study Abroad advisors across the country were surveyed: (1) to discover the availability of computers in study abroad offices at large and small, public and private post-secondary institutions, and the advisors' experience, interest and expertise in their use; (2) to learn if the use of computers for advising would make the process more efficient, and if advisors thought their use was desirable; (3) to ascertain what criteria, from a proposed list of 24, advisors were using as indicators of quality in study abroad programming for the purpose of granting credit at their institutions; and (4) to suggest a method for putting those criteria which advisors consistently selected as essential to a good study program into a format that could be attached to an interactive computer-assisted advising program which matched students' self-described 'needs' to descriptions of study abroad programs.  Of the 207 advisors who responded to the survey in the Fall of 1984, 120, or 58 percent, had present access to computers. It would appear that at that time they were not actually using them as advisory tools but that they were interested in the possibilities for such use in the future.  An evaluation of the data collected suggests that advisors are seeing a great many students per week, that more than 47 percent feel that more time is needed to be effective advisors, and that many students are not going abroad because they perceive the costs too high or they give up the search before they find the program that suits them. In addition, advisors do not seem to know how many students actually go abroad after seeking advice.  More than 78 percent of those who responded said that using the computer to shorten the advisory process would be desirable.  More than 50 percent of the advisors noted that they considered 13 of the 24 suggested criteria for assessing quality as essential. It is suggested that these be included as part of the computerized listing of possible study abroad opportunities which the national associations connected with study abroad advising: NAFSA, CIEE, AACRAO and IIE, along with advisors at some institutions surveyed, are currently proposing. [Author].


            Gwynne, M.A.  (1981, November).  The effects of study abroad on community college students.  (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 1981).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5), 1925A.

The purpose of this study was to determine if the attitudes of world mindedness and tolerance for out-groups were influenced positively by study abroad. The influence and significance of other selected variables were also studied in relation to study abroad by community college students. Study abroad is an option for students in increasing numbers of community colleges. Little research on study abroad in community colleges has been published. The available research on four-year colleges and university programs and students, and on foreign students studying in America is hardly applicable to the diverse student populations in community colleges. Students on campus and students studying abroad were tested at the beginning of the fall semester and again at the conclusion of the semester sixteen to eighteen weeks later. The changes in attitudes as a result of the semester of study at home or abroad were determined. Also, demographic factors were contrasted between the home campus and the study abroad groups. Day classes on the campus of Rockland Community College were randomly selected for testing. In the pretest 216 questionnaires were distributed, and 100 students completed both the pre and posttests for a completion rate of 46%. The study abroad group was selected from the total population from Rockland Community College who went abroad to study in the fall. The expected high attrition in responding to two mailed questionnaires (pre and posttest) was confirmed. Twenty percent (55) of the students answered both questionnaires out of an original distribution to 274 students.  Two scales, the Worldmindedness Scale and the Social Distance Scale, and a background data sheet were administered at the beginning of the fall semester. At the conclusion of the semester only the two scales were distributed. In both administrations of the instruments steps were included to minimize test reaction by masking the purpose of the study. T-Tests revealed a significant increase in worldmindedness for the study abroad group, but no significant difference between the groups in tolerance for out-groups after the study abroad experience. One-way analysis of covariance confirmed the mixed results. Sex, age, and socioeconomic status were correlated by a regression analysis with worldmindedness and tolerance, and no one variable was revealed to be a significant predictor of either attitude. A chi-square supported the hypothesis that the intensity of ethnic identification would be significantly greater for the students who studied abroad. The prediction that students who studied abroad were less certain of their future careers than the home campus students was not supported by a chi-square test applied to the responses. However, it was found that the community college students who studied abroad anticipated a significantly higher level of educational achievement in the future than did students who remained on campus. Community college students who elect to study abroad may be a different population from the home campus students. They were initially more worldminded and tolerant than their campus counterparts and they increased positively on both attitudes; however, the gain was significant only on worldmindedness. Attention was drawn to the possible influence of the seizing of American hostages by Iranians in November 1979, one month before the posttest was administered. Furthermore, the low worldmindedness scores for both groups were seen as evidence for the contention of recent major national studies that global awareness is declining in the United States. The results were seen as sufficiently positive to encourage community colleges to offer study abroad opportunities to more of their students as one option for increasing inter-cultural and cross-cultural experiences as part of the international mission of the colleges. [Author].


            Hammer, M., Gudykunst, W., & Wiseman, R.  (1978).  Dimensions of intercultural effectiveness:  An exploratory study.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2, 384-389.


            Hammer, M.R.  (1987).  Behavioral dimensions of intercultural effectiveness.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, II.  65-88.


            Hanna, G., Smith, A.H., McLean, L.D., & Stern, H.H.  (1980).  Contact and communication: An evaluation of bilingual student exchange programs.  Toronto, Canada: OISE Press.


            Hansel, B.  (1983).  The AFS impact study:  Report of initial findings.  New York:  AFS International/Intercultural Programs.


            Hansel, B.  (1984).  Literature review:  Studies of the impact of travel-abroad experience.  New York:  AFS International/Intercultural Programs, Research Department 28.


            Hansel, B.  (1986).  The AFS impact study:  Final Report.  AFS research report 33.  New York, NY:  AFS International/Intercultural Programs, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no ED 285 795).


            Hansel, B.  (1985). The impact of a sojourn abroad: A study of secondary school students participating in a foreign exchange program.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.


            Hansel, B., & Grove, H.  (1985).  International student exchange programs – are the educational benefits real?  NASSP Bulletin, 70 (484), 84-90.


            Hanvey, R.  (1976).  An attainable global perspective.  New York:  Global Perspectives in Education.


            Hapgood, D., & Bennett, M.  (1968).  Agents of change:  A close look at the Peace Corps.  Boston:  Little, Brown.


            Harrington, F.E.  (1931).  A summer course in Paris.  The Modern Language Journal, 15, 513-515.


            Harris, J.  (1926).  How can an American student best profit by a year in France?  The Modern Language Journal, 10, 401-409.


            Harris, J.G.  (1972).  Prediction of success on a distant Pacific island:  Peace Corps style.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 614-623.


Harris, J.G.  (1973).  A science of the South Pacific:  An analysis of the character structure of the Peace Corps volunteer.  American Psychologist, 28, 232-247.


Hayden, R.L. (1975, March). “In the national interest”: International education and language policy. ADFL Bulletin, 6 (3), 11-18.


            Herman, S.N.  (1962).  American Jewish students in Israel.  Jewish Soc. Stud., 24, 3-29.


            Hernandez, R.E. (1981, September). On the treatment of culture in the introductory course of our programs abroad. ADFL Bulletin, 13 (1), 33-35.


            Hershberg, D.R. (1983, November). Funding study abroad programs; or, a curse on our purse. ADFL Bulletin, 15 (2), 43-45.


            Hess, G.  (1982).  Freshmen and sophomores abroad:  Community colleges and overseas academic programs.  New York:  Teachers College Press.


            Higbee, H.  (1969).  Role shock-A new concept.  International Educational and Cultural Exchange, 4 (4), 71-81.


            Hoeh, J. E., & Spuck, D.  (1975).  Effects of a three-phase acculturation  process of language skill development and social and personal  attitudes of high school French students. Foreign Language Annals, 8 (3), 220-226.


            Hoff, R.  (1986). The miracle happens ‘over there’: Tracing the development of productive skills of two study abroad students.  Presentation at the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Milwaukee, WI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 270 994.)


            Hoffman, E.R.  (1973, December).  The relationship of stateside orientation programs and other experiences to preparation for study abroad.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 1973).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (6), 3088A.


            Hogan, J.T.  (1983, March).  Culture-shock and reverse-culture shock: Implications for juniors abroad and seniors at home. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American College Personnel Association, Houston, TX.


            Holden, R.  (1934).  Ten years of undergraduate study abroad.  The Modern Language Journal, 19, 117-122.


            Holmes, T.H., & Rahe, R.H.  (1967).  The social readjustment rating scale.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.


            Hoopes, D.S.  (1979).  Intercultural communication concepts and the psychology of intercultural experience.  In M.D. Pusch (Ed.), Multicultural education:  A cross cultural training approach  (pp.10-38).  LaGrange Park, IL:  Intercultural Network, Inc.


            Hoopes, D.S.  (1980).  Intercultural education.  Fastback 142.  A position paper. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED187626).


            Hull, W.F., IV, & Lemke, W.H.  (1978).  Research findings and administrative implications for off-campus education.  International Review of Education, 24, 53-64.


            Iaquinta, L.P.  (1975, November). Observations on the state of international education. ADFL Bulletin, 7 (2), 20-22.


            Inestroza, R.A.  (1985, December).  What is the role of international study and experience in American preservice teacher education?  (Doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, 1985).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (6), 1500A.

This study investigated the extent and characteristics of study abroad and/or international experience programs among American schools/colleges/departments of education (S.C.D.E.s). The study was conducted in the following manner: Purposes were established; the related literature was reviewed; a post card questionnaire was developed and sent to 450 American S.C.D.E.s to ascertain whether they offered programs abroad; a second, lenghthier questionnaire was developed and sent to the 122 institutions that answered the first questionnaire  affirmatively; seventy four institutions returned this questionnaire; and the data were analyzed.  Some of the salient findings of the survey were the following: Apparently the larger the institutions in terms of enrollment the more likely they are to offer these programs. Over half of S.C.D.E.s have a formally constituted committee on international education. The majority of international programs were started in the 1970s and have been continuously offered since then.  Lectures are mostly used as orientation to students, and instruction abroad is mostly provided by both American and foreign faculty. Most institutions do not involve foreign students in the planning/implementation of these programs. The average percentage of education students who participate in programs abroad is 5.7%.  International study and/or experience programs are designed to provide for specific subject matter knowledge, experience in teaching, and lectures on know-how to teach, in that order. Seminars and lectures are the most popular activities used to help minimize possible culture shock of participants.  Results of this study indicate that S.C.D.E.s should tap foreign students as a useful resource in the planning/implementation of these programs. Moreover, these institutions should strive to arrange for scholarships and/or work/study opportunities in the host countries so as to facilitate more student participation in these programs. Furthermore, other studies should be conducted to survey the validity of experience of study abroad and/or international experience program participants. [Author].


            Institute of International Education. (1965). Handbook on international study: For U.S. nationals. (4th Ed.). New York: The Institute of International Education.


            Isaacs, H.R.  (1958).  Scratches on our minds:  American images of China and India.  New York:  John Day.


            Jacobs, E. (1973, May). A formula for expanding Franco-American student exchanges. ADFL Bulletin, 4 (4), 38-39.


            Jacobson, E.  (1963).  Sojourner research:  A definition of the field.  Journal of Social Issues, 19, 123-129.


            Jaeckel, H.  (1969).  The study of foreign languages and culture in the host environment:  Prefatory note.  The Modern Language Journal, 53, 305.


            James, H.E.O., & Tenen, C.  (1951).  Attitudes towards other peoples.  International Social Science Bulletin, 3 (3), 553-561.


            Jansson, D.P.  (1975).  Return to society:  Problematic features of the re-entry process.  Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 13 (3), 136-142.


            Jenkins, H.M.  (1974).  NAFSA and the student abroad: A silver anniversary review.  Washington, D.C.: National Association of Foreign Student Affairs.


            Kalivoda, T.B.  (1974, January). An approach to the study of culture in overseas programs. Studies in Language Education, Report No. 7. Athens, GA: Department of Language Education, University of Georgia


            Kalivoda, T.B.  (1977, September). Study abroad for language majors and their teachers. ADFL Bulletin, 9 (1), 39-42.

A decade ago John Carroll reminded us that we were going nowhere fast in our foreign language teacher-training efforts. His highly acclaimed investigation of foreign language proficiency attained by college language majors revealed that “The median graduate with a foreign language major can speak and comprehend the language only at about an FSI [Foreign Service Institute] rating of ‘2+’, that is, somewhere between a ‘limited working proficiency and a minimum professional proficiency.’” 1 The results took many by surprise. The profession was emphasizing improved and more efficient instructional strategies, and language mastery on the

part of teachers had been taken for granted. [Author].


            Kaplan, R.  (1966).  Cultural patterns in intercultural education.  Language Learning, 16, 1-20.


            Katsh, A.I.  (1965).  Experiment in international education.  The Modern Language Journal, 49, 240-242.


            Kelman, H., & Ezekiel, R.  (1970).  Cross-national encounters.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


            Kelman, H.C.  (Ed.).  (1965).  International behavior.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


            Kelman, H.C. (1975).  International interchanges:  Some contributions from theories of attitude change.  In W. Coplin & J.M. Rochester (Eds.), A multimethod introduction to international politics.  Chicago:  Markham.


            Klein, R.B. (1981, November). New sources of students for short-term study-abroad programs.  ADFL Bulletin, 13 (2), 20-23.

As the economic realities of the 1980s further encroach on higher education and as fewer students enroll in foreign language courses, the budget-cutting ax seems drawn in a magnet like fashion toward many of our departments and programs. While no part of a curriculum or of a departmental structure should be considered immune from careful examination, one of the easier targets for parsimonious deans and administrative officers is a department's foreign study program.


A foreign study program, after all, takes students away from campus, and the cost-control measures so dear to the administrative heart are not so easily put into effect when both teachers and students are thousands of miles away. Thus, a significant number of year-long or semester-long programs—the latter normally but a minor variation of the former—have gone out of existence during the last decade. 1 Some departments wisely have opted to establish short-term programs abroad instead of eliminating programs entirely. Many directors of such programs have found, somewhat to their surprise, that these shorter programs meet different student needs and, consequently, that they serve a different type of student. Directors have also learned that if they use the “old ways” of student recruitment, some programs will never materialize, because of a lack of student participation. [Author].


            Kleinjans, E.  (1974).  A question of ethics.  Second Annual Shipboard International Education Conference, S.S. Universe Campus.


            Klemperner, L. v., & Cunz, D.  (1962).  The American student abroad.  The Modern Language Journal, 46, 82-84.


            Klineberg, O.  (1981).  The role of international university exchanges.  In S. Bochner (Ed.), The Mediating Person.  Cambridge, MA:  Shenkman.


            Kniep, W.M.  (1986).  Defining a global education by its content.  Social Education, 50 (6), 437-446.


            Koester, J.  (1984).  Communication and the intercultural reentry:  A course proposal.  Communication Education, 33, 251-256.


            Koester, J.  (1986).  A profile of foreign language majors who work, study, and travel abroad.  The Modern Language Journal, 70, 21-27.


            Kohls, L.R.  (1986).  Forward to cross-cultural re-entry:  A book of readings.  In C.N. Austin (Ed.).  Abilene, TX:  ACU Press.


            Kopp, W.L.  (1987, Spring).  Developing the international dimension on campus:  A case study of the Pennsylvania State University.  Journal of the Association of International Education Administrators, 24-26.


            Krajewski, F.R.  (1969). A study of the relationship of an overseas- experienced population based on

sponsorship of parents and subsequent academic adjustment to college in the U. S. (Doctoral

Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International, 31, 1372A-1373A.


            Krawutschke, E., & Roberts, Y.  (Eds.).  (1986).  Transcripts from study abroad programs: A workbook. Washington, D.C.:  A joint publication of the Section on U.S. Students Abroad of the National Association for foreign Student Affairs (NAFSA) and the Study Abroad by U.S. Students Committee of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO).


            Kronik, J.W.  (1963).  The researcher’s rigors abroad.  The Modern Language Journal, 47, 164-169.


            Kuh, G.K. & Kauffmann, N. L.  (1985, May).  The impact of study abroad on personal development of college students.  Journal of International Student Personnel, 6-10.


            Kuhns, E.P., & Martorana, S.V.  (1984).  Toward academic quality off-campus:  Monitoring requirements of institutional accrediting bodies and the states for off-campus, military base, and study abroad programs.  Washington: Council on Postsecondary Accreditation.


            Kunze, E.G.  (1929).  Summer study abroad.  The Modern Language Journal, 13, 353-359.


            La Brack, B.  (1985).  State of the art research on re-entry:  An essay on directions for the future.  Paper presented at the 26th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Washington, DC.


            Lampton, D.M., Mandancy, J.A., & Williams, K.M.  (1986). A relationship restored: Trends in U.S.-China educational exchanges, 1978-1984. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

One result of the resumption of relations between the United States and the People’s Republic of China has been the development of extensive academic exchange programs.  Thousands of Chinese students and scholars are studying and pursuing research at American colleges and universities, and many of them are returning to their homeland to play important roles in China’s modernization programs.  American students and scholars have been going to China in increasing numbers for study and research.  Their efforts are expanding our knowledge of Chinese culture and society, and contributing to the social and natural sciences more generally.


This report embraces five major aims: (1) to describe these academic exchange relationships, (2) to analyze the nature of the exchanges, (3) to assess their impact, (4) to focus attention on issues and problems, and (5) to make policy recommendations. [GB – Chairman, Steering Committee].


            Lamy, S.L.  (1987).  The definition of a discipline: The objects and methods of analysis in global education. New York: Global Perspectives in Education.


            Landis, D., & Brislin, R.  (1983).  Handbook of intercultural training (Vol. 1).  Tarrytown, NT:  Pergamon Press.


            Lank, H.P.  (1985, April).  Coming home: An inquiry into the reentry experiences of students who studied abroad. ADFL Bulletin, 16 (3), 30-34.

Students at American colleges and universities who choose to spend part of their undergraduate careers at a foreign institution are frequently foreign language majors who hope that “living the language” will make them significantly more proficient in it. For most students the time abroad is well spent, and they return to their home institutions the richer for an unforgettable experience.


Coming home, however, is not always easy. In the fall of 1982, I spoke informally with several Middlebury College seniors who had spent part or all of their junior years studying abroad, and many of them had found their return difficult. I decided to focus my senior sociology-anthropology thesis on the reentry experiences of students like these.


To obtain some background information, to identify the factors to be examined, and to develop a conceptual framework, I turned to the literature on culture, culture shock, and social psychology. My review of this material led to a number of hypotheses, from which I developed a questionnaire and interview questions. Although I did not scientifically “test” these hypotheses, since I spoke with too few subjects to “prove” anything in the narrow, traditional sense of the word, the data I gathered supported some hypotheses, challenged others, and, most important, gave a detailed picture of what reentry involved for the students. [Author].


            Lewis, T., & Jungman, R.  (Eds.).  (1986).  On being foreign:  Culture shock in short fiction.  Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.


            Lowe, B.E.  (1929).  International education for peace.  Brooklyn, NY:  F. Weidner Printing & Publishing Co.


            Luce, L.F.  (1976, May).  Innocents abroad: Foreign language learning and use of the overseas community. ADFL Bulletin, 7 (4), 36-38.

Few of us in the foreign language teaching profession would question the validity of travel and residence by our students in countries where the target language is spoken. Indeed, one of our obligations is to encourage such cross-cultural experiences, whether for the student major or nonmajor. The object of this paper, however, is to underscore the implications involved in our encouragement of foreign residence. How well are we directing the use of time spent abroad? What can we contribute to that experience overseas beyond merely supporting the venture or supplying study centers? It is an area which, in my experience, has received too little attention in the past from specialists in our field, particularly when a program is sponsored by an American university. 1 It is, moreover, in our own best interest to give serious attention to the optimal use of the foreign community. Disenchantment for one student can draw others away from group study tours, and eventually a lack of support may lead to the demise of the very programs we have spent so many years building.


Of the following techniques which capitalize on the foreign setting as a means of language learning, most are directed toward the group program of study. The techniques are derived from my own experience as director of an intensive French program held each summer at Miami University's European Center in Luxembourg. [Author].


            Lundstedt, S.  (1963).  An introduction to some evolving problems in cross-cultural research.  Journal of Social Issues, 19.


            Lutzker, D.R.  (1960).  Internationalism as a predictor of cooperative behavior.  Journal of Conflict Resolution, 4, 426-430.


            Lysgaard, S.  (1955).  Adjustment in a foreign society:  Norwegian Fulbright grantees for future research.  International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51.


            MacCormack, C.  (1975, April). Guide to cross-cultural training: Goals and resources.  In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp. 80-85).  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Madden, M.A., & Powers, G.F.  (1971). Some non-academic aspects of international education. Monroe, LA: Northeast Louisiana University. (Eric No: ED067572).


            Mahan, J.M., & Stachowski, L.L.  (1985).  Overseas student teaching:  A model, important outcomes, recommendations.  International Education, 15 (1), 9-28.


            Marion, P.  (1980).  Relationships of student characteristics and experiences with attitude changes in a program of study abroad.  Journal of College Student Personnel, 21, 58-64.


            Marion, P.B.  (1974, October).  Relationships of student characteristics and experiences with attitude and value change in a program of study abroad (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1974).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (4), 2012A.



            Marion, P.B.  (1978).  Evaluation of study abroad (Report No. HE 005 386).  Paper presented at the National Convention of the National Association of Foreign Student Affairs.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 089 634).


            Marsh, H.L.  (1976).  Reentry/transition seminars:  Report on the wingspread colloquium.  Washington, D.C.: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Martin, J.  (1982).  The re-entry experience:  Effects of an intercultural experience on student interaction patterns.  Presented at the National Association of Foreign Student Affairs (NAFSA) Annual Conference, Seattle.


            Martin, J.  (Ed.).  (1986).  Theories and methods in cross-cultural orientation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10 (2). 


            Martin, J.N.  (1984).  The intercultural reentry:  Conceptualization and directions for future research.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 115-134.

While there has been extensive research on the cultural adjustment of sojourners to a foreign culture, there has been a dearth of literature examining the adjustment of returning sojourners to their home culture (reentry). In order to further understanding of this phenomenon, this article discusses the reentry process as one type of cultural adjustment. First, reentry is defined and described. Secondly, research investigating the two processes of adjustment to a foreign culture and readjustment to the home culture is reviewed, and the two processes are compared and contrasted. Finally, suggestions are made concerning future research. [Authors].


            Martin, J.N.  (1985).  The impact of a homestay abroad on relationships at home.  Occasional Papers in Cultural Learning, 6.


            Martin, J.N.  (1986).  Orientation for the reentry experience:  Conceptual overview and implications for researchers and practitioners.  In R.M. Paige (Ed.), Cross-Cultural Orientation:  New Conceptualizations and Applications (pp. 147-173).  Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.


            Martin, J.N.  (1986, Spring).  Patterns of communication in three types of reentry relationships: An exploratory study. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 50, (2), 183-99.


            Martin, J.N. (1986). Communication in the intercultural reentry: Student sojourners’ perceptions of the sojourn experience. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,10, 1-22 or ,8 (2), 115-134.


            Martin, J.N.  (1986).  Training issues in cross cultural orientation.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 103-116.


            Martin, J.N. (1987). The relationship between student sojourner perceptions of intercultural competencies and previous sojourn experience. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11, 337-355.


            Martin, L., & Stoll, A.  (1979). A foreign study travel program for the urban university. Foreign Language Annuals, 12, 487-490.


            Martin, Jr., R.L.  (1972, March).  An investigation of selected student variables and their associations in participants of summer study abroad programs in Germany.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1971).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 32 (9), 5235A.


            Maza, H.  (1961).  American students abroad:  A proposal for standards.  The Modern Language Journal, 45, 4-7.


            McCombie, R.P.  (1984).  Foreign study: An analysis of the short term impact.  Unpublished master’s thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago.


            McCombie, R.P., & Edwards, J.E.  (1985).  Using evaluation to clarify the goals of a foreign study center.  Joint meeting of the Evaluation Research Society, Evaluation Network, and Canadian Evaluation Society, Toronto, Canada.


            McCormack, W.  (1966).  New directions in study abroad: Opportunities for students in the professional schools.  Journal of Higher Education, 37, 369-376.


            McEnvoy, T.L.  (1968, January).  Adjustment of American youth in cross-cultural programs.  Journal of College Student Personnel, 9, 2.


            McGuigan, F.J.  (1959).  Further study of psychological changes related to intercultural experiences.  Psychological Reports, 5, 244-248.


            McKiernan, J.  (1980).  An evaluation of the consortium for overseas student teaching and its effect on the expressed self-acceptance and acceptance of others of its participants (Doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama, 1980).


            Menton, S.  (1961).  The Costa Rica-Kansas exchange program.  The Modern Language Journal, 45, 263-266.


            Miller, W.M.  (1930).  Summer school in Mexico.  The Modern Language Journal, 14, 357-362.


            Mishler, A.L.  (1965).  Personal contact in international exchanges.  In H.C. Kelman (Ed.), International behavior.  New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.


            Murphy, A.F. (1980, September). The short-term exchange: A means of faculty development. ADFL Bulletin, 12 (1), 33-35.


            Myers, R.G.  (1967).  Study abroad and the migration of human resources.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.


            Myers, R.G.  (1972).  Education and emigration: Study abroad and the migration of human resources. New York: McKay.


            Nash, D.  (1970).  A community in limbo:  An anthropological study of an American community abroad.  Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University Press.


            Newmark, E.H.  (1979, October).  The evaluation of the effectiveness of an intercultural orientation training program for a study abroad project: An exploratory study.  (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1979).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (4), 1747A.

            Ng, W.S.W.  (1962).  Overseas students:  A general survey of the presence of overseas students in Christchurch and an investigation into the opinions of these students as to their general problems of adjustment to the conditions of living in Christchurch.  Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.


            Noor, M.Y.  (1968).  A study of the overseas students in Christchurch.  Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.


            Oberg, K.  (1958).  Culture shock and the problems of adjustment to new cultural environments.  Washington, D.C.:  Department of State, Foreign Services Institute.


            Obstrand, K.D. (1986).  Trips and tours:  Combining theory and reality through education travel.  In L.H. Lewis (Ed.), Experiential and simulations techniques for teaching adults, New Directions for continuing education (p. 3).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Puublishers, Inc.


            Olson, O.  (1957).  Anders Jonasson Lindström, First Augustana student sponsored by the church for study abroad in preparation for Augustana Seminary professorship.  Rock Island, IL:  Augustana Historical Society.


            Opubor, A.E.  (1974, October).  Intercultural adaptation:  Resocialization versus reacculturation?  Paper presented at the Reentry/Transition Workshop at Wingspread, Racine, Wisconsin.


            Paige, R.M.  (Ed.).  (1986).  Cross-cultural orientation:  New conceptualizations and applications.  Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.

Largely papers of the International Conference on Cross-Cultural Orientation, held in Minneapolis, Minnesota

in November, 1984.  Co-published by arrangement with the Council on International Educational Exchange.


            Parks, D.W.  (1987).  Purposes, motivations, and learning among adults in an overseas study tour.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1678A.  Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Many people go overseas for brief periods of work, study, or travel. Some significantly expand their horizons with what they learn on these trips, while others do not. The purpose of this study was to identify relationships, if any, between the awareness of purpose of adults in a short-term overseas experience and their learning. The 45 subjects were on learn-by-working tours in Israel sponsored by Jordan College. They were interviewed at the beginning of their tours about their purposes and at the end about their learning. An exploratory approach was used for the correlational research method. The subjects' recruitment process and religious characteristics limited generalizability of the findings. The following observations about short-term travelers abroad were drawn from the findings. (1) Expectations are developed by a reflective process which involves personal background and is subject to influence. (2) Most purposes are based in learning. (3) Some travelers who do not expect to learn are externally motivated. (4) Others who do not expect to learn have a passive outlook. (5) The focus of purposes is subject to influence. (6) Learning is associated with indicators of the ability to reflect purposefully upon reality. Those indicators with strongest positive correlation were 'focusing purposes on a personal agenda ' and 'explicitness about expectations.' The indicator with strongest negative correlation was passivity. Several practical implications for educators were presented: (1) Short trips have enough potential for helping people learn about life abroad to be worth attention. (2) Special groups to be expected on short trips include those in transition and those who do not expect to learn. (3) Questions need to be raised about selecting candidates with low expectations of learning. (4) Candidates for a short trip abroad can profit by raising their awareness of purpose. (5) The instruments and conclusions of the study are potential tools for raising awareness of purpose. (6) Methods were proposed for influencing the group's focus, raising the explicitness of expectations, and helping individuals pursue a personal agenda. [Author].


            Pearsons, D.  (1964). The Peace Corps volunteer returns – problems of adjustment. Saturday Review, 47, 54-56.


            Pearson, R.P.  (1981).  Measuring adjustment and attitude change.  In C.B. Neff (Ed.), New directions for experiential learning:  Vol. 11.  Cross-cultural learning (pp. 21-30).  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass Inc.


            Perlmutter, H.V.  (1960).  Person to person: A psychological analysis of cross-cultural relationships.  (Mimeo)


            Pfinister, A.O.  (1979).   Ten year evaluation of study service trimester. Goshen College Office of International Education, Goshen, IN.


            Piet-Pelon, N.  (1986, June). Reentry for Teens. Foreign Service Journal.


            Pizzini, E.L.  (1979, September).  Utilizing the semantic differential to determine the effects of a cross-cultural experience.  Foreign Language Annuals, 12, 311-314.


            Pollock, D.C.  (1986).  The transition experience.  Filmore, NY:  Interaction Inc.


            Pool, I.D.  (1965).  Effects of cross-national contact on national and international images.  In H.C. Kelman (Ed.), International Behavior (pp. 105-129).  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


            Postlethwaite, N.T.  (Ed.).  (1986).  International educational research:  Papers in honor of Torsten Hus.  Oxford & New York:  Pergamon Press.


            President’s Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies  (1980).  A report to the President from the President’s Commission.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office.


            Raschio, R.A.  (1987).  College students’ perceptions of reverse culture shock and reentry adjustments. Journal of College Student Development. 156-162.


            Riegel, O.W.  (1953).  Residual effects of exchange persons.  Public Opinion Quarterly, 17, 319-327.


            Rose, O.T.  (1969).  Participation of American students in youth for understanding exchange student program and the development of attitudes of social distance.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.


            Ruben, B.B.  (1976).  Assessing communication competency for intercultural adaptation.  Group and Organizational Studies, 1, 334-354.


            Ruben, B.D., & Kealey, D.J.  (1979).  Behavioral assessment of communication competency and the prediction of cross-cultural adaptation.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3, 15-47.


            Ruiz-Fornells, E.  (1983).  Study in Spain and the problem of credit transfer. Hispania, 66, 69-74.


            Savage, V.  (1984, March).  Internationalizing the curriculum through overseas study programs.  ADFL Bulletin, 15 (3), 18-10. 

Just what is the meaning of “internationalizing the curriculum”? If you have read the rapidly growing field of literature in this area, you know how vague the term is.  For some institutions “internationalizing” may mean designing or maintaining programs in international relations; for others, it may mean asking all faculty to try to infuse an international or cross-cultural perspective into their courses; for a few, it may mean developing a highly integrated program involving many departments and programs, as well as the international students on campus. In this last category “internationalizing the curriculum” really means “internationalizing the institution,” and that, in my opinion, is precisely the goal we must strive for.


I would like to devote the remainder of this article to describing how overseas study programs may become a significant—if not the key—factor in creating that ideal international environment on our campuses. My ideas and suggestions are taken from our experience at Lewis and Clark College, a private liberal arts college in Portland, Oregon, but I hope that our experience will at least provide some alternatives for institutions with very different academic, political, and economic conditions. [Author].


            Scanlon, D. (Ed.).   (1960).  International education, a documentary history.  New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.


            Scanlon, D., & Shields, J.J.  (Eds.).  (1968).  Problems and prospects in international education.  New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.


            Schild, E.O.  (1962).  The foreign student as a stranger, learning the norms of the host culture.  Journal of Soc. Issues, 18, 41-54.


            Schild, K.W., & Mansour, G.P.  (1981, March). Europe’s small towns: One solution to problems confronting study-abroad programs. ADFL Bulletin, 12 (3), 29-33.

In the last decade, two related developments have come to threaten the existence of summer overseas study programs in foreign languages and cultures. The first is the rapid and widespread establishment of new programs in large cities; the second is the incessant escalation of program costs. 1 The present paper proposes to consider some variables that affect overseas programs and to relate one way Michigan State University has dealt with these variables, through a fundamental revision in our conception of a summer program for study abroad. By restructuring academic offerings, we have attracted considerably more non-majors to foreign language study and to related experiential learning that draw on the limitless advantages the small towns of Europe can offer. [Authors].


            Schmidt, L.  (1961, October).  Study abroad: A bibliography.  Comparative Education Review, 5, 142-155.


            Schumann, H.  (1975, April).  Evaluation strategies for students in study abroad programs.  In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp. 92-94).  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Segall, M.H.  (1979).  Cross-cultural psychology:  Human behavior in global perspective.  Monterey, CA:  Brooks/Cole.


            Sell, D. K.  (1983).  Attitude change in foreign study participants.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 131-47.


            Shank, D,J.  (1960, October).  The junior year abroad: A critical look.  Institute of International Education News Bulletin, 36, 11.


Shank, D.J.  (1961).  The American goes abroad.  The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 335, 99-111.


            Shao, O.H.  (1976, November).   The Callison program: An integrated model in international education. ADFL Bulletin, 8 (2), 37-41.


            Sharma, M., & Jung, L.  (1984).  The influence of institutional  involvement in international education on United States students.  International Review of Education, 30, 457-467.


Sharma, M.P., & Jung, L.B.  (1986).  How cross-cultural participation affects the international attitudes of U.S. students.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 377-387.

Americans exhibit a continuous interest in finding out what happens to international students while they are studying in the U.S. Yet, there has been a dearth of literature examining the effects of international education on U.S. students. In this study, the impact of U.S. students' interaction with international students on the concept of cosmopolitan world outlook, cultural pluralism, worldmindedness, understanding of own culture, support for internationalism, international career aspirations, and political liberalism has been investigated. The findings indicated that interaction between student cultures does facilitate and encourage an international outlook. Therefore, institutes should strive to promote activities that will encourage and maintain a high degree of cultural interactions between U.S. and international students. [Authors].


Sharma, M.P., & Klasek, C.B.  (1986, Fall).  Does involvement of American institutions of higher education in international programs abroad affect the international attitudes of American students?  Journal of Studies in Technical Careers, 8 (4), 295-305.


Stitsworth, M.H.  (1987).  Personality change of American teenage participants in a Japanese youth exchange.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.


Swinger, A. K.  (1985).  Planning for study abroad. Bloomington, Indiana: Phi Beta Delta Educational Foundation.


Smalley, W.  (1963).  Culture shock, language shock, and the shock of self-discovery.  Practical Anthropology, 10, 49-56.


Smith, D.K.  (1985, July).  A confluent approach to the cross-cultural learning experience.  (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1984).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1), 84A.

The problem of intercultural adjustment is the focus of this study; more specifically, the process of cultural integration which affects participants in the Education Abroad Program (EAP) of the University of California.  Previous research indicates that success involving activities in different cultural settings requires effective and sustained social interaction with the indigenous population. It is in precisely this area of interaction and integration into the foreign culture that EAP participants have reported their greatest source of frustration.  It is the intent of this study to describe and analyze the effects of a course on 'Intercultural Communication' on participants in the EAP Study Center in Bergen, Norway. Particular attention was focused upon the effects of the course on the Learning Style Preferences of the participants and on the integration of these students into Norwegian culture.  The Learning Style Inventory (LSI), created by David Kolb, was used to measure the preferred learning styles of participants before and after the course. This data was integrated with and supported by data from two other instruments: a depth interview--the Life Meanings Survey (LMS) developed by Stewart Shapiro--and Field Notes on the actual class sessions. Seven themes emerged from the field notes which were used to analyze the learning processes of individual participants and the group as a whole. There was a clear shift in preference from a learning style dominated by the 'conceptual mode', emphasizing deductive reasoning and a rational approach to learning, to a learning style emphasizing direct involvement in new experiences, risk-taking, and the use of a feeling-based approach to learning.  A fourth instrument, the EAP Participant Questionnaire, was administered one year after the course, and directly following the study abroad experience of the subjects. It showed a marked decrease, in comparison with three previous years, in levels of frustration reported by EAP participants in Bergen due to a problem of integration into Norwegian culture.  An indirect relationship was suggested between the intrapersonal changes in participants as a result of the course and their subsequent successful integration into the foreign culture. [Author].


Smith, M.B.  (1956).  Attitudes and adjustment in cross-cultural contact:  Recent studies of foreign students.  Journal of Social Issues, 12, 4-8.


Sones, E.K.  (1987, January).  The overseas study abroad programs at institutions of higher education:  To what extent do professional study abroad programs differ from liberal arts programs?  (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1986).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (7), 2480A.

Many American undergraduate students receive little in the way of preparation for living and working in today's interdependent world. Students are increasingly selecting undergraduate majors in specialized and vocational fields of study which provide few opportunities for expanding and broadening cultural horizons. This trend is occurring at the expense of the liberal arts which traditionally have been the heart of the international perspective in higher education.  Study abroad programs are a prime method for developing international awareness, but most foreign study opportunities are directed toward students with liberal arts majors, even though more than one-half of all undergraduate students major in professional or pre-professional fields of study.  There are distinct differences between the content and context of a liberal arts curriculum and that of a professional field of study and since study abroad programs are derived from the undergraduate curriculum, discernable differences were anticipated in education abroad programs as well.  The extent of the difference in foreign study programs offering study abroad opportunities intended for liberal arts majors and for professional majors was determined by comparing the content and context of these programs directly, and against idealized enclave and integrated prototype program models.  The study's findings revealed no significant difference exists between study abroad programs based on the major of the participants. There were indications though that students with professional majors differ from liberal arts participants in their foreign language proficiency, length of time spent overseas, content of their foreign study courses, in the limitations placed on their semester of participation and in the prerequisites needed to be completed before studying in the foreign country.  Study abroad programs are to a certain extent related to the undergraduate curriculum, but for the greatest part they are constructed and conceived independent of and without regard for the undergraduate curriculum of the students who participate in them. There is also very little if any difference between the goals and objectives in study abroad programs for students with undergraduate majors in professional fields of study from those with undergraduate majors in the liberal arts fields of study. [Authors].


Soule, S.W.  (Ed.).  (1973, May).  Guidelines on developing campus services for students going abroad.  New York: Student Advisory Committee, Council on International Education.


Sparks, L.R., & Oldt, E.A.  (1967, April).  Antioch students look back.  Mimeographed.


Speakman, C.E.  (1966).  International exchange in education.  New York:  Center for Applied Research in Education.


Spindler, G.D.  (1963).  Education and culture.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Stace, P.A.  (1980, January).  Program cost evaluation: An approach to evaluating direct and indirect net cost in the case of a program of study abroad.  (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, 1979).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7), 3688A.


Stassen, M.  (1985).  Objective and cognitive dimensions of study abroad.  In W.H. Allaway & H.C. Shorrock (Eds.), Dimensions of International Higher Education.  Boulder, CO:  Westview.


Steinkalk, E., & Taft, R.  (1979).  The effect of a planned intercultural experience on the attitudes and behavior of the participants.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3 (2), 187-198.


Stening, B.W.  (1979).  Problems in cross-cultural contact:  A literature review.  International Journal of Intercultural Communications, 3, 269-313.


Stitsworth, M.H.  (1987).  Personality change of American teenage participants in a Japanese youth exchange.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.


            Stitsworth, M.H.  (1988).  The relationship between previous foreign language study and personality change in youth exchange participants.  Foreign Language Annals, 21 (2), 131-137.


            Stockle, N.  (1970). Study program for foreign language teachers at Rennes.  In V.E. Hanzeli, & W.D. Love (Eds.), New teachers for new students: Proceedings of the Seattle Symposium on the training of foreign language teachers (pp 67-68).


            Stohl, C.  (1986).  The A.M.I.G.O. project: A multicultural intergroup opportunity.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 151-177.

This paper describes an empirical investigation of changes incurred as a result of participation in a semester-long intercultural experience. "The A.M.I.G.O. Project" is conducted in small group communication classes and requires students to meet and interact weekly with foreigners living in their community. The project is designed to allow college students to obtain some of the benefits of a foreign experience without going abroad. The program is also intended to provide a meaningful and worthwhile experience to individuals temporarily living in the U.S. A single-factor repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences between participants and non-participants at the beginning and end of the semester. Five dependent variables-acceptance of differences, openness to new ideas, importance of foreign exchange, responsibility toward foreigners living in the community, and attitudes toward peace-were evaluated. The results of the questionnaire strongly indicate a significant change in the attitudes of the participants. Overall, students became more accepting of diversity and differences, felt greater responsibility to and increased importance of foreign visitors to the United States, and developed a sense of importance and desire for travel abroad. Furthermore, the members of the English as a Second Language class [the Amigos] demonstrated significantly greater improvement on their English proficiency exams than non-participants. Implications of the results and a discussion of the limitations of the study conclude with suggestions for future research. [Author].


            Stolley, R.B. (1965, March 19). Re-entry crisis: Return of Peace Corps volunteers to U.S.  Life, 98-110.


            Sussman, N.M.  (1986).  Reentry research and training:  methods and implications.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 235-254.

This article reviews the literature on the process of re-entry or "going home" from an overseas sojourn. Its special focus is on student and business returnees, although the experiences of other types of returning sojourners are also examined. Drawing upon the review of the empirical literature base, the author suggests several hypotheses regarding the relationship between the initial overseas adaptation and the subsequent re-entry adaptation. The article also suggests a general content outline for re-entry training programs and workshops. If concludes with an examination of current re-entry training models for student and business repatriates. [Author].


            Swinger, A.  (1985).  Planning for study abroad. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Foundation.


            Taft, R.  (1977).  Coping with unfamiliar cultures.  In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 1.  London:  Academic Press.


            Taylor, I. (1983, September). International Education as a springboard for effective collaboration between departments. ADFL Bulletin, 15 (1), 1-3.

Colleges and universities in the United States vary widely in their commitment to international studies, but greater involvement would benefit every institution because education will help students become responsible and informed world citizens. How low the international awareness of young persons is has been deplored in the much-discussed report of the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, Strength through Wisdom (6) , and highlighted through a recent study by the Council on Learning. Institutions of higher learning thus face an enormous task. It is clear that on a given campus no single department or committee can do justice to this task and that every institution requires a broad-based approach. The approach can be effective only if cooperation among faculty, students, departments, and administration is encouraged and developed. But even cooperative ventures need leadership. In this paper I describe the efforts in leadership in international education put forth by the Department of International Communications and Culture (ICC). [Author].


            Thomas, W. (Ed.).  (1974). American Education Abroad. New York: Macmillan Information.


Torbiorn, I.  (1982).  Living abroad:  Personal adjustment and personnel policy in the overseas setting.  New York: Wiley.


            Troldahl, V.C., & Powell, F.A.  (1965).  A short-form dogmatism scale for use in field studies.  Social Forces, 44, 211-214.


            Turner, T., Hinds, H., & Tatum, C.  (1975, March). Language for survival: A model study-abroad program. ADFL Bulletin, 6 (3), 41-43.


            Uehara, A.  (1981).  Survey research on reentry culture shock:  An interim report.  Unpublished paper.  Minneapolis, MN: The University of Minnesota.


            Uehara, A.  (1986).  Comparison of re-entry adjustment between Japanese and American students:  An interactionist perspective.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 6137.  (University Microfilms No. 8615136)


            Uehara, A.  (1986).  The nature of American student reentry adjustment and perception of the sojourn experience.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 415-438.


            Useem, R.H., & Downie, R.D.  (1986). Third culture kids.  In C.N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural reentry:  A book of readings.  Abilene, TX:  ACU Press.


            Veguez, R.  (1984). The oral proficiency interview and the junior year abroad: Some unexpected results. Presentation at the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. New York, NY.


            Vornberg, J.A., & Grant, R.T.  (1976).  Adolescent cultural acquaintance experiences and ethnic group attitudes.  Adolescence, 11, 601-608.


            Wallace, J.A. (1975, April). Independent study overseas. In J. Frank (Ed.), SECUSSA sourcebook: A guide for advisors of U.S. students planning an overseas experience (pp. 59-64).  Washington, D.C.: The National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.


            Wallach, J., & Metcalf, G.  (1980, Winter).  The hidden problem of reentry.  The Bridge, 43, 17-18.


            Walton, B.J.  (1968).  Foreign student exchange in perspective:  What the research tells us.  International Education and Cultural Exchange, 3, 1-14.


            Warmbrum, W.  (1961, June).  Observations of education and international exchange in Asia: A report of a study trip, September to December, 1960.  NAFSA Studies and Papers Professional Grant Reports Number 4.  New York: National Association of Foreign Student Advisers.


            Warner, D.S.  (1981, December).  The Brigham Young University study abroad programs in Europe: A comparison with other college and university programs to determine their academic, cultural, social, and spiritual advantage.  (Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University, 1981).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (6), 2433A.

The BYU Study Abroad Programs have, in their sixteen years of existence, provided opportunities for academic, cultural, social, and spiritual growth of students. An effort was made to determine if the programs were unique when compared with the programs of other colleges and universities. A questionnaire provided an evaluation of student responses to the four categories of program features, and it was determined by percentages of responses and by an analysis of variance that some aspects of the BYU programs were unique. The most unique advantage was the spiritual dimension. Unlike participants from the other programs, the BYU students gained a love for the people of the host countries. The effect on the GPA of the BYU group was explored for two semesters following their return. No significant difference was found in the GPA when compared with a control group. [Author].


            Watson, J., & Lippitt, R.  (1955).  Learning across cultures.  Ann Arbor: MI:  Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.


            Weaver, G.R.  (1986).  Understanding and coping with cross-cultural adjustment stress.  In R.M. Paige (Ed.), Cross-cultural orientation:  New conceptualizations and applications  (pp.  111-145).  Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, Inc.


            Weaver, G.  (1987).  The process of reentry.  The Advising Quarterly, 2, 1-6.


            Weaver, H., Martin, J., Burn, B., Useem, J., & Carlson, J.S.  (1987).  A researcher’s guide to international educational exchange.  Santa Barbara, CA:  University of California.


            Weeks, W.W., Pedersen, P.B., & Brislin, R.W. (Eds.).  (1979).  A manual of structured experiences for cross-cultural learning.  Intercultural Press.


            Weinstock, A.  (1964).  Some factors that retard or accelerate the rate of acculturation.  Human Relations, 17, 321-340.


            Weissman, D., & Furnham, A.  (1987).  The expectations and experiences of a sojourning temporary resident abroad:  A preliminary study.  Human Relations, 40 (5), 313-326.


            Welds, K.  (1986).  Psychological impact of international education:  What dimensions of attitude change and personal growth are associated with cross-cultural experiences?  International Education, 16 (1), 36-50.


            Welds, K., & Dukes, R.  (1985).  Dimensions of personal change, coping styles and self-actualization in a shipboard university.  Annals of Tourism Research, 12 (11), 113-118.


            Wells, H.B.  (1967).  The responsibility of the intellectual.  In A.A. Michie (Ed.), Diversity and interdependence through international education.  New York:  Education and World Affairs.


            Werkman, S.  (1983).  Coming home:  Adjustment of Americans to the U.S. after living abroad.  The International Schools Journal, 5, 49-62.


            Werkman, S.  (1986).  Coming home:  Adjustment of Americans to the United States after living abroad.  In C.N. Austin (Ed.), Cross-cultural reentry:  A book of readings.  Abilene, TX:  ACU Press.


            Westwood, M.J., Lawrance, W.S., & Paul, D.  (1986).  Preparing for reentry:  A program for the sojourning students.  International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 9, 221-230.


            Wheeler, A.  (1987).  Internationalizing teacher education – Creating a program for change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Southeast Missouri State University.


            Whitford, R. L.  (1966).  Impact of the Federal Government on International Education as it Affects Teacher Education.  Targets for Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1984, July/August).  Teachers as short-term international sojourners: Opening windows on the world.  Social Studies, 75 (4), 153-157.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1985).  Returned exchange students: Becoming mediating persons.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9 (3), 285-304.

This study focuses on what high school exchange students do when they return to the United States rather than on attitude charge. Returnees who had spent 2 months in Japan were asked how, with whom, and how often they shared their Japanese experience, how they dealt with stereotype questions, and in what ways they were currently involved with persons from other cultures. Results show that returnees have limited opportunities to talk about the exchange experience in school, usually deal with stereotype questions by "telling the facts" and "speaking positively," and often communicate with and help persons of other cultures. The author concludes that returned high school exchange students are becoming mediating persons who act as bridges between cultures and offers suggestions for encouraging

returnees in their mediating role. [Author].


            Williams, E., & Kelz, H.P.  (1987, September). Cultural encounter at Bonn’s Akademie Niederberg. ADFL Bulletin, 19 (1), 33-34.

For the last four years Bonn's Akademie Niederberg has cooperated with the Lehigh Valley Association of Independent Colleges to provide an innovative six-week summer-abroad program for students interested in learning German. The LVAIC consortium consists of five institutions in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton area of Pennsylvania: Lehigh University and Lafayette, Moravian, Muhlenberg, Cedar Crest, and Allentown Colleges. Situated in part of a sixteenth-century Carmelite cloister in the Beuel section of Bonn, the academy offers an integrated approach to language instruction and cultural studies that is tailored to fit the specific needs and preparation of participants. [Authors].


            Williamson, R.C.  (1982, May). The quintessence of a study-abroad program: The director. ADFL Bulletin, 13 (4), 12-15.

While study-abroad programs, for obvious reasons, have most often originated in foreign language departments, many are now sponsored by other departments, such as anthropology, art, biology, history, political science, religion, and theater. Indeed, study-abroad programs have proliferated so much that the 1982 edition of Learning Traveler describes over eight hundred academic-year or one-semester programs sponsored by American colleges and universities. 1 During the summer months, the number of programs approaches a thousand. Of course, Learning Traveler does not list the innumerable “Jan-plan” or other short-term study programs that are important curricular offerings in almost every country in the world. Study abroad has always been hailed as most beneficial for foreign language majors; it is now rare to find a French, German, Spanish, or Russian major who has not spent some time abroad, either in a formal program of study, or in one of the short-term “island” programs, or in a combination of study and leisurely travel. With a renewed emphasis on “internationalizing” the undergraduate curriculum so that students will acquire a global perspective, study abroad has new importance and increasing popularity. 2 To develop and implement an international perspective in a liberal arts curriculum, faculty need to increase their knowledge of other cultures and nations in their fields of study; to direct a study-abroad program gives them unique opportunities to do just that. For all these reasons, the likelihood that one will be asked to run a study-abroad program has increased dramatically; for professors in foreign language departments, directing such a program has become an integral part of the job.


Because the faculty member must suddenly assume new responsibilities as director, because many have no idea what these duties are, and because the success of most study-abroad programs rests primarily on the skill of the director, it behooves those of us with some experience in the area to come to the aid of colleagues with less experience. 3 What follows, then, is an outline of the major tasks encountered in planning, conducting, and concluding an academic program abroad. If it takes on the characteristics of a job description, so much the more useful. [Author].


            Wilson, A.H.  (1979).  Multicultural experiences, global perspective and teacher education.  The Teacher Educator, 15 (2), 29-33.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1982).  Cross-cultural experiential learning for teachers.  Theory into Practice, 21 (3), 184-192.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1983).  A case study of two teachers with cross-cultural experience:  They know more.  Educational Research Quarterly, 8 (I), 78-85.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1984).  Teachers as short-term sojourners:  Opening windows on the world.  The Social Studies, 75 (4), 184-192.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1985).  Returned exchange students:  Becoming mediating persons.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9, 285-305.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1986).  Returned Peace Corps volunteers who teach social studies. The Social Studies, 77 (3), 100-107.


            Wilson, A.H.  (1988).  Reentry: Toward becoming an international person.  Education and Urban Society, 20 (2), 197-210.


            Winokur, M.  (date unknown). Leading student groups to the Soviet Union. Foreign Language Annuals, 14, 395-402.


Winokur, M.  (1981). Visa problems and study tours of the Soviet Union. ADFL Bulletin, 12 (4), 39-42.


            Wishard, A.  (1985, September). The Colorado College semester in Lunegurg: An intensive, interdisciplinary approach to study abroad.  ADFL Bulletin, 17 (1), 40-43.


            Wood, L.  (1982, November).  The impact of a student exchange program on civic attitudes and understanding.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council for Social Studies, Boston, MA.


            Young Americans Abroad.  (1961, January).  Carnegie Corporation of New York Quarterly, 9 (1), 1.


            Young, K.L.  (1970).  A descriptive study of interaction and communication in a cross-cultural living experiment (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1970).  Dissertation Abstract International, 32, 08-A, 4751.  (University Microfilms No. 72-05405).


            Young, R.L.  (1966, September).  Study abroad and national purpose in the Middle East.  (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1965).  Dissertation Abstracts International, 26 (3), 1440A.